The Oracle Cloud Cookbook

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Copyright © 2014 Mokum Solutions, Inc. All rights reserved.
Distribution of the Oracle Cloud Cookbook or derivative of the work in any form for commercial purposes is prohibited unless prior permission is obtained from the copyright holder.
 
 
 
 
Table of Contents

 

Oracle Cloud Reference Design
Hard and Soft Partitioning with Oracle VM
Oracle Linux Yum Server Setup
Oracle VM for x86 Server Sizing Advisor
Oracle VM Manager Installation
Oracle VM Server Installation
Oracle VM Patch Updates
Oracle Linux Installation with Oracle VM Manager
Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Server Sizing Advisor
Oracle VM Template for Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c
Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Installation
Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Upgrade
Register Oracle VM Manager in Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c
Linux Patch Management with Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c
Oracle Linux 5 Installation
Unofficial Oracle Linux 6 Installation and Setup Guide

 

Audience
The Oracle Cloud Cookbook is an on-line resource to assist our customers, prospects and partners to plan, design, deploy and support internal, external and hybrid Oracle clouds using Oracle VM for x86 managed by Oracle Enterprise Manager and Open Source solutions. This book assumes that the reader has an architectural understanding of cloud computing, Oracle technologies, storage and network systems, and related software.
 
About the Author
Roddy Rodstein is an avid technologist, entrepreneur and author with a long history with virtualization technologies and cloud computing. After ten years supporting virtualization, cloud computing and application delivery technologies at Citrix and Oracle, Roddy established Mokum Solutions, Inc.. Mokum Solutions, Inc. is a consultant and integrator of Oracle technologies in internal, external and hybrid clouds. Earlier in his career Roddy successfully established, owned, and operated a consulting business that specialized in server and desktop virtualization solutions.
 
Roddy's professional achievements also extend to blogging, writing and self-publishing industry reference guides currently available on Amazon, Securing Microsoft Terminal Services (ISBN: 061514330X), Citrix CCA MetaFrame 1.8 for Windows Exam Cram (ISBN: 1576109453) and web publications like The Underground Oracle VM Manual as well as the development and ongoing management of the number one independent Oracle social media website, ITNewsCast.com.
Objectives
The Oracle Cloud Cookbook intends to articulate the design considerations and validation efforts required to design, install, deploy and support Oracle VM for x86 with Oracle Linux and Red Hat Enterprise Linux virtual machines hosting Oracle Database, Oracle Fusion Middleware technologies and Oracle Applications managed by Oracle Enterprise Manager and Open Source solutions in internal, external and hybrid clouds.
 
 
The Oracle Cloud Cookbook Introduction
Welcome to the first edition of the Oracle Cloud Cookbook. Our goal with the Oracle Cloud Cookbook is to create a comprehensive resource to assist our customers, prospects and partners to plan, design, deploy and support internal, external and hybrid Oracle clouds using Oracle VM for x86 with Oracle Linux and Red Hat Enterprise Linux virtual machines hosting Oracle Database, Oracle Fusion Middleware technologies and Oracle Applications managed by Oracle Enterprise Manager and Open Source solutions. The Oracle Cloud Cookbook will cover the following cloud delivery models; Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS), Software as a Service (SaaS), Database as a Service (DaaS), and Disaster Recovery as a Service (DRaaS).
 
The Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) chapters review how to provision and deliver fundamental computing resources using Oracle Linux virtual machines as a service to consumers using the Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c self service portal. The Platform as a Service (PaaS) sections review how to deliver Oracle Database and Oracle Fusion Middleware technologies as a service to consumers using the Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c self service portal. The Software as a Service (SaaS) sections reviews how to design and deploy Oracle SGD to allow secure remote access over the LAN, WAN and Internet to Oracle Applications hosted in private, public and hybrid Oracle clouds. The Disaster Recovery as a Service (DRaaS) sections review how to plan, deploy, support an Oracle Disaster Recovery as a Service solution in private, public and hybrid Oracle clouds.
 
Table 1 shows the Oracle cloud stack that will be covered in the Oracle Cloud Cookbook.

Software as a Service SaaS
Oracle Applications
Oracle Enterprise Manager
Oracle VM Manager
Open Source
Platform as a Service PaaS
Oracle Fusion Middleware
Oracle Database (DBaaS)
Infrastructure as a Service IaaS
Virtual Machines 
Oracle VM for x86
x86 64 Servers
Storage

 

Chapter Change Log
Revision Change Description Updated By Date
1.0 First Release Roddy Rodstein 09/10/11

 

Oracle Cloud Reference Design

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Copyright © 2013 Mokum Solutions, Inc. All rights reserved.
Distribution of the Oracle Cloud Cookbook or derivative of the work in any form for commercial purposes is prohibited unless prior permission is obtained from the copyright holder.
 
 
 
Change Log
Revision
Change Description
Updated By
Date
1.0
First Release
Roddy Rodstein
11/21/11
1.1 Oracle VM for x86 Disaster Recovery Roddy Rodstein 11/06/12
1.2 Oracle VM Servers backup and restoration Roddy Rodstein 04/20/12
1.3 Oracle VM Fault Testing & Oracle VM Architecture Roddy Rodstein 07/31/12
1.4 Hardware sizing and content refresh Roddy Rodstein 05/20/13
Table of Contents
The Oracle Cloud Reference Design Introduction
The Oracle Cloud Reference Design Implementation Overview
The Oracle Cloud Reference Design Support Infrastructure
Oracle Cloud Architectural Design
...Oracle VM for x86 Hardware Architecture
...Oracle VM for x86 Server Pool Design
...Oracle VM for x86 Security Standards
...Oracle VM for x86 Disaster Recovery
...Virtual Machine Operating System Standards
..Oracle VM Fault Testing
......Oracle VM Architecture and Fault Testing
......Oracle VM Network Fault Testing
......Oracle VM Storage Fault Testing
......Oracle VM Master Server VIP Failover Testing
 
The Oracle Cloud Reference Design Introduction
This chapter of the Oracle Cloud Cookbook presents the Oracle Cloud reference design. The Oracle Cloud reference designs encompass the software, hardware, storage, and network components required to deploy a scalable, secure, and supportable internal or external Oracle cloud.
 
The Oracle Cloud reference design is a field-tested best-practice standard, designed with simplicity, reproducibility, usability, scalability, supportability and security. The Oracle Cloud reference designs represent a complete Oracle Cloud standard that can be leveraged as a vanilla solution or modified to more accurately reflect organization-specific needs. The Oracle Cloud reference design includes the following categories and solutions:

Software as a Service SaaS
Oracle Applications
Management Solutions:
Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c
Open Source
Platform as a Service PaaS
Oracle Fusion Middleware
Oracle Database (DBaaS)
Infrastructure as a Service IaaS
Linux Virtual Machines
Oracle VM for x86
x86 64 Servers
Storage

Note: A detailed explanation of each category and solution in the Oracle Cloud reference design is presented in the architectural overview section.

 

The Oracle Cloud Reference Design Implementation Overview

The Oracle Cloud reference design provides a well defined starting point for each Oracle Cloud implementation. It also serves as a baseline upon which all solution additions, revisions, and tools will be based. As such, there is an increasing value to Oracle Cloud reference design in keeping implementations as close to the reference design as possible.
 
Prior to implementing an Oracle Cloud, it’s important that an infrastructure assessment (IA) and gap analysis (GA) be performed. During the IA/GA, the architecture of the solution will match the customer’s business needs while maintaining the integrity of the Oracle Cloud reference design. Implementation and support will follow the analysis phase after careful consideration has been given to any specific design modifications that deviate from the Oracle Cloud reference design.
 
This document outlines the decision points necessary for implementing the Oracle Cloud reference design. For decisions that rely on preexisting factors or specific organizational needs, the appropriate best practice will be discovered in the infrastructure assessment (IA) and gap analysis (GA). The best practices should be analyzed carefully and decisions should be made based on organizational needs, existing architecture, and budget resource availability.
 
The Oracle Cloud reference design is designed to be scalable and resilient for ease of implementation, high availability, and ease of maintenance for internal and external Oracle clouds. The complete solution is made up of four architectural components that work together to provide flexibility and options with respect to on-demand self-service, broad network access, resource pooling, elasticity, measured service, high availability, security and ease of maintenance. The design breaks down into the following four components:
 
  • Software as a Service (SaaS). Software as a Service is the capability to host and deliver applications over the Internet, accessible from various client devices. The provider manages the cloud infrastructure and application portfolio that is accessed by the consumer. The Oracle Cloud reference design outlines the decision points necessary for implementing an Oracle Software as a Service delivery model using Oracle SGD.
  • Platform as a Service (PaaS). Platform as a Service is the capability to host and allow access to a computing platform and software stack for application development. The provider hosts the computing platform and software stack on the cloud infrastructure that is accessed by the consumer. The consumer manages the computing platform and software stack used for application development. The Oracle Cloud reference design outlines the decision points necessary for implementing the cloud infrastructure and the Oracle Platform as a Service delivery model using the self service portal in Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control 12c.
  • Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS). Infrastructure as a Service is the capability to provision and deliver fundamental computing resources as a service to the consumer. The Oracle Cloud reference design outlines the decision points necessary for implementing an Oracle VM cloud infrastructure to deliver Infrastructure as a Service using pre-configured virtual machine templates from the self service portal in Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control 12c.
The next Figure shows a high-level overview of the Oracle Cloud reference design components.

Oracle Cloud Reference Design

The Oracle Cloud reference design isolates Oracle VM server pools into the following four security domains:

Note: The classification of security domains is very similar to data classifications. FIPS PUB 199 is the Standards for Security Categorization of Federal Information and Information Systems. FIPS PUB 199 can be used to determine the security category of systems and within which security domain systems should reside.
 

The Oracle Cloud Reference Design Support Infrastructure

Support is an integral part of the Oracle Cloud reference design and includes a combination of Oracle support agreements and on-site and off-site support from the implementing party. Administrators will have several options for support, including live assistance, phone support, and forums.
 
This table outlines the decision points for the support infrastructure for the Oracle Cloud reference design. For decisions that rely on preexisting factors or specific organizational needs, the appropriate best practice will be discovered in the infrastructure assessment (IA) and gap analysis (GA). The best practices should be analyzed carefully and decisions should be made based on organizational needs, existing architecture, and budget resource availability.
Decision Point Decision Justification
Oracle Support Agreements Oracle Support Agreements for the Oracle technologies will be active and up to date.
Support is an integral part of every successful IT project. Oracle support agreements are necessary to be able to create and manage service requests as well as to be able to receive software patches and updates from Oracle Enterprise Manager and My Oracle Support.
On-site and Off-site support On-site and off-site support from the implementing party will be used for maintenance, site reviews, upgrades, and security audits. On-site and off-site support from the implementing party for problem resolution, system maintenance, site reviews, upgrades, and security audits augments the Oracle support agreement and internal IT operations staff.
 

Oracle Cloud Architectural Design

The following sections provides the decision matrices for the Oracle Cloud reference design. Implementers of the Oracle Cloud reference design can use the decision matrices as quick reference guide to identify settings and configuration decisions to be implemented in the environment. These decisions should be carefully analyzed during a gap analysis phase.
 

Oracle VM for x86 Hardware Architecture

The server hardware for your Oracle VM environment is a critical component in the success of your Oracle cloud project. The first step in selecting an Oracle VM hardware platform is to size the server hardware, followed by calculating the total number of servers required to be in each Oracle VM server pool. The formula to calculate Oracle VM server sizing is: The total aggregate virtual machine CPU, RAM and Storage requirements plus your N+x availability requirements provides the total server count along with the hardware requirements.
 
Oracle VM server sizing is calculated by adding the aggregate CPU, RAM and storage requirements for all of the virtual machines that could run on an Oracle VM server, and then selecting server hardware with ample CPU, RAM and storage resources. Once the server hardware has been selected, the number of servers in a server pool is calculated by selecting enough servers to support the aggregate CPU, RAM and storage requirements of all of the virtual machines within a server pool, including the number of additional servers for availability, i.e. HA, Live Migration and Distributed Resource Scheduling (DRS). Oracle VM server pools that use HA, Live Migration and DRS must have excess CPU and RAM capacity for hardware failures and virtual machine migrations. The number of network interfaces for an Oracle VM server is determined by the network switch VLAN setup and the total number of Oracle VM management network ports, and the virtual machine network ports for your environment.
 
Oracle VM server can be installed on an x86 64 bit server with up to 160 CPU cores or threads, up to 4 TB of RAM, with up to 40 network ports. The default behavior of the Oracle VM server installation program is to allocate only 3 GB of disk space for the entire Oracle VM installation, regardless of the amount of available disk space. Since Oracle VM server only requires 3 GB of storage, you might consider procuring disk-less hardware with a flash storage module or boot from SAN to reduce operating costs.
 
Tip: I have had the opportunity to support and benchmark Oracle VM server installations on a slow single 4 GB SSD Drive (18 MB/second Read Transfer Rate,17 MB/second Write Transfer Rate) as well as Oracle VM server installations using local 7k, 10k and 15k disks. The read and write performance from either type of Oracle VM server installation disk on the remote virtual machine storage (SAN, NFS or iSCSI) from the Oracle VM server and the virtual machines was identical. The disk speed from the Oracle VM server installation does not affect the remote storage read and write performance.
 
The next table shows the maximum number of CPUs, RAM and NICs for Oracle VM server release 3.2.x and above.
Item Maximum
CPU Cores or Threads
160
RAM
4 TB
NICs
40
Oracle VM Server CPU, RAM and storage hardware sizing is calculated by determining the total number of virtual machines CPU, RAM, and storage (I/O and disk) requirements per Oracle VM server. For example, if a single virtual machine with 16 CPUs, 128 GB RAM, 1 TB of disk space with 1500 IOPS will run on one Oracle VM server, the Oracle VM server hardware should have at least 16 CPU cores or threads, 130 GB RAM, 1 TB of disk space and the ability to support 1500 IOPS with local or remote storage. If two virtual machines each with 16 CPUs, 128 GB RAM, 1 TB of disk space with 1500 IOPS will run on one Oracle VM server, the Oracle VM server hardware must have at least 32 CPU cores or threads, 300G RAM, 2 TB of disk space and the ability to support 3000 IOPS with local or remote storage.
 
A single Oracle VM 3.2.x server can support up to 160 CPU cores or threads, 4 TB of memory with local or remote storage. An Oracle VM server with 4 TB of RAM and 160 CPU cores or threads could allocate the majority of the 4 TB of RAM and more than 160 CPU cores or threads to running virtual machines. Oracle VM server supports CPU oversubscription. CPU oversubscription means that an Oracle VM server with 160 CPU cores could overallocate the total number of CPU cores to virtual machines. Oracle VM server does not support memory oversubscription, which means that an Oracle VM server with 4 TB of RAM cannot overallocate RAM to virtual machines. By default, each Oracle VM server reserves 512 MB of RAM for Oracle VM server (dom0). The average memory overhead for each running virtual machine on an Oracle VM server is approximately 20 MB plus 1% of each virtual machine' memory allocation. The remaining RAM can be allocated to virtual machines.
 
A best practice is to avoid oversubscribing CPU-bound workloads such as the Oracle Database. CPU oversubscription with CPU-bound workloads negatively affects the performance and availability of an Oracle VM server along with all of the virtual machines running on the server. CPU oversubscription for non-CPU-bound workloads, such as Oracle Fusion Middleware products, is highly recommended. It is common to oversubscribe CPU cores 3-to-1 with non-CPU-bound workloads. For example, one CPU core could be allocated to 3 virtual CPUs for non-CPU-bound workloads without a performance penalty.
 
Note: Virtual machines cannot aggregate CPU and memory resources from more than one Oracle VM server. That is, a virtual machine consumes resources only from the Oracle VM server where the virtual machine is running.
 
Oracle VM has two high-availability features, HA and Live Migration. Oracle VM HA and Live Migration along with Distributed Resource Scheduling (DRS) must be considered to calculate the total number of servers required to respond to hardware failures and virtual machine migrations.
 
The next Figure shows Oracle VM server pool designed with excess CPU and RAM capacity to be able to use HA, DRS and Live Migration. Excess CPU and RAM capacity is a requirement for HA, DRS and Live Migration.
This image shows an Oracle VM server pool with excess capacity able to use HA, Live Migration and DRS.
This image shows an Oracle VM server pool responding to a HA event, with DRS and/or Live Migration moving running virtual machines.
This image shows an Oracle VM server pool migrating running virtual machines using DRS and/or Live Migration.
Oracle VM HA Live Migration and DRS
 
Oracle VM HA automatically restarts virtual machines when an Oracle VM pool member fails or restarts. Oracle VM HA minimizes unplanned downtime by restarting virtual machines when an Oracle VM server fails or restarts. Live Migration is used to eliminate planned downtime by migrating running virtual machines from one Oracle VM pool member to another during a maintenance event, for example, for repairs or an upgrade. DRS is an Oracle VM feature which provides policy based real-time utilization monitoring of Oracle VM servers with the goal to distribute virtual machine loads across a server pool. DRS migrates virtual machines from heavily utilized Oracle VM servers to less utilized Oracle VM servers. Both HA, Live Migration and DRS require a server pool with at least three servers with excess CPU and RAM capacity to be able to run and migrate virtual machines across the server the pool even if one Oracle VM servers fails.
 
Tip: There is a known limitation with OCFS2 two node cluster and network failures that cause the node with the higher node number to self-fence. For example, with a two node Oracle VM server pool, if one node has a network failure that triggers a HA event, both Oracle VM server will reboot. A best practice is to use a minimum of three Oracle VM servers for a server pool to eliminate the two node OCFS2 limitation.
 
Oracle VM HA monitors the status of each server pool member using a network and storage heartbeat. If a server pool member fails to update or respond to network and/or storage heartbeats due to hardware failure, the server pool member is fenced from the pool, promptly reboots, then all HA-enabled virtual machines are restarted on a live node in the pool. Oracle VM does not support memory oversubscription, which means that an Oracle VM server pool must have sufficient RAM capacity to be able to respond to a hardware failure using HA, or to support virtual machine migrations.
 
The Oracle VM Live Migration and DRS move running virtual machines between server pool members across a LAN without loss of availability. Live Migration and DRS have two primary use cases. The first use case is to eliminate planned downtime by Live Migrating running virtual machines from one server pool member to another during planned maintenance events. The second use case is to use DRS policies to load balance running virtual machines from heavily utilized Oracle VM servers to less utilized Oracle VM servers. Since Oracle VM does not support memory oversubscription, an Oracle VM server pool must have available RAM capacity to be able to migrate virtual machines between servers.
 
DRS is an Oracle VM feature which provides policy based real-time utilization monitoring of Oracle VM servers with the goal to distribute virtual machine loads across a server pool. DRS migrates virtual machines from heavily utilized Oracle VM servers to less utilized Oracle VM servers.
 
The exact number of network interfaces for an Oracle VM server is determined by the network switch VLAN setup and the number of Oracle VM management and virtual machine network ports. Oracle VM supports both 802.1Q trunk port VLANs as well as port based VLANs, with Linux bonding Modes 1 (Active-Backup), 4 (802.3ad) and 6 (Adaptive load balancing). 802.1q trunk ports can have two or more VLANs per port, in contrast to port based VLANS that are limited to one VLAN per port or port channel. 802.1Q uses fewer network switch ports and fewer Oracle VM server NICs compared to port based VLANs that require a dedicated switch port and NIC per network. A network switch VLAN configuration must first be selected to be able to calculate the exact number of network switch ports and NICs for your Oracle VM servers.
 
Oracle VM uses a total of five discrete networks for the Oracle VM server management functions; server management, cluster heartbeat, live migration, storage (only for NFS and iSCSI) and virtual machines. Each Oracle VM server pool should have a discrete network for each of the five aforementioned server management networks, as well as a discrete network for each virtual machine network. For example, an Oracle VM Server on a 1-gigabit copper network with NFS or iSCSI storage could easily use 12 or more bonded NICs with access ports just for the server management networks and one virtual machine network. In contrast to the latter 1-gigabit copper network example, an Oracle VM Server on a 10-gigabit fiber network using 802.1q trunk ports with NFS or iSCSI storage could easily use up to 4 bonded ports just for the server management and 2 bonded ports for the virtual machine networks.
 
Tip: In an clustered Oracle VM server pool, the loss of network connectivity for the Oracle VM cluster heartbeat network will causes a HA event. When a HA event occurs, the Oracle VM server that loses cluster heartbeat connectivity is fenced from the server pool and reboots, then all HA-enabled guests are restarted on a live Oracle VM pool member.
 
Prior to implementing an Oracle Cloud, it’s important that an infrastructure assessment (IA) and gap analysis (GA) be performed. During the IA/GA, the hardware specifications will be matched to the customer’s business needs.
 
This table outlines the decision points for the for Oracle VM for x86 server hardware. For decisions that rely on preexisting factors or specific organizational needs, the appropriate best practice will be discovered in the infrastructure assessment (IA) and gap analysis (GA). The best practices should be analyzed carefully and decisions should be made based on organizational needs, existing architecture, and budget resource availability.
Decision Point 
Decision
Justification
Certification
The server hardware must be jointly supported by the hardware vendor and Oracle.

Note: The following link is the Oracle' hardware certification page. http://linux.oracle.com/pls/apex/f?p=117:1:5773793518142288::NO:RP::
Only jointly supported hardware product receive vendor support when problems occur and service tickets are created. The server hardware must be jointly supported by the hardware vendor and Oracle.
CPU Server hardware will be ordered with two socket Intel or AMD multiple-core CPUs for small and medium workloads and four socket multiple-core CPUs for large CPU-bound workloads.
The Maximum Number of CPU cores or threads an Oracle VM server can support is 160. Oracle VM server maps a virtual CPU to a hardware thread on a CPU core in a CPU socket.
 
Oracle VM Server supports CPU oversubscription. CPU oversubscription allows an Oracle VM Server with 160 CPU cores to overallocate the total number of CPU cores to virtual machines. For example, a server with an Intel Xeon processor 5600-series CPU with hyperthreading can have up to six cores and twelve threads per socket. A two socket server with an Intel Xeon processor 5600-series CPU could allocate twenty four virtual CPUs without oversubscribing the physical CPUs.
 
CPU-bound workloads, such as Oracle Databases, should not be on Oracle VM Servers with oversubscribed CPUs.
RAM
Server hardware will be ordered with the maximum amount of physical memory.
 
Note: Oracle VM Server supports up to 4TB of RAM.
Oracle VM Server does not support memory oversubscription. For example, an Oracle VM Server with 1TB of RAM cannot overallocate RAM to virtual machines. By default, each Oracle VM Server reserves 512MB of RAM for dom0. The average memory overhead for each running guest on a dom0 is approximately 20MB plus 1% of the guest’s memory size. The remaining physical RAM can be allocated to guests.
 
An Oracle VM Server in a server pool with Live Migration, DRS, DPM and/or HA must have excess RAM capacity to accept virtual machines from a Live Migration, DRS, DPM and/or HA operation. Oracle VM pool members without available RAM can not support Live Migration, DRS, DPM and/or HA. Having available RAM on each server provides flexibility in terms of adding new virtual machines to the server pool, and to allow Live Migration, DRS, DPM and/or HA within a server pool.
Storage
Unless the Oracle VM server is booting from SAN, redundant SSD internal hard drives are recomended.

Virtual machine image and configuration files are hosted on shared SAN, iSCSI, or NFS repositories.
Oracle VM Server requires “only” 3 GB of local storage for the entire Oracle VM Server installation. The design goal for Oracle VM is to support multiple node Oracle VM Server pools with shared fibre channel SAN, iSCSI and/or NFS storage.
 
Oracle VM supports local storage without HA or Live Migration. With local storage, the OCFS2 virtual machine file system must be on a dedicated non SAS hard dirve. For example, a partition on same disk as Oracle VM server installation is not supported. Local SAS storage for virtual machines is not supported.
Network Interface Cards
A minimum of one Ethernet network interface (NIC) card is required just to install Oracle VM, although four or more 10G NICs is strongly recommended. NIC bonding with port-based VLANs and/or 802.1Q tag-based VLANs are supported and configured post Oracle VM Server installation with Oracle VM Manager or Enterprise Manager. Oracle VM 3.0.1 through 3.1.1 supports two NIC ports per network bond, and a total of five network bonds per Oracle VM Server. Oracle VM 3.2.x and above supports four NIC ports per network bond, and a total of ten network bonds per Oracle VM Server. 
 
The exact number of network interfaces for an Oracle VM Server entirely depends on your organization’s business requirements and network and storage infrastructure capabilities. For example, an Oracle VM Server with four 10G NICs, configured with two 802.1Q bonds could support the most demanding network and storage requirements, with only four 10G NICs. By contrast, an Oracle VM Server using access ports/port-based VLANs or 802.1Q tag-based VLANS on a 1G copper network, could easily use the maximum number of supported NIC ports (<= 3.1.1 = 10 ports, >= 3.2 = 40 ports) to meet the minimum network requirements.
 
NAME                Rate(bit/s)  Rate(byte/s)

Gigabit Ethernet      1 Gbit/s    125 MB/s
10 Gigabit Ethernet 10 Gbit/s 1.25 GB/s
Infiniband DDR        16 Gbit/s     2 GB/s
 
Tip: One thing to consider is NIC firmware levels between bonded internal NIC ports and PCI NIC ports. Consider only bonding internal NICs with internal NICs and PCI NICs with PCI NICs.
Both 802.3AD NIC bonds, port-based VLANs and/or 802.1Q tag-based VLANs are supported and configured post Oracle VM Server installation with Oracle VM Manager. Network redundancy, i.e. 802.3AD NIC bonding doubles the number of required NICs.
 
Oracle VM uses a total of five discrete networks; Server Management, Cluster Heartbeat, live Migration, Storage and Virtual Machines. All five networks can be supported using one or more 802.1Q tag-based VLANs (2 NICs) or using up to five 802.3AD bond (10 NICs).
 
Each Oracle VM server pool should have a discrete network for the Server Management, Cluster Heartbeat, Live Migration, Storage and Virtual Machines. Isolating the Server Management, Cluster Heartbeat, Live Migration and Storage networks protect the server pool from unexpected server reboots by eliminating OCSF2 heartbeat interruptions that could cause a pool member to loose network connectivity, fence from the pool and reboot.
 
Each Oracle VM Server will be assigned a unique IP address on the Server Management, Cluster Heartbeat, live Migration and Storage network.
Host Bus Adapter Cards
SAN Storage: 2 Host Bus Adapter Cards (HBAs).
 
NAME     Line-Rate   Throughput MBps 

4GFC          4.25              800     
8GFC          8.5                1600     
10GFC        10.52            2550         
16GFC        14.025          3200
20GFC        21.04            5100
2 HBAs are used to eliminate a single point of failure.

Oracle VM for x86 Server Pool Design

Oracle VM uses the concept of a "server pool" to group together and centrally manage one or more server pools with up to 32 Oracle VM servers. If more than one location exists, Oracle VM server pools may be dispersed to different locations. Oracle VM Manager with Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c provide a single point of administration for one or more dispersed Oracle VM server pools.
 
Oracle VM server pools can accommodates organization-specific needs, i.e., Oracle technology license management (hard and soft partitioning) , defense in depth, the principle of least privilege, compartmentalization of information, security domains and different applications and their performance, authentication, and security requirements.
 
The next Figure shows a high-level overview of how server pools can be used to implement security domains, defense in depth, the principle of least privilege and compartmentalization of information.

Oracle Cloud Reference Design

This table outlines the decision points for an Oracle VM server pool. For decisions that rely on preexisting factors or specific organizational needs, the appropriate best practice will be discovered in the infrastructure assessment (IA) and gap analysis (GA). The best practices should be analyzed carefully and decisions should be made based on organizational needs, existing architecture, and budget resource availability.

Decision Point 
Decision
Justification
Oracle VM Server Pool Design
Prior to implementing an Oracle Cloud, it’s important that an infrastructure assessment (IA) and gap analysis (GA) be performed. During the IA/GA, the architecture of the solution will be matched to the customer’s business needs.
Server pool design is a strategic, architectural security decision. Server pools can be used to control Oracle licensing costs (hard and soft partitioning) and as a way to implement security domains, defense in depth, the principle of least privilege and compartmentalization of information.
Oracle VM Manager
The Oracle VM Manager installer provides two installation options. Oracle VM 3.0.1 up to 3.1.1 offers a Demo or Production installation. Oracle VM 3.2.1 and above offers a Simple or Custom installation. 
 
Oracle VM Manager will be installed in Production, Simple or Custom mode on a dedicated physical or virtual server. Production and Custom mode uses a local or external Oracle 11g Enterprise or RAC database on a dedicated physical or virtual server. Simple mode uses a local MySQL database. 
 
The Oracle VM Manager Database repository will not be shared with other production or test databases on the same server.
 
The Oracle Enterprise Manager Agent and the Virtualization plug-in will be installed to enable Oracle Enterprise Manager integration.
For large environments (>33 hosts), the Oracle VM Manager Database repository should be on dedicated virtual or physical servers. If your Oracle VM environment starts out small and scales out, make sure to have a plan to scale up Oracle VM Manager with more RAM and CPUs and scale out the Oracle VM Manager Database repository on dedicated virtual or physical servers with RAC.

For the Oracle VM Manager Database repository, scaling out means moving from a single server Database to a multi node RAC cluster. An important consideration when scaling out an Oracle VM Manager environment is to determine if the underlying hardware where the Oracle VM Manager Database repository runs is capable to transition to RAC. If the hardware is not capable to transition to RAC, it is possible to move and/or export the Oracle VM Manager Database repository to a different system with more resources.
Monitoring and Alerting
The Oracle VM product family; Oracle VM Server, Oracle VM Manager, virtual machines, Oracle VM Templates and Assemblies can be managed and monitored with Oracle VM Manager and Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c. Unlike Oracle VM 2.x, which could only be managed by Oracle VM Manager or Oracle Enterprise Manager, not both, Oracle VM 3 and above can be managed simultaneously by Oracle VM Manager along with Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Cloud Control. 
 
Oracle VM Manager is a stand-alone management solution for Oracle VM, with limited monitoring and alerting functionality. Oracle VM is a default Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c feature that provides Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), Database as a Service (DaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS) and Testing as a Service (TaaS) provisioning with a self-service portal. Oracle VM should be enabled in Cloud Control by installing an Oracle Management Agent with the Virtualization plug-in on a managed Linux target with Oracle VM Manager. Once Oracle VM is enabled in Cloud Control, Oracle VM Manager, Oracle VM Servers, and all the virtual machines can be managed, and setup with performance monitoring profiles and alerts that can be used for root cause and statistical analysis.
 
A central log host should be configured to capture the Oracle VM Server, the Oracle VM Manager, and the virtual machine operating systems log files.
When things go wrong within an Oracle VM server pool, being able to quickly determine the “root cause” of an issue can eliminate or reduce down time. The most effective way to identify problems with an Oracle VM server pool is to analyze the Oracle VM Manager, the Oracle VM Servers, and the virtual machines performance statistics, and log files using Oracle Enterprise Manager, SNMP based monitoring solutions, and a central log host.
Network Time Protocol (NTP)
With Oracle VM, accurate time is essential to maintain system stability due to time-sensitive cluster transactions between Oracle VM Servers. Without accurate time, Oracle VM clusters can be brought to a complete standstill.
 
By default, Oracle VM Servers (up to Release 3.1.1) that are discovered by Oracle VM Manager are configured to use the Oracle VM Manager host as the upstream NTP time host. A best practice is to set-up the Oracle VM Manager hosts as the upstream NTP time host to synchronize with upstream Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) sources as well as provide time services to Oracle VM Servers.
 
Oracle Linux and Red Hat Enterprise Linux ship with a default /etc/ntp.conf file that points to three of Red Hat's upstream public UTC time sources. A best practice is to have two internal NTP servers on your local network to provide time services for internal systems and devices. Using internal time servers normalizes system event time-stamps across the Enterprise as well as reduces NTP Internet bandwidth usage.
With Oracle VM, accurate time is essential to maintain system stability due to time-sensitive cluster transactions between Oracle VM Servers. Without accurate time, Oracle VM clusters can be brought to a complete standstill.
 
A best practice is to set-up the Oracle VM Manager hosts as the upstream NTP time host to synchronize with upstream Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) sources as well as provide time services to Oracle VM Servers.
Oracle VM Server Agent Roles
Oracle VM Manager facilitates centralized management of server pools and their resources using an agent-based architecture. When an Oracle VM server is added to a server pool, up to three Oracle VM agent roles can be enabled. There are a total of three Oracle VM agent roles; 1) Master Server, 2) Utility Server and 3) VM Server. When an Oracle VM server is added to a server pool, it can be assigned one, two, or all three of the agent roles.
 
  • Master Server
The Master Server is the principal server pool role within a server pool. The Master Server is the server that communicates with Oracle VM Manager. The Master Server dispatches commands received from Oracle VM Manager to other servers within a server pool. There can be only one Master Server in a server pool at any instant. The Virtual IP feature is a mandatory server pool property that detect the loss of the server pool master agent and responds with automatic failover to the first pool member that can lock the pool file systsm. The server pool Virtual IP feature removes the single point of failure (SPOF) for the server pool master agent role.
 
  • Utility Server
The Utility Server role is responsible for I/O-intensive operations such as virtual machine creation and removal, as well for as creating, deleting, modifying, copying and moving virtual machine files. The Master Server dispatches operations to Utility Servers. There can be one or more Utility Servers in a server pool. When there are multiple Utility Servers in a pool, the server Master Server will select the least loaded utility server to conduct a task.
 
  • VM Server
Servers with the VM Server role are responsible for allocating CPU, memory, and disk resources to the virtual machines in a server pool. There can be one up to 32 VM Servers in a server pool.
Master Server
By default each clustered server pool has one Master Server with the Virtual IP feature enabled.  
 
Utility Server
The Utility Server role is responsible for I/O-intensive operations such as virtual machine creation and removal, as well for as creating, deleting, modifying, copying and moving virtual machine files. Enabling the Utility Server agent role with the VM Server role on the same Oracle VM server may negatively affect running virtual machines during Utility Server operations. Server pools that are not static and support the self service portal in Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control 12c should have one or more dedicated utility servers to isolate the impact of I/O intensive operations to Utility Servers.
 
VM Server
Unless a server pool is static, VM Servers should only have the VM Server role enabled to be able to dedicate CPU, RAM and I/O resources to running virtual machines, eliminating the effect of Utility Server operations.
Storage
Back-end storage
Each Oracle VM server pool uses one dedicated OCFS2 12G mount point (OCFS2 or NFS) for the server pool's cluster configurations and one or more shared OCFS2 or NFS repositories to host virtual machine configuration files and images.
 
Front-end storage
The virtual machine layer is where the storage is presented to virtual machines as either a flat file (UUID.img), as RAW disks (LUN), or as a combination of flat files and RAW disks.
An Oracle VM storage solution consists of three distinct layers. Each layer has its own unique requirements, configurations, dependencies and features. The first layer is the storage array, which is referred to as back-end storage. Oracle VM supports Fibre Channel and iSCSI SAN and NFS back-end storage. The second layer is the server layer consisting of the Oracle VM Server's Device-Mapper Multipath configurations and the shared Oracle Cluster File System 2 (OCFS2) or NFS virtual machine file system. The third layer is the guest front-end storage consisting of multiple guest storage (file and RAW) and driver options. RAW disks have the best performance of the two front-end storage storage options. In most cases, RAW disks are the best option for high I/O workloads like Oracle Databases.
Networks
Each Oracle VM server pool will have isolated Oracle VM management networks and isolated virtual machine networks.
 
Oracle VM uses a total of five discrete networks; Server Management, Cluster Heartbeat, live Migration, Storage and Virtual Machines. 
 
The exact number of network interfaces for an Oracle VM Server entirely depends on your organization’s business requirements and network and storage infrastructure capabilities. For example, an Oracle VM Server with four 10G NICs, configured with two 802.1Q bonds could support the most demanding network and storage requirements, with only four 10G NICs. By contrast, an Oracle VM Server using access ports/port-based VLANs or 802.1Q tag-based VLANS on a 1G copper network, could easily use the maximum number of supported NIC ports (<= 3.1.1 = 10 ports, >= 3.2 = 40 ports) to meet the minimum network requirements.
Each Oracle VM server pool should have a discrete network for the Server Management, Cluster Heartbeat, live Migration, Storage and Virtual Machines. Isolating the Server Management, Cluster Heartbeat, live Migration and Storage networks protect the server pool from unexpected server reboots by eliminating OCSF2 heartbeat interruptions that cause pool members to fence from the pool and reboot.
 
Each Oracle VM Server will be assigned a unique IP address on the Server Management, Cluster Heartbeat, live Migration and Storage network.
 
Note: The heartbeat traffic is TCP on port 7777. Each Oracle VM server in a pool must be able to communicate to all of the pool members over TCP on port 7777. 
RAM
The server pool must be designed with excess RAM capacity to accommodate the memory requirements of virtual machines that could migrate or start on any pool member.
Oracle VM server does not support memory oversubscription, which means that an Oracle VM server cannot accept a DRS, Live Migration or HA requests unless the server has available RAM for the virtual machines. Having excess RAM on each Oracle VM server provides flexibility in terms of adding new virtual machines to the server pool, and to allow DRS, Live Migration and HA to operate within a server pool.

Oracle VM for x86 Security Standards

The security controls used to secure Oracle VM are similar to the security controls used to protect your existing physical and virtual IT resources. As with physical and virtual IT resources, securing Oracle VM is dependent on the security posture of each of its components, from the design, hardware, hypervisor, network, and storage to the virtual machine operating systems and installed applications. In short, if the organization has a security policy for virtualization, networking, storage, operating systems and applications, the security policies could be applied to Oracle VM.
 
Security controls should be employed using industry standard frameworks and standards in the context of the organization's Enterprise Architecture (EA). Organizations turn to their Enterprise Architecture to understand how Oracle VM fits within their information system. An Enterprise Architecture is articulated in diagrams and written policies that define organizational standards and best practices to plan, build, run, and monitor technologies, including Oracle VM.
 
Enterprise Architecture has well defined principles and processes and an approach that generates a comprehensive, layered policy infrastructure used to communicate management’s goals, instructions, procedures, and response to laws and regulatory mandates. A policy infrastructure consists of written tier 1, tier 2, and tier 3 policies that encompass people, systems, data, and information. Policies are broken down into high level policies and lower level standards, procedures, baselines, and guidelines.
 
Oracle VM policies typically fall within the layered policy infrastructure of the platform architecture domain. Platform architecture policies are the foundation used to manage the entire lifecycle of an Oracle VM environment.
 
This table outlines the decision points for Oracle VM Manager security controls. For decisions that rely on preexisting factors or specific organizational needs, the appropriate best practice will be discovered in the infrastructure assessment (IA) and gap analysis (GA). The best practices should be analyzed carefully and decisions should be made based on organizational needs, existing architecture, and budget resource availability.
 
Oracle VM Manager Security Controls
Decision Point Decision Justification
Oracle VM Manager and DMZs
The Oracle VM Manager application was not designed to be an Internet facing application. If Internet access is a requirement for Oracle VM Manager, VPN access should be used to access the Oracle VM Manager GUI.
The Oracle VM Manager application was not designed to be an Internet facing application.
Network Time Protocol (NTP)
With Oracle VM, accurate time is essential to maintain system stability due to time-sensitive cluster transactions between Oracle VM Servers. Without accurate time, Oracle VM clusters can be brought to a complete standstill.
 
By default, Oracle VM Servers (up to Release 3.1.1) that are discovered by Oracle VM Manager are configured to use the Oracle VM Manager host as the upstream NTP time host. A best practice is to set-up the Oracle VM Manager hosts as the upstream NTP time host to synchronize with upstream Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) sources as well as provide time services to Oracle VM Servers.
 
Oracle Linux and Red Hat Enterprise Linux ship with a default /etc/ntp.conf file that points to three of Red Hat's upstream public UTC time sources. A best practice is to have two internal NTP servers on your local network to provide time services for internal systems and devices. Using internal time servers normalizes system event time-stamps across the Enterprise as well as reduces NTP Internet bandwidth usage.
With Oracle VM, accurate time is essential to maintain system stability due to time-sensitive cluster transactions between Oracle VM Servers. Without accurate time, Oracle VM clusters can be brought to a complete standstill.
 
A best practice is to set-up the Oracle VM Manager hosts as the upstream NTP time host to synchronize with upstream Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) sources as well as provide time services to Oracle VM Servers.
 
Virtual Machine Console Access
Oracle VM uses the RAS proxy (Remote Access Service) java applet to proxy virtual machine console traffic from Oracle VM Manager to the administrator's Client PC. An Oracle VM Manager administrative account is a requirement to access a virtual machine's console. Any firewall between Oracle VM Manager and the administrator's Client PC conecting to a virtual machine console must have TCP port 15901 open for the RAS proxy.
 
Oracle VM Manager does not support role based access control. All administrative users with access to the Oracle VM Manager GUI have root administrative access to all of the objects managed by Oracle VM Manager, including all of the virtual machine consoles. If an Oracle VM Manager account is not an option for a user, for example for DBAs, Opertaions. or application administators, Oracle VM role based access control can be configured using Enterprise Manager Cloud ControlWith Cloud Control, each object managed by Oracle VM Manager can be configured with role based access control, including each virtual machine console.
All Oracle VM administrative users have root access to all of the objects managed by Oracle VM Manager. Virtual machine end users such as DBAs and application administrators should only have access to thier virtual machines, not root access to all of the objects managed by Oracle VM Manager. End user access to virtual machines can be controled using Enterprise Manager Cloud Control. With Cloud Control, each object managed by Oracle VM Manager can be configured with role based access control, including each virtual machine console.
Host firewall
 
The iptables service should be enabled on each Oracle VM Manager host using a ruleset managed in /etc/sysconfig/iptables. In order to use Oracle VM Manager, the Core API and the Oracle Management Agent with iptables, it is necessary to open tcp ports 7001, 7002, tcp-54321 or tcps-54322, 15901 and 3872 as well as UDP 123.
Host firewalls, for example iptables, are a fundamental part of information security that protect hosts from attacks and intrusions.
Host firewall failed connection logging
Iptables failed connection logging should be enabled on each Oracle VM Manager host.
 
The following two lines will be added prior to the last REJECT line in the /etc/sysconfig/iptables file:
-A RH-Firewall-1-INPUT -m limit --limit 15/minute -j LOG
--log-prefix "FW Drop:"
-A RH-Firewall-1-INPUT -j REJECT --reject-with icmp-hostprohibited
Failed connect logging is a fundamental part of information security that allows detection of attacks and intrusions.
Root ssh access and sudo
Systems administrators should access the Oracle VM Manager host with non-root individual user accounts and use sudo to perform selected administrative tasks. Sudo stands for either "substitute user do" or "super user do". 
 
Root ssh access should be disabled on the Oracle VM Manager host. Sudo should should be used to configure fine-grained permissions to allow administrative users to perform selected administrative tasks with logging.
 
Disables Root Access:
To disable root ssh access, edit the default /etc/ssh/sshd_config file and uncomment the
the “#PermitRootLogin yes” line and change the yes to no; that is, “PermitRootLogin no”. Next, restart the sshd service by typing “service sshd restart” to enable the change.
 
The visudo command is used to edit the /etc/sudoers file. Consult the sudoers man page for sudo configuration details.
By default, Oracle Linux permit ssh access using the root super user account.
 
One of the most important security measure that can be taken with Oracle VM is to prevent unauthorized access to the root user account by disabling root ssh access. A best practice is to only provision non-root individual user accounts that can be audited, disabled, expired and managed using sudo.
 
Note: All sudo user access will be tracked and logged in the /var/log/secure file.
SSH login banners
Pre and post SSH login banners should be configured on each Oracle VM Manager host.
 
Pre-login banner:
Edit the /etc/ssh/sshd_config and add the following directive:
Banner /etc/banner.net
 
Next, create the /etc/banner.net file and add your login banner text, i.e.
 
This system is restricted to authorized access only. All activities on this system are recorded and logged. Unauthorized access will be fully investigated and reported to the appropriate law enforcement agencies.
 
Once the file has been created and the banner text is added and saved, restart the sshd by typing:
# service sshd restart
 
Post login banner:
Edit /etc/motd and add your login banner text, i.e.
 
This system is restricted to authorized access only. All activities on this system are recorded and logged. Unauthorized access will be fully investigated and reported to the appropriate law enforcement agencies.
 
Once the file has been edited and saved, restart the sshd by typing:
# service sshd restart
To be able to successfully prosecute individuals who improperly use a computer, the computer must have a warning banner displayed at all access points.
 
SSH login banners presents a definitive warning or disclaimer to all users that wish to access your systems using SSH. SSH login banners should clarify which types of activities are illegal as well as advise legitimate users of their obligations relating to the acceptable use of the system.
Central log host A central log host should be used to log all user logins and iptables connection failures. Centralized logging for user logins and iptables connection failures simplifies security management for the detection of attacks and intrusions.
This table outlines the decision points for Oracle VM Server security controls. For decisions that rely on preexisting factors or specific organizational needs, the appropriate best practice will be discovered in the infrastructure assessment (IA) and gap analysis (GA). The best practices should be analyzed carefully and decisions should be made based on organizational needs, existing architecture, and budget resource availability.
 
Oracle VM Server Security Controls
Decision Point Decision Justification
Oracle VM Server and DMZs Oracle VM Servers hosting Internet facing virtual machines can be placed in a DMZ without connectivity to the Internet or internal network segments to reduce the attack surface. TCP/8899 is necessary to and from the Oracle VM Servers to Oracle VM Manager to enable centralized management using Oracle VM Manager.
Oracle VM Servers in a DMZ should be restricted from inbound and outbound Internet connectivity to reduce the attack surface.
Build Process
Before any Oracle VM Servers are placed on the production network, a standard build processes should be executed to ensure that all Oracle VM Servers are installed, configured and maintained in a manner that prevents unauthorized access, unauthorized use and disruptions in service.
An Oracle VM Server build document provides employees with an approved procedure to install and configure Oracle VM Server. An Oracle VM Server build document is used with other IT infrastructure policies to address interoperability and security of Oracle VM in the context of the entire information system.
Patch Management
A key component of a successful Oracle VM deployment is acquiring and vetting new releases, patches and updates for production systems. New Oracle VM releases, patches and updates must be researched to identify which release, patches and updates are applicable to your environment. Newly released versions, patches and updates should be vetted before being deployed into production. A best practice is to run the latest stable release of Oracle VM.
 
Oracle VM Servers should be configured to use local custom yum repositories. Local yum repositories with point-in-time static channel for each supported Oracle VM release ensures all like Oracle VM server are patched in a consistent manner across the organization.
 
All patches should be regression tested in the lab environment before they are deployed on production systems. High-priority patches, security fixes, and upgrades will be applied as needed in accordance with <Company Name>’s Change Management Policy.
 
All production systems should undergo security audits in accordance with <Company Name>’s Change Management Policy to validate configuration and patch compliance.
A patch management program is an integral component of an organization's information security program used to mitigate the risk from security vulnerabilities (bugs) that are inherent in all operating systems and applications. 
 
A key component of patch management is acquiring and vetting patches for production systems. Patches must be researched to identify which patches, security fixes, and updates are applicable to your environment. Newly released patches, security updates, and application updates will be tested before being deployed in to production using time stamped local custom repositories.
 
Pre- and post-production audits will be conducted in accordance with <Company Name>’s Change Management Policy to validate configuration and patch compliance.
Host firewall
 
The iptables service will be enabled on each Oracle VM server using the default policy and ruleset in /etc/sysconfig/iptables.
Host firewalls, for example iptables, are a fundamental part of information security that protect hosts from attacks and intrusions.
Host firewall failed connection logging
Iptables failed connection logging will be enabled on the Oracle VM Manager host and each Oracle VM server.
 
The following two lines will be added prior to the last REJECT line in the /etc/sysconfig/iptables file:
-A RH-Firewall-1-INPUT -m limit --limit 15/minute -j LOG
--log-prefix "FW Drop:"
-A RH-Firewall-1-INPUT -j REJECT --reject-with icmp-hostprohibited
Failed connect logging is a fundamental part of information security that allows detection of attacks and intrusions.
Root ssh access and sudo
Systems administrators should access Oracle VM Servers with non-root individual user accounts and use sudo to perform selected administrative tasks. Sudo stands for either "substitute user do" or "super user do". 
 
Root ssh access should be disabled on the each Oracle VM servers. Sudo should should be used to configure fine-grained permissions to allow administrative users to perform selected administrative tasks with logging.
 
Disables Root Access:
To disable root ssh access, edit the default /etc/ssh/sshd_config file and uncomment the
the “#PermitRootLogin yes” line and change the yes to no; that is, “PermitRootLogin no”. Next, restart the sshd service by typing “service sshd restart” to enable the change.
 
Note: To enable sudo on Oracle VM Servers, it is neccessary to install the ovs-support-tools meta-package that includes sudo.
 
The visudo command is used to edit the /etc/sudoers file. Consult the sudoers man page for configuration details.
By default, Oracle VM Server permit ssh access using the root super user account.
 
One of the most important security measure that can be taken with Oracle VM is to prevent unauthorized access to the root user account by disabling root ssh access. A best practice is to only provision non-root individual user accounts, that can be audited, disabled, expired and managed using sudo.
 
Note: All sudo user access will be tracked and logged in the /var/log/secure file.
SSH login banners
Pre and post SSH login banners should be configured on each Oracle VM Manager host and Oracle VM Server.
 
Pre-login banner:
Edit the /etc/ssh/sshd_config and add the following directive:
Banner /etc/banner.net
 
Next, create the /etc/banner.net file and add your login banner text, i.e.
 
This system is restricted to authorized access only. All activities on this system are recorded and logged. Unauthorized access will be fully investigated and reported to the appropriate law enforcement agencies.
 
Once the file has been created and the banner text is added and saved, restart the sshd by typing:
# service sshd restart
 
Post login banner:
Edit /etc/motd and add your login banner text, i.e.
 
This system is restricted to authorized access only. All activities on this system are recorded and logged. Unauthorized access will be fully investigated and reported to the appropriate law enforcement agencies.
 
Once the file has been edited and saved, restart the sshd by typing:
# service sshd restart
 
Note: By default Oracle VM Server's /etc/motd file displays the following warning message: Warning: making manual modifications in the management domain
might cause inconsistencies between Oracle VM Manager and the server.
To be able to successfully prosecute individuals who improperly use a computer, the computer must have a warning banner displayed at all access points.
 
SSH login banners presents a definitive warning or disclaimer to all users that wish to access your systems using SSH. SSH login banners should clarify which types of activities are illegal as well as advise legitimate users of their obligations relating to the acceptable use of the system.
Rootkit prevention and monitoring
Wikipedia describes a rootkit as” A rootkit is software that enables continued privileged access to a computer while actively hiding its presence from administrators by subverting standard operating system functionality or other applications.”
 
A Hypervisor (Oracle VM Server) may be one of the most sensitive operating systems in the data center because it controls the hardware as well as all of the virtual machines on it. If the hypervisor is compromised direct access to the hardware and all of the virtual machines is possible, and other code could be monitored and controlled by the attacker.
Monitoring the hypervisor (Oracle VM Server) for rootkits is fundamental part of information security used to detect rootkits to prevent attacks and intrusions. Each Oracle VM Server should have a rootkit prevention solution in place, such as chkrootkit, that monitors the host for rootkits.
Central log host A central log host will be used to log all user logins and iptables connection failures. Centralized logging for user logins and iptables connection failures simplifies security management for the detection of attacks and intrusions.

Oracle VM for x86 Disaster Recovery

An Oracle VM disaster recovery architecture includes the design and process to maintain business continuity following a disastrous event affecting the availability of an organization's primary site. Failover to a disaster recovery site is prompted by the results of a disaster assessment. The failover process is the restoration of the primary site's services at the disaster recovery site.

Note: Disaster recovery requirements are calculated using Service-level Agreements (SLA), Recovery Time Objectives (RTOs) and Recovery Point Objectives (RPOs) objectives. SLA, RPO and RTO objectives and budget influence the disaster recovery architecture and design.  

Oracle VM uses the concept of a server pool to group together and manage one or more clustered Oracle VM servers. Once an Oracle VM server pool is created, the physical and virtual resources are managed within the boundary of the server pool. Physical resources include server hardware, networks, storage, infrastructure services (DNS, NTP, LDAP, HTTP, etc..), operating system installation media and administrative accounts. The virtual resources include virtual disks, virtual network interfaces, and virtual machine configuration files. For example, an Oracle VM environment with multiple server pools located in one or more sites could be managed from a single Oracle VM Manager instance with each server pool's resources isolated to their respected server pool. An Oracle VM server pool's resources from one site can be replicated and restored to another site for disaster recovery.

Restoration of the primary site's services at a disaster recovery site requires a replica of the primary site's physical and virtual resources at the disaster recovery site. A disaster recovery site hosts a replica of the primary site's Oracle VM physical and virtual resources, i.e. server hardware, networks, storage, infrastructure services, virtual disks, and virtual machine configuration files. The failover process involves restoring the primary sites virtual machines at the disaster recovery site, then systematically starting the virtual machines and services.

Note: Oracle VM Servers are not backed up and restored at the DR site. The time required to backup and restore an Oracle VM Server is significantly greater then a PXE boot kickstart installation.


A disaster recovery site can be a warm failover site waiting idle to respond to a disastrous occurrence, or part of a multi-site high availability design. A multi-site design uses excess capacity with application high availability to mirror services across sites to handle the lose of one or more sites.

The next Figure shows a warm Oracle VM failover site waiting idle to respond to a disastrous occurrence.

Oracle VM Disaster Recovery Warm Failover Design

The next Figure shows a warm Oracle VM failover site responding to a disastrous occurrence and running the primary sites services.
 
Oracle VM Disaster Recovery Failover

The next Figure shows a multi-site Oracle VM design with application high availability solutions to mirror services across sites as well as excess capacity to handle the lose of one or more sites.
 
Oracle VM Disaster Recovery Multi-site Design

Virtual machines that are restored at a disaster recovery site expect the same networks, storage, and infrastructure services as in the primary site. In the event that the disaster recovery site has different networks, storage, and infrastructure services, the properties of each virtual machines would need to be edited to use the new networks, storage and infrastructure services before services can be restored.

The virtual machine operating systems are typically installed in virtual disks that are actually flat files hosted on shared OCFS2 or NFS repositories. RAW disks such as ASM Disks, Log and Archive Files, etc.. are presented to the virtual machines from the Oracle VM Servers as local devices. Each virtual machine's virtual network interface card(s) (vNIC) are connected to one or more discrete networks using Xen bridges that are managed and presented to the virtual machines by the Oracle VM pool members. Virtual disks and virtual network interface card(s) allocations are managed using Oracle VM Manager and/or Oracle Enterprise Manager with the configurations saved in each virtual machines vm.cfg file.

The virtual machine vm.cfg files, virtual disk images and RAW disks (ASM disks) can be replicated between sites using storage array replication and/or mirroring solutions. Rsync is an option if an array does not have replication and/or mirroring functionality.

As soon as the replicated storage repositories are available, the failover process for a warm recovery site starts with the installation of Oracle VM Manager with the runInstall.sh --uuid option using the primary sites Oracle VM Manager UUID. An Oracle VM Manager --uuid installation allows Oracle VM Manager to use the primary site' replicated repositories with the  virtual machines.

Tip: The Oracle VM Manager UUID is listed in the “.config ” file on the Oracle VM Manager host in the /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/ directory as well as in each server pool' .ovsrepo file in the pool file system.

The next example shows the content of the .config file with the UUID in bold.

# cat /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/.config  
DBHOST=localhost
SID=orcl
LSNR=1521
APEX=None
OVSSCHEMA=ovs
WLSADMIN=weblogic
OVSADMIN=admin
COREPORT=54321
UUID=0004fb00000100009edfaa0f93184f44
BUILDID=3.0.3.126

The next example shows the content of the .ovsrepo file with the UUID in bold.

# cat .ovsrepo
OVS_REPO_UUID=0004fb0000030000554308a6997a6b2f
OVS_REPO_MGR_UUID=0004fb00000100009edfaa0f93184f44
OVS_REPO_VERSION=3.0
 
This table outlines the decision points for an Oracle VM disaster recovery solution. For decisions that rely on preexisting factors or specific organizational needs, the appropriate best practice will be discovered in the infrastructure assessment (IA) and gap analysis (GA). The best practices should be analyzed carefully and decisions should be made based on organizational needs, existing architecture, and budget resource availability.
Decision Point 
Decision
Justification

Disaster Recovery

Design

Prior to implementing an Oracle VM Disaster Recovery solution, it’s important that an infrastructure assessment (IA) and gap analysis (GA) be performed. During the IA/GA, the architecture of the solution will be matched to the customer’s SLA, Recovery Time Objectives (RTOs) and Recovery Point Objectives (RPOs) objectives.
Implementing a Disaster Recovery is a strategic decision. Disaster recovery requirements are calculated using SLA, Recovery Time Objectives (RTOs) and Recovery Point Objectives (RPOs) objectives. SLA, RPO and RTO objectives and budget influence the disaster recovery architecture and design.
Oracle VM Manager
Oracle VM Manager will be installed in Production mode using the runInstall.sh --uuid option with the primary site's Oracle VM Manager UUID.
 
Oracle VM Manager will be hosted on a dedicated physical server using an external or local Oracle 11g Standard, Enterprise or RAC database.
 
Once Oracle Enterprise Manager is restored, the Oracle Enterprise Manager Agent and Virtualization plug-in will be installed to enable Oracle Enterprise Manager integration.
As soon as the replicated storage repositories are available, the failover process for a warm recovery site starts with the installation of Oracle VM Manager with the runInstall.sh --uuid option using the primary sites Oracle VM Manager UUID. An Oracle VM Manager --uuid installation allows Oracle VM Manager to use the primary site' replicated repositories and virtual machines.
 
The Oracle VM Manager UUID is listed in the “.config ” file on the Oracle VM Manager host in the /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/ directory as well as in each server pool' .ovsrepo file in the pool file system.
Oracle VM Server Builds
Oracle VM Servers will be installed using an automated build process.
Oracle VM servers are installed using an automated PXE boot configuration to ensure that each server has a consistent installation configuration.
Oracle VM Server Backups Oracle VM Servers will not backed up at the primary site and restored at the DR site.
The time required to backup and restore an Oracle VM Server is significantly greater then an automated PXE boot kickstart  installation.
 
Oracle VM servers are installed using an automated PXE boot configuration to ensure that each server has a consistent installation configuration.
Storage A replica of the primary site's repositories with the virtual machine resources and RAW disks will be hosted at the disaster recovery site.
As soon as the replicated storage repositories and RAW disks are available, the failover process for a warm recovery site starts with the installation of Oracle VM Manager with the runInstall.sh --uuid option using the primary sites Oracle VM Manager UUID. An Oracle VM Manager --uuid installation allows Oracle VM Manager to use the primary site' replicated repositories and virtual machines.
 
Virtual machines that are restored at a disaster recovery site expect the same storage as in the primary site. In the event that the disaster recovery site has different storage each virtual machine would need to be recreated or edited to use the new storage before services can be restored.
Networks A replica of the primary site's Oracle VM networks will be maintained at the disaster recovery site. Virtual machines that are restored at a disaster recovery site expect the same networks as in the primary site. In the event that the disaster recovery site has different networks each virtual machine would need to be edited to use the new networks before services can be restored.
Infrastructure Services
A replica of the primary site's infrastructure services will be maintained at the disaster recovery site.
Virtual machines that are restored at a disaster recovery site expect the same infrastructure services as in the primary site. In the event that the disaster recovery site has different infrastructure services, each virtual machine operating system would need to be edited to use the new infrastructure services before services can be restored.
 

Oracle VM Fault Testing

Oracle VM uses OCFS2 to manage up to 32 clustered Oracle VM Servers in an Oracle VM server pool. OCFS2 monitors the status of each server pool member using a network and storage heartbeat. If a server pool member fails to update or respond to network and/or storage heartbeats, the server pool member is fenced from the pool, promptly reboots, then all HA-enabled virtual machines are restarted on a live node in the pool. Fencing forcefully removes dead servers from a pool to ensure that active servers are not obstructed from accessing fenced servers cluster resources. The term “node eviction” is also used to describe servers fencing and reboots. A best practice is to design Oracle VM Server pools with dedicated network and storage network channels to avoid contention and unexpected server reboots.
 
Before an Oracle VM server pool is placed into production, both network and storage fault tests should be conducted to find compatible o2cb timeout values, an 802.3AD bond mode (1, 4 or 6) and network and storage configurations that provide predicable failure response. For example, Oracle VM Servers should be able to lose a bond port, redundant network or storage switch and/or an HBA without node evictions. Incompatible o2cb timeout values, 802.3AD bond modes, network switch and storage configurations can trigger node evictions and unexpected server reboots.
 

Oracle VM Architecture and Fault Testing

A slightly modified version of OCSF2 (o2dlm) is bundled with Oracle VM. The OCFS2 file system and cluster stack are installed and configured as part of an Oracle VM Server installation. The o2cb service manages the cluster stack and the ocfs2 service manages the OCSF2 file system. The o2cb cluster service is a set of modules and in-memory file systems that manage the ocfs2 file system service, network and storage heartbeats and node evictions.
 
The Oracle Cluster File System 2 (OCFS2) is a general-purpose journaling file system developed by Oracle. Oracle released OCFS2 under the GNU General Public License (GPL), version 2. The OCSF2 source code and its tool set are part of the mainline Linux 2.6 kernel and above. The OCSF2 source code and its tool set can be downloaded from kernel.org, the Oracle Public Yum Server and from the Unbreakable Linux Network.
 
Oracle VM facilitates centralized server pool management using an agent-based architecture. The Oracle VM agent is a python application that is installed by default with Oracle VM Server. Oracle VM Manager dispatches commands using XML RPC over a dedicated network called the Server Management network channel using TCP/8899 to each server pool's Master Server agent. Each Master Server agent dispatch commands to subordinate agent servers using TCP/8899. The Oracle VM agent is also responsible for propagating the /etc/ocfs2/cluster.conf file to subordinate agent servers. There is only one Master Server in a server pool at any one point in time. The Master Server is the only server in a server pool to communicate with Oracle VM Manager.
 
Note: When Oracle VM Server is installed, the IP address entered during the installation is assigned to the Server Management network channel.
 
Once an Oracle VM server pool is created, two cluster configuration files are shared across all nodes in the server pool that maintain the cluster layout and cluster timeouts configurations. The /etc/ocfs2/cluster.conf file maintains the cluster layout and the /etc/sysconfig/o2cb file maintains the cluster timeouts. Both configuration files are read by the user-space utility configfs. configfs communicates the list of nodes in the /etc/ocfs2/cluster.conf file to the in-kernel node manager, along with the resource used for the heartbeat to the in-kernel heartbeat thread.
 
An Oracle VM server must be online to be a member of an Oracle VM pool/cluster. Once the cluster is on-line, each pool member starts a process, o2net. The o2net process creates TCP/IP intra-cluster node communication channels on port 7777 and sends regular keepalive packages to each node in the cluster to validate if the nodes are alive. The intra-cluster node communication uses the Cluster Heartbeat network channel. If a pool member loses network connectivity the keepalive connection becomes silent causing the node to self-fence. The keepalive connection time out value is managed in each nodes /etc/sysconfig/o2cb file's O2CB_IDLE_TIMEOUT_MS setting.
 
Along with the keepalive packages that check for node connectivity, the cluster stack also employs a disk heartbeat check. o2hb is the process that is responsible for the disk heartbeat component of cluster stack that actively monitors the status of all pool members. The heartbeat system uses a file on the OCSF2 file system, that each pool member periodically writes a block to, along with a time stamp. The time stamps are read by each pool member and are used to check if a pool member is alive or dead. If a pool member’s block stops getting updated, the node is considered dead, and self-fences. The disk heartbeat time out value is managed in each nodes /etc/sysconfig/o2cb file's O2CB_HEARTBEAT_THRESHOLD setting.
 
The OCFS2 network and storage heartbeat time out values are managed in each Oracle VM Servers /etc/sysconfig/o2cb file. Each pool member must have the same /etc/sysconfig/o2cb values. The default timeout values should be tested and tuned to your network and storage infrastructure to provide predicable failure response.
 
Tip: If a SAN storage controller fail over takes 120 seconds, and OCFS2 is set to the default value of 60 seconds, Oracle VM Servers will reboot halfway through the controller fail over. The O2CB_HEARTBEAT_THRESHOLD timeout value must longer then the SAN storage controller fail over timeout value.
 
The next example shows the default /etc/sysconfig/o2cb timeout values.
O2CB_IDLE_TIMEOUT_MS=60000 (60 secs)
O2CB_HEARTBEAT_THRESHOLD=31 (60 secs)
O2CB_RECONNECT_DELAY_MS=2000 (2 secs)
O2CB_KEEPALIVE_DELAY_MS=2000 (2 secs)
 
The next list explains each o2cb timeout value.
1- O2CB_IDLE_TIMEOUT_MS: Default settings is 60000 = 60 secs
Time in ms before a network connection is considered dead.
2- O2CB_HEARTBEAT_THRESHOLD: Default 31 = 60 secs
The disk heartbeat timeout is the number of two-second iterations before a node is considered dead. The exact formula used to convert the timeout in seconds to the number of iterations is:
O2CB_HEARTBEAT_THRESHOLD = (((timeout in seconds) / 2) + 1)
For example, to specify a 60 sec timeout, set it to 31. For 120 secs, set it to 61. The default for this is 31 (60 secs).
3- O2CB_RECONNECT_DELAY_MS: Default 2000 = 2 secs
Min time in ms between connection attempts
4- O2CB_KEEPALIVE_DELAY_MS: Default 2000 = 2 secs
Max time in ms before a keepalive packet is sent
 
Note: If reboots are occurring and the root cause has not yet been identified, the following time-out values may provide a temporary solution.
O2CB_IDLE_TIMEOUT_MS=90000 (90 secs)
O2CB_HEARTBEAT_THRESHOLD=81 (160 secs)
O2CB_RECONNECT_DELAY_MS=4000 (4 secs)
O2CB_KEEPALIVE_DELAY_MS=4000 (4 secs)
 
A minimum of one Ethernet network interface (NIC) card is required to install Oracle VM, although at least four 10G or four or more 1G NICs are recommended for fault testing. Trunk ports/802.1Q and/or access ports with NIC bonding mode 1, 4 and 6 are supported and configured post Oracle VM Server installation with Oracle VM Manager and/or Oracle Enterprise Manager. Oracle VM supports two NIC ports per network bond and a total of five network bonds per Oracle VM Server.
 
The next Figures shows two different Oracle VM networking strategies.
 
The next image shows a four port 10G 802.1q/LACP trunk port design with two mode 4 bonds.

Oracle VM 802.1q

The next Figure shows a ten port 1G or 10G access port design with five mode 1 or 6 bonds.

Oracle VM with Access Ports

 
Tip: I highly recommend the four port 10G 802.1q/LACP trunk port design with two mode 4 bonds. Trunk ports can have two or more VLANs per port. An access port is limited to one VLAN per port.
 
The Cluster Heartbeat, Storage and Virtual Machine network channels NIC bond modes (1, 4 and 6) should be fault tested with various network switch settings to confirm which NIC bonding mode and network switch setting combination provides predicable failure response. The next table shows each of the Oracle VM network channels, NIC bonding modes, and a variety of network switch options that should be fault tested.
Network Channel
Description
Network Type
Bond Modes
Network Switch Options
iLO (Integrated Lights Out Manager)
 
Note: iLo is not managed by Oracle VM Manager. ilo is included in this table for completeness.
iLO ports enable browser based access to servers for installations and management.
 
iLO ports should be on a network isolated from the server payload networks.
Class A, B or C
Not applicable
Trunk ports and/or Access ports.
•An access port is limited to one VLAN per port.
•A trunk port can have two or more VLANs per port.
 
Most network switches support the following standards: EtherChannel, Port Channels, Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) / 802.3ad, etc...
 
Consult Cisco for network switch configuration details: http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk389/tk213/tsd_technology_support_protocol_home.html
Server Management
The Server Management network is the communication channel for Oracle VM Manager, Oracle VM Server agents as well as administrative ssh access to Oracle VM Servers, and http/https/VNC access to and from Oracle VM Manager.
 
Oracle VM Manager dispatches commands using XML RPC over the Server Management network using TCP/8899 to each server pool's master agent server. Each Master Server agent server dispatch commands to subordinate agent servers using the Server Management network with TCP/8899.
 
The Server Management ports should be on an isolated routable network.
 
Note: The Server Management network should be dedicated for Oracle VM not a shared corporate wide Server Management network.
Class A, B or C
Mode 1, 4 or 6
 
Mode 1 and 6 do not require special network switch settings.
 
Mode 4 requires the network switch to support 802.3ad/LACP.
Trunk ports and/or Access ports.
•An access port is limited to only "one" VLAN on the port, i.e. the port can carry traffic for one VLAN.
•A trunk port can have two or more VLANs the port, i.e. the port can carry traffic for multiple simultaneous VLANs.
 
Most network switches support the following standards: EtherChannel, Port Channels, Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) / 802.3ad, etc...
 
Consult Cisco for network switch configuration details: http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk389/tk213/tsd_technology_support_protocol_home.html
Cluster Heartbeat
An Oracle VM server must be online to be a member of an Oracle VM pool/cluster. Once the cluster is on-line, each pool member starts a process, o2net. The o2net process creates TCP/IP intra-cluster node communication channels on port 7777 and sends regular keepalive packages to each node in the cluster to validate if the nodes are alive. The intra-cluster node communication uses the Cluster Heartbeat network channel. If a pool member loses network connectivity the keepalive connection becomes silent causing the node to self-fence. The keepalive connection time out value is managed in each nodes /etc/sysconfig/o2cb file's O2CB_IDLE_TIMEOUT_MS setting.
Class A, B or C
*The network could be a private non-routable network.
Mode 1, 4 or 6
 
Mode 1 and 6 do not require special network switch settings.
 
Mode 4 requires the network switch to support 802.3ad/LACP.
Trunk ports and/or Access ports.
•An access port is limited to only "one" VLAN on the port, i.e. the port can carry traffic for one VLAN.
•A trunk port can have two or more VLANs the port, i.e. the port can carry traffic for multiple simultaneous VLANs.
 
Most network switches support the following standards: EtherChannel, Port Channels, Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) / 802.3ad, etc...
 
Consult Cisco for network switch configuration details: http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk389/tk213/tsd_technology_support_protocol_home.html
Live Migration
The Oracle VM Live Migration feature moves running virtual machines between server pool members across a LAN without loss of availability. Oracle VM uses an iterative precopy method to migrate running virtual machines between two pool members over the Live Migration network channel. A Live Migration event starts when the source server sends a migration request to the target server, which contains the virtual machines resource requirements. If the target accepts the migration request, the source starts the iterative precopy phase. The iterative precopy phase starts by iteratively copying the guest’s memory pages from the source to the target server over the Live Migration network channel. If a memory page changes during the precopy phase, it is marked dirty and resent. Once the majority of the pages are copied, the stop-and-copy phase begins. The stop-and-copy phase starts by pausing the guest while the remaining dirty pages are copied to the target, which usually takes 60 to 300 milliseconds. Once the pages are copied to the target, the virtual machine is started on target server.
Class A, B or C *The network could be a private non-routable network.
Mode 1, 4 or 6
 
Mode 1 and 6 do not require special network switch settings.
 
Mode 4 requires the network switch to support 802.3ad/LACP.
Trunk ports and/or Access ports.
•An access port is limited to only "one" VLAN on the port, i.e. the port can carry traffic for one VLAN.
•A trunk port can have two or more VLANs the port, i.e. the port can carry traffic for multiple simultaneous VLANs.
 
Most network switches support the following standards: EtherChannel, Port Channels, Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) / 802.3ad, etc...
 
Consult Cisco for network switch configuration details: http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk389/tk213/tsd_technology_support_protocol_home.html
Storage
The Storage network channel is only used for iSCI and NFS storage. FC/SAN use a dedicated fibre fabric.
Class A, B, C or FC/SAN
Mode 1, 4 or 6
 
Mode 1 and 6 do not require special network switch settings.
 
Mode 4 requires the network switch to support 802.3ad/LACP.
Trunk ports and/or Access ports.
•An access port is limited to only "one" VLAN on the port, i.e. the port can carry traffic for one VLAN.
•A trunk port can have two or more VLANs the port, i.e. the port can carry traffic for multiple simultaneous VLANs.
 
Most network switches support the following standards: EtherChannel, Port Channels, Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) / 802.3ad, etc...
 
Consult Cisco for network switch configuration details: http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk389/tk213/tsd_technology_support_protocol_home.html
Virtual Machine(s)
The virtual machine network channels provide access to one or more networks provisioned for virtual machines.
Class A, B or C
Mode 1, 4 or 6
 
Mode 1 and 6 do not require special network switch settings.
 
Mode 4 requires the network switch to support 802.3ad/LACP.
Trunk ports and/or Access ports.
•An access port is limited to only "one" VLAN on the port, i.e. the port can carry traffic for one VLAN.
•A trunk port can have two or more VLANs the port, i.e. the port can carry traffic for multiple simultaneous VLANs.
 
Most network switches support the following standards: EtherChannel, Port Channels, Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) / 802.3ad, etc...
 
Consult Cisco for network switch configuration details: http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk389/tk213/tsd_technology_support_protocol_home.htm
Tip: A best practice is use a minimum of three nodes per cluster to ensure quorum and to be able to generate meaningful network heartbeat (O2CB_IDLE_TIMEOUT_MS timeout) fault tests. A known limitation with two node clusters and network failures causes the node with the higher node number to self-fence.
 

Oracle VM Network Fault Testing

Network Bond Mode, Network Bond failover, and O2CB_IDLE_TIMEOUT_MS Fault Tests:
If a server pool member fails to respond to its network heartbeat, the server pool member is fenced from the pool, promptly reboots, then all HA-enabled virtual machines are restarted on a live node in the pool. The network heartbeat should be placed on a routable or non-routable dedicated class A, B or C network. A best practice is to provision a dedicated network channel for the network heartbeat to avoid network contention and unexpected reboots. The network heartbeat is referred to as the Cluster Heartbeat network channel in Oracle VM Manager.
 
Before an Oracle VM server pool is placed into production, network fault testing should be conducted on the Cluster Heartbeat, Storage and Virtual Machine network channels to find a suitable O2CB_IDLE_TIMEOUT_MS o2cb timeout value, bond mode (1, 4 or 6) and network switch configuration that provides predicable failure response. For example, Oracle VM Servers should be able to lose a bond port/NIC and/or a redundant network switch without node evictions. Incompatible o2cb timeout values, bond modes and network switch configurations can trigger node evictions and unexpected server reboots.
 
Tip: When fault testing a two node cluster's O2CB_IDLE_TIMEOUT_MS time out value, the node with the higher node number will reboot when the network fails. A best practice is use a minimum of three nodes per cluster to ensure quorum and to be able to fault test the O2CB_IDLE_TIMEOUT_MS timeout value.
 
The next tables shows each of the fault test with the expected failure results. The example is four a four port 10G 802.1q/LACP trunk port design with two mode 4 bonds. Modify the table to reflect your design, and your fault tests.
  1. Disable switch ports in various fault patterns to text NIC, Bond and Switch failures and OCFS2 compatibility.
  2. Use the following commands to confirm the tests results.
Complete and document each test to confirm which settings provide the expected failure results.
Use Case
Port(s)
Bond Mode
Switch Mode
Expected Results
Results
1- Disable the port and wait +20 secs over the O2CB_IDLE_TIMEOUT_MS time out value.
 
Enable the port and wait +20 secs over the O2CB_IDLE_TIMEOUT_MS time out value.
eth0
 
Mode x
 
Bond stays active the node does not self-fence.
 
2- Disable the port and wait +20 secs over the O2CB_IDLE_TIMEOUT_MS time out value.
 
Enable the port and wait +20 secs over the O2CB_IDLE_TIMEOUT_MS time out value.
 
eth1
Mode x
 
Bond stays active the node does not self-fence.
 
3- Disable the port and wait +20 secs over the O2CB_IDLE_TIMEOUT_MS time out value.
 
Enable the port and wait +20 secs over the O2CB_IDLE_TIMEOUT_MS time out value.
eth2
 
Mode x
 
Bond stays active the node does not self-fence.
 
4- Disable the port and wait +20 secs over the O2CB_IDLE_TIMEOUT_MS time out value.
 
Enable the port and wait +20 secs over the O2CB_IDLE_TIMEOUT_MS time out value.
 
eth3
Mode x
 
Bond stays active the node does not self-fence.
 
5- Disable both ports and wait +20 secs over the O2CB_IDLE_TIMEOUT_MS time out value.
 
Enable both ports and wait +20 secs over the O2CB_IDLE_TIMEOUT_MS time out value.
eth0
eth2
Mode x
 
Both bonds stays active the node does not self-fence.
 
6- Disable both ports and wait +20 secs over the O2CB_IDLE_TIMEOUT_MS time out value.
 
Enable both ports and wait +20 secs over the O2CB_IDLE_TIMEOUT_MS time out value.
eth1
eth3
Mode x
 
Bonds stays active the node does not self-fence.
 
7- Disable both ports and wait +20 secs over the O2CB_IDLE_TIMEOUT_MS time out value.
 
Enable both ports and wait +20 secs over the O2CB_IDLE_TIMEOUT_MS time out value.
eth2
eth3
Mode x
 
Bond loses connectivity, VMs lose connectivity, the node does not self-fence.
 
8- Disable both ports and wait +20 secs over the O2CB_IDLE_TIMEOUT_MS time out value.
 
Enable both ports and wait +20 secs over the O2CB_IDLE_TIMEOUT_MS time out value.
eth0
eth1
Mode x
 
At the O2CB_IDLE_TIMEOUT_MS timeout value the node self-fences.
 

Oracle VM Storage Fault Testing

If a server pool member fails to read and write storage heartbeats, the server pool member is fenced from the pool, promptly reboots, then all HA-enabled virtual machines are restarted on a live node in the pool. The storage heartbeat should be on a dedicated IP or Fiber channel network. A best practice is to have dedicate “not” shared storage with performance monitoring and storage quotas alerts to avoid contention and full disks that may cause unexpected reboots. A best practice with iSCSI and NFS storage is to provision the storage on a dedicated class A,B or C network channel to avoid network contention and unexpected server reboots.
 
Oracle VM uses two different types of storage repositories. The first type of storage repository, called a pool file system, is used to host a server pool's cluster configurations including the storage heartbeat. There can only be one pool file system per server pool. The other type of storage repository, called a virtual machine file system, is used to host virtual machine configuration files and disks. There can be one or more virtual machine file system repositories in a server pool. Virtual machine file system repositories do not have a storage heartbeat.
 
The storage heartbeat, also known as a “quorum disk”, is used to monitor the status of each Oracle VM Server in a pool. With a quorum disk, every Oracle VM Server in a pool regularly reads and writes a small amount of status data to a reserved section of pool file system. Each Oracle VM Server writes its own status and reads the status of all the other Oracle VM Servers in the pool. If any Oracle VM Server in a pool fails to update its status within its O2CB_HEARTBEAT_THRESHOLD o2cb timeout value, the Oracle VM Server is fenced from the pool, promptly reboots, then all HA-enabled virtual machines are restarted on a live Oracle VM Server in the pool.
 
Before an Oracle VM server pool is placed into production, storage fault testing should be conducted on the quorum disk to find a suitable O2CB_HEARTBEAT_THRESHOLD o2cb timeout value, SAN and FC Switch configurations that provides predicable failure response. For example, Oracle VM Servers should be able to lose one HBA without node evictions. Incompatible o2cb timeout values, SAN and FC Switch configurations can trigger node evictions and unexpected server reboots.
 
The next tables shows each of the fault test with the expected failure results. Modify the table to reflect your design, and yourr fault tests.
 
Use the following commands to confirm the tests results.

Complete and document each test to confirm which settings provide the expected failure results.

Use Case
Port(s)
Bond Mode
Expected Results
Results
1- Disable the port and wait +20 secs over the O2CB_HEARTBEAT_THRESHOLD time out value.
HBA0
 
HBA0 paths go down, HBA1 paths stay active, the node does not self-fence.
 
2- Disable the port and wait +20 secs over the O2CB_HEARTBEAT_THRESHOLD time out value.
HBA1
 
HBA1 paths go down, HBA0 paths stay active, the node does not self-fence.
 
3- Disable both ports and wait +20 secs over the O2CB_HEARTBEAT_THRESHOLD time out value.
HBA0
HBA1
 
After the O2CB_HEARTBEAT_THRESHOLD timeout value the node self-fences.
 

Oracle VM Master Server VIP Failover Testing

Oracle VM facilitates centralized server pool management using an agent-based architecture. The Oracle VM agent is a python application that is installed by default with Oracle VM Server. Oracle VM Manager dispatches commands using XML RPC over a dedicated network using TCP/8899 to each server pool's Master Server. Each Master Server dispatchs commands to subordinate agent servers using TCP/8899. There is only one Master Server agent in a server pool at any one point in time. The Master Server agent is the only server in a server pool to communicate with Oracle VM Manager. Agent intra-component traffic should be isolated to a dedicated class A,B or C Server Management network channel.
 
To address the single point of failure for the Master Server agent, the server pool "Virtual IP" feature was introduced. The Virtual IP feature detects the loss of the Master Server agent and automatically failover the Master Server to the first node that can lock the cluster.
 
To test Virtual IP failover, first confirm which node is the Master Server by accessing Oracle VM Manager => Servers and VMs => Right Click the desired Server Pool => Confirm the host name in the Master Server drop down list. Next, as root access the Master Server, and stop the ovs-agent service to typing “service ovs-agent stop --disable-nowayout”. After 60 seconds, ssh to the Virtual IP address to confirm that the Master Server agent failed over to a new node.

Hard and Soft Partitioning with Oracle VM

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Copyright © 2013 Mokum Solutions, Inc. All rights reserved.
Distribution of the Oracle Cloud Cookbook or derivative of the work in any form for commercial purposes is prohibited unless prior permission is obtained from the copyright holder.
 
 
 
Change Log
Revision
Change Description
Updated By
Date
1.0
First Release
Roddy Rodstein
07/11/12
1.1
Content Refresh
Roddy Rodstein 05/14/13
 
This chapter of the Oracle Cloud Cookbook describes how to use hard and soft partitioning with Oracle VM to manage Oracle CPU licenses. Two and four core CPUs are now end of life. New Intel and AMD x86 servers ship with quad-, hexa-, 8-, 10-, 12-, and 16-core CPUs. As Intel and AMD add more cores to CPUs, your next hardware refresh “will” dramatically increase your Oracle CPU license costs. The goal of this chapter is to explain how Oracle VM can be used with hard and soft partitioning to manage Oracle CPU license costs. The chapter starts with a brief introduction to Oracle licensing followed by Oracle VM hard and soft partitioning examples.
 
Note: While Oracle recognizes hard and soft partitioning with Oracle VM, this does not imply that Oracle recognizes hard and soft partitioning when using other vendor's virtualization technologies. Please refer to the SIG or your Oracle representative if you have questions about the Oracle licensing impact of other vendor's virtualization approaches.
 
Table of Contents
 
Oracle Technology Licensing and Oracle VM
Oracle segments its software portfolio into two categories, technology and applications. The Oracle technology and applications license models are very different. The only similarity between the technology and applications licensing models is the ability to execute an unlimited license agreement (ULA). Technology products have three forms of licensing, 1) processor 2) named user plus (NUP) and 3) unlimited license agreement (ULA). Applications licensing also have three forms of licensing, 1) component pricing, 2) custom applications suite pricing, and 3) enterprise pricing aka an unlimited license agreement (ULA).
 
Smaller deployment with less than 50 users regularly select named user plus licensing. For smaller environments, named user plus licensing can be more cost effective when compared with processor licensing. Along with named user plus licensing, Oracle customers regularly select standard editions products over enterprise editions products to further reduce costs.
 
The ability to select the number of licensed processors regardless of the number of CPU core can help control Oracle licensing costs. For example, with Oracle VM hard partitioning, a standard or enterprise edition Database could be run on an Oracle VM Server with 4 CPUs (four sockets) each with 24 cores (96 cores) with as little as one Oracle processor license. 
 
Tip: Named user plus (NUP) licensing is supported with Oracle VM hard partitioning as long as the the minimum NUP users per Database (25) is maintained.  
 
The SIG states that Oracle standard edition products are limited to 4 CPU sockets, i.e. standard edition product are restricted to 4 CPU sockets, not 4 CPU cores. The standard edition 4 CPU socket restriction includes standard edition RAC. For example, any combination of 4 CPU sockets reaches the restriction whether it’s a two node RAC cluster on two separate 2 socket servers, or a two node RAC cluster on a single 4 socket server. There are also other forms of ‘failover’ that can be used with Oracle standard edition products that do not require licenses. For example, a production RAC One Node server could failover to a second standby RAC One Node server for up to 10 days in any calendar year without additional licensing fees. The 10-day rule applies to Oracle standard and enterprise products using failover technologies in an active/passive cluster.
 
Of the three Oracle technology licensing options, 1) processor 2) named user plus (NUP) and 3) unlimited license agreement (ULA), Oracle VM can be used to manage processor licensing costs with processor and named user plus (NUP) licensing. Unlimited license agreements are not processor regulated, which preclude Oracle VM as a license management option.
 
From an Oracle licensing perspective, hard partitioning allows us to license a subset of a server’s CPU cores. Conversely, soft partitioning licenses the total number of a server’s processor cores. With Oracle VM, hard partitioning allows us to pin a virtual machine's processors (CPUs) to a subset of an Oracle VM Server’s CPU cores, and only pay for the pinned CPUs. Soft partitioning with Oracle VM allows us to license a subset of Oracle VM Servers and their CPUs cores in an Oracle VM server pool. For example, with soft partitioning it would be possible to license as little as two Oracle VM Servers from an Oracle VM server pool with 32 Oracle VM Servers.
 
Note: Live Migration, Distributed Resource Scheduler (DRS) and Distributed Power Management (DPM) are not supported with hard partitioning. The use of hard and soft partition will influence Oracle VM server pool design. For example, server pools may need to be deployed to isolate hard and soft partitioned virtual machines.
 
Table 1 provides an overview of hard and soft partitioning with Oracle VM.
Partitioning Type
Overview
Requirements
Hard Partitioning
Hard partitioning allows us to license a subset of an Oracle VM Server’s CPUs by pinning a virtual machine to the desired number of the Oracle VM Server's CPU cores.
 
Note: Live Migration, Distributed Resource Scheduler (DRS) and Distributed Power Management (DPM) are not supported with hard partitioning.
CPU pinning is a manual process that includes documenting an Oracle VM Server's CPU topology, then pinning a virtual machine's CPUs to the desired Oracle VM Server CPU cores using ovm_vmcontrol. ovm_vmcontrol is included in the Oracle VM 3 utilities.
Soft Partitioning
Soft partitioning allows us to license a subset of Oracle VM Servers and their CPUs cores within an Oracle VM server pool.
 
Note: Live Migration, Distributed Resource Scheduler (DRS) and Distributed Power Management (DPM) are supported with soft partitioning.
Soft partitioned virtual machines should be in a dedicated Oracle VM server pool to enable Live Migration, Distributed Resource Scheduler (DRS) and/or Distributed Power Management (DPM).
 
Tip: The difference between hard and soft partitioning is pinning CPUs (hard partitioning) versus pinning virtual machines (soft partitioning). With hard partitioning a virtual machine's CPUs are pinned to a subset of an Oracle VM Server's CPU cores. With soft partitioning virtual machines are pinned to a subset of Oracle VM Servers in an Oracle VM server pool.
 
Processor licensing is calculated by counting the number of each CPU core accessed by an operating system running an Oracle technology product. From an Oracle processor licensing perspective, Hyper-threading does “not” increase the processor license count of an Oracle VM Server or a pinned virtual machine. Enabling Hyper-threading will increase the overall processor capacity of an Oracle VM Server and its virtual machines. For example, with hyper-threading disabled, a CPU is running a single thread per core. With hyper-threading enabled, the number of threads within a core increases, and the virtual machine can use the additional threads without incurring additional Oracle processor licensing penalties. Oracle recognizes each CPU core as a separate CPU and each CPU type with a different processor factor. The processor factor determines the processor count. The processor count determines the number of processors required to license the Oracle product.
 
Do you need assistance with an Oracle license evaluation? If yes, please call Mokum today at 415-252-9164.
 
Table 1 lists Oracle' processor factors.
Oracle Processor Licensing
Processor Factor
UltraSparc T1
0.25
AMD/Intel
0.50
All other Multi-core Servers
0.75
Single Core Servers & IBM’s P6 and P7 Multi-Core chips
1.00
 
To better understand Oracle processor licensing with Oracle VM and multi-core CPUs, let’s review List 1.
 
List 1 shows the processor factor for a single socket (one CPU) four, eight, ten, twelve and sixteen core Intel and/or AMD CPU.
The next example in Figure 1 shows three servers, each server has two eight core CPUs with a processor factor of eight processors. The first server is an example of a server with an operating system, i.e. not a virtual machine or a virtual server, running an Oracle 11G Database. The second server is an example of soft partitioning with an Oracle VM Server running eight virtual machines, each virtual machine is running an Oracle 11G Database. The third server is an example of hard partitioning with an Oracle VM Server running eight virtual machines, and only one of the virtual machines is running an Oracle 11G Database with pinned CPUs.
Oracle VM Hard and Soft Partitioning
 
As shown in Figure 1, the first server running an Oracle 11G Database requires eight Oracle processor licenses. The soft partitioning example in Figure 1 shows how an Oracle VM Server with eight processor licenses can host multiple isolated virtual machines, each running Oracle 11G Database, for the same processor cost as the server with one 11g Database. The hard partitioning example in Figure 1 shows how Oracle VM with hard partitioning can be used to license a subset of the Oracle VM Server’s CPUs by pinning a virtual machine to a subset of the Oracle VM Servers CPU cores.
 
Oracle VM Hard and Soft Partitioning Examples
Hard partitioning, also referred to as sub-capacity licensing, allows us to license a subset of an Oracle VM Server’s CPU cores. Hard partitioning is a two-step process. The first step is to document the Oracle VM Server's CPU topology, the next step is to pin a virtual machine's CPUs to a subset of the Oracle VM Server CPU cores using ovm_vmcontrol. Please note that ovm_vmcontrol is included in the Oracle VM 3 utilities.
 
Oracle’s hard partitioning policy states that a hard partitioned virtual machine’s CPUs mapping must be hardcoded by hand in the virtual machine’s vm.cfg file. To restrict a hard partitioned virtual machine to an Oracle VM Server, the Oracle VM server can be placed in a single server pool or the virtual machine’s vm.cfg file can be hosted exclusively on a storage repository presented to the Oracle VM Server running the pinned virtual machine.
 
The next hard partitioning example in Figure 2 shows an Oracle VM Server with two eight core Intel CPUs, with one hard partitioned virtual machine running an Oracle 11G Database. The virtual machine is pinned to two of the Oracle VM Server’s CPU cores (2 cores = 1 CPU license). From an Oracle technology licensing perspective, the server has a processor factor of 8. Using hard partitioning, the pinned virtual machine requires only 1 Oracle CPU license. The additional 7 CPUs could be used to license other Oracle technologies or be used to run other workloads on the same Oracle VM Server.
 
Oracle VM Hard Partitioning
 
The next hard partitioning example in Figure 3 shows an Oracle VM Server with two eight core Intel CPUs, with two pinned virtual machines running an Oracle 11G Database. The virtual machines are pinned to the same CPU cores, with a processor factor of 1. It’s possible to pin multiple virtual machines running an Oracle 11g Database to the same CPU cores, and only pay for the pinned CPU cores. In this example multiple virtual machines are running Oracle 11g Databases using the same CPU cores with a processor factor of 1. Please note that since each virtual machine is using the same CPU cores, the performance of each virtual machine will be impacted by CPU contention. The additional 7 CPU cores could be used to license other Oracle technologies or be shared for other workloads on the Oracle VM Server.
 
Oracle VM Hard Partitioning with the Same CPU
 
Soft partitioning with Oracle VM allows us to license a subset of Oracle VM Servers and their CPUs cores within an Oracle VM server pool. For example, with soft partitioning, it’s possible to license as little as two Oracle VM Servers from an Oracle VM server pool with 32 Oracle VM Servers. Soft partitioning with Oracle VM supports Live Migration, Distributed Resource Scheduler (DRS) and Distributed Power Management (DPM) with total control over the total number of licensed CPU cores in an Oracle VM server pool.
 
Soft partitioning is multiple step manual process. The first step is to provision and present a storage repository to a subset of Oracle VM Servers to host the hard partitioned virtual machine vm.cfg files. The second step is to move the virtual machine' vm.cfg files to the storage repository and edit the path to the virtual machine’s vm.cfg file. Once the storage repository is provisioned and presented to the Oracle VM Servers, and the vm.cfg file is placed on the storage repository, and edited with the correct path, the virtual machines will be restricted to the Oracle VM Servers with the vm.cfg files.
 
Note: The virtual machine's virtual disks do not have to be placed on the storage repository with the vm.cfg file.
 
The next example in Figure 4 shows an Oracle VM server pool with six Oracle VM Servers. Each Oracle VM Server has two eight core CPUs. The Oracle VM server pool has a total of 96 cores with a processor factor of 48 Oracle CPU licenses. In Figure 4, there are a total of eight virtual machines in the Oracle VM pool running Oracle Database 11G. The eight virtual machines with Oracle Database 11G can run on any of the 6 Oracle VM Servers, requiring a total of 48 Oracle processor licenses.
 
Oracle VM Soft Partitioning Example
 
Figure 5 shows the same Oracle VM server pool as in Figure 4, with a total of 96 cores and a processor factor of 48 Oracle CPU licenses. In Figure 5, there are a total of 8 guests in the pool running Oracle Database 11G that are pinned to two of the six Oracle VM Servers. The soft partitioning scenario shown in Figure 5 requires only 16 Oracle CPU licenses.
 
Oracle VM Hard Partitioning Example
 
The example shown in Figure 5 supports Live Migration without Distributed Resource Scheduler (DRS) and/or Distributed Power Management.
 
Hard Partitioning RAC and RAC One Node with Oracle VM
Oracle has a wide variety of high availability solutions for databases, applications and virtualization that offer different levels of availability. Hard and soft partitioning with Oracle VM can be used with Oracle RAC, RAC One Node, DataGuard and Application Server Guard to provide an additional layer of high availability with total control over Oracle CPU licensing costs.
 
Oracle VM's high availability features are complementary with Oracle's high availability solutions for databases, Fusion Middleware and applications. For example, Oracle VM high availability (HA) detects and responds to catastrophic Oracle VM Server failures by restarting virtual machines, RAC nodes, RAC One Nodes, DataGuard and/or Application Server Guard nodes on a live Oracle VM Server. Oracle VM Live Migration is used to eliminate planned downtime by migrating running virtual machines from one Oracle VM Server to another Oracle VM Server during a maintenance event, i.e. for repairs or an upgrade. Hard and soft partitioning with Oracle VM can be used with RAC, RAC One Node, DataGuard and Application Server Guard to provide and additional layer of high availability with total control over Oracle CPU licensing costs.
 
RAC is one of Oracle’s database high availability solutions that offers operational continuity in the event of server and hardware failure. If one RAC node in a multi node RAC cluster fails, the Oracle database would continue to run without disruption of service. An Oracle 11g Database R2 feature named RAC One Node, also offers database high availability in the event of catastrophic failure, with a single node architecture. Both RAC and RAC One Node are certified and supported with Oracle VM. Hard partitioning with Oracle VM can be used with RAC and RAC One Node to provide database high availability with total control over Oracle CPU licensing costs.
 
Figure 6 shows how hard partitioning with Oracle VM can be used with RAC to gain total control over processor licensing costs.
 
Hard Partition RAC
 
If reducing costs, Database high availability and Live migration is a requirement, RAC One node with Omotion can be used as live fail-over option on Oracle VM without incurring additional CPU license penalties. RAC One Node is certified and supported with Oracle VM. RAC One Node continually monitors the status of a Database running inside a virtual machine, and if the RAC One Node instance experiences a catastrophic failure, RAC One Node will restart the affected database in place or on another standby RAC One Node virtual machine. Following the Oracle Software Investment Guide (SIG) failover rule, a standby RAC One Node virtual machine can run an Oracle Database without additional licensing fees for up to 10 days in any calendar year.
 
Figure 7 shows how hard partitioning with Oracle VM can be used with RAC One Node to gain total control over processor licensing costs.
 
Hard Partition RAC ONE Node
 
Note: The 10-day rule applies to Oracle products using failover technologies in an active/passive cluster. With Oracle products in an active/passive cluster, if a primary node fails, failover to a second node for up to 10 days in any calendar year is permitted without additional license fees.
 
How to Pin a Virtual Machine
This section will start with a brief review of Oracle VM's CPU credit scheduler. Next, we will walk through the procedure to pin a virtual machine's CPUs to a subset of an Oracle VM Server's CPU cores using the ovm_vmcontrol utility. The chapter concludes with CPU pinning examples by manually editing a vm.cfg file with the xm command.
 
Virtual Machine CPU Pinning Road Map
Hard Partitioning:
1- Validate the hard partitioned Oracle VM Server CPU topology
2- Pin CPUs with the ovm_vmcontrol Utility
 
Oracle VM’s default CPU scheduler is the credit scheduler. The credit scheduler uses a credit/debit system to fairly share CPU resources between virtual machines. Credits are assigned to each running virtual machine, along with the allocated fraction of CPU resources. The credit scheduler continually increments/decrements credits from running virtual machines, which is how the credit scheduler balances CPU resources. In many ways, the credit scheduler is like the Linux scheduler. The Linux scheduler is used as the default CPU scheduler with the KVM hypervisor. Both schedulers can preempt processes as needed while trying to ensure proportional fair share allocations.
 
The default behavior of the credit scheduler is to bind each virtual machine CPU to a separate physical core. For example, when you create a virtual machine with two CPUs, the credit scheduler will map the two virtual machine CPUs to two physical cores. So when pinning virtual machine CPUs, we follow the credit scheduler’s default behavior of mapping virtual machine CPUs to an Oracle VM Server’s CPU cores.
 
Excluding pinned virtual machine’s, virtual machine CPUs will occasionally bind to different physical cores. A virtual machine's CPUs will bind to different physical cores, due to the credit scheduler’s use of the credit/debit system that dynamically re-balances CPU resources. For example, if you periodically checked an unpinned virtual machine’s CPU mapping, you would see a different CPU mappings throughout the day.
 
There are two methods to pin virtual machine CPUs. The CPU mapping can be hardcode a virtual machine’s vm.cfg file or mapped using the xm command. The difference between pinning CPUs by hardcoding in the vm.cfg file and with the xm command is the persistence of the CPU mapping. Hard coding the CPU mapping in a virtual machines’s vm.cfg file is persistent between reboots. CPUs that are pinned with the xm command are not persistent between reboots.
 
Please note that hard partitioning could cause guest performance issues. For example, if you pin a virtual machine’s CPUs to a specific subset of named CPUs without considering how the lower-level I/O interrupts are being assigned, you can end-up hurting performance. I/O interrupts are typically mapped to a specific CPU. If that CPU is not the same as the pinned CPU, the interrupts have to be "re-directed" to the CPU you pinned, which could cause the performance of the guest to decrease. If a hard partitioned virtual machines experience performance issues, the CPU pinning would be an area to investigate.
 
Tip: All CPU cores are not equal, so you may need to test various virtual CPU mappings using the xm command before pinning CPUs in a vm.cfg file.
 
Validate the Hard Partitioned Oracle VM Server CPU Topology
Before you pin a virtual machine's CPUs to an Oracle VM Server's CPU cores, its necessary to understand the Oracle VM Server's CPU topology. There are a number of commands to list an Oracle VM Server's CPU topology. The xenpm command is my favorite command, xenpm stands for Xen Power Management. Xenpm is a userspace program that lists CPU power information and provides control over power policies. Type xenpm or xenpm --help to print the xenpm command list.
 
To gain a clear picture of an Oracle VM Server's CPU topology, from the Oracle VM Server's console, as root, type “xenpm get-cpu-topology“.
 
The next example shows the CPU topology of an Oracle VM Server with two CPU sockets, eight CPU cores, no hyper-threading, with an Oracle processor factor of 4. Virtual machine CPUs can be pinned to 1 up to 8 of Oracle VM server's CPU cores using 1 up to 4 Oracle CPU licenses.
 
# xenpm get-cpu-topology
CPU core socket
CPU0 0 0
CPU1 0 1
CPU2 1 0
CPU3 1 1
CPU4 2 0
CPU5 2 1
CPU6 3 0
CPU7 3 1
 
The next example shows the CPU topology of an Oracle VM Server with one CPU socket, four CPU cores, hyper-threading enabled with an Oracle processor factor of 2. Virtual machine CPUs can be pinned to 1 up to 8 of Oracle VM server's CPU cores using 1 up to 2 Oracle CPU licenses.
 
From an Oracle CPU licensing perspective, Hyper-threading does “not” increase the CPU license count of an Oracle VM Server or a pinned virtual machine. Enabling Hyper-threading will increase the overall CPU capacity of an Oracle VM Server and its virtual machines. For example, without hyper-threading, an Oracle VM Server or virtual machine is only running a single thread per core. With hyper-threading, the number of cores increases, and the Oracle VM Server or virtual machine can use the additional threads without incurring additional Oracle CPU licensing penalties.
 
# xenpm get-cpu-topology
CPU core socket node
CPU0 0 0 0
CPU1 0 0 0
CPU2 1 0 0
CPU3 1 0 0
CPU4 2 0 0
CPU5 2 0 0
CPU6 3 0 0
CPU7 3 0 0
 
Once you have the Oracle VM server’s CPU topology, you can pin a virtual machine’s CPUs to any of the Oracle VM Server's cores. A best practice is to follow the default behavior of the credit scheduler and pin each of the virtual machine CPUs to a separate physical core.
 
Pin CPUs with the ovm_vmcontrol Utility
In this section, we will pin a virtual machine with two CPUs to various CPU threads using the ovm_vmcontrol utility. A virtual machine's CPUs can be immediately pinned to any CPU core or thread using the ovm_vmcontrol utility as well as with the xm command, xm vcpu-set. This section of the Oracle Cloud Cookbook reviews CPU pinning with the ovm_vmcontrol utility.
 
Note: A virtual machine's Max. Processors property shows the number of CPUs that can be pinned. For example, if the Max. Processors property shows 2, the 2 CPUs can be pinned to any CPU cores. 
 
Figure 8 shows the CPU properties for the example virtual machine used through this chapter. The ID and the CPU allocations are highlighted in red.
Oracle VM Virtaul Machine Properties
 
The virtual machine's ID is 0004fb0000060000dbf90ab3718822c0 with two CPUs allocated.
 
The Oracle VM 3 utilities' ovm_vmcontrol is an ideal tool used to query and immediately set virtual machine CPU pinning using Oracle VM Manager. The Oracle VM utilities provide a command line interface to the Oracle VM Manager Core API. The Oracle VM utilities allows Oracle VM Manager administrative tasks such as CPU pinning to be performed from the command line or executed using scripts.
 
Tip: The Oracle VM utilities are a great command line alternative to Oracle VM Manager and offer exceptional performance over WAN connections when Oracle VM Manager is not an option.
 
There are a total of seven [7] Oracle VM utilities:
  • ovm_managercontrol
  • ovm_poolcontrol
  • ovm_repocontrol
  • ovm_servercontrol
  • ovm_vmcontrol
  • ovm_vmdisks
  • ovm_vmmessage
The Oracle VM utilities are available as a patch download from http://support.oracle.com. As of this writing the latest release is patch 13602094. Once downloaded, unzip the files on the Oracle VM Manager host in the /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3 directory.
 
# unzip ovm_utils_0.5.2.zip -d /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3
Archive:  ovm_utils_0.5.2.zip
   creating: /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/ovm_utils/
  inflating: /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/ovm_utils/ovm_servercontrol  
  inflating: /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/ovm_utils/ovm_repocontrol  
   creating: /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/ovm_utils/man/
   creating: /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/ovm_utils/man/man8/
  inflating: /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/ovm_utils/man/man8/ovm_vmmessage.8  
  inflating: /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/ovm_utils/man/man8/ovm_poolcontrol.8  
  inflating: /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/ovm_utils/man/man8/ovm_repocontrol.8  
  inflating: /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/ovm_utils/man/man8/ovm_vmcontrol.8  
  inflating: /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/ovm_utils/man/man8/ovm_servercontrol.8  
  inflating: /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/ovm_utils/man/man8/ovm_managercontrol.8  
  inflating: /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/ovm_utils/man/man8/ovm_vmdisks.8  
  inflating: /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/ovm_utils/ovm_managercontrol  
  inflating: /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/ovm_utils/ovm_vmdisks  
  inflating: /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/ovm_utils/ovm_vmmessage  
  inflating: /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/ovm_utils/ovm_vmcontrol  
   creating: /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/ovm_utils/class/
  inflating: /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/ovm_utils/class/OvmPoolControl.class  
  inflating: /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/ovm_utils/class/OvmCoreControl.class  
  inflating: /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/ovm_utils/class/OvmVmMessage.class  
  inflating: /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/ovm_utils/class/OvmBackup.class  
  inflating: /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/ovm_utils/class/OvmRepoControl.class  
  inflating: /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/ovm_utils/class/OvmVmControl.class  
  inflating: /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/ovm_utils/class/OvmServerControl.class  
  inflating: /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/ovm_utils/ovm_poolcontrol  
   creating: /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/ovm_utils/lib/
  inflating: /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/ovm_utils/lib/commons-logging.jar  
  inflating: /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/ovm_utils/lib/OvmClient.jar  
  inflating: /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/ovm_utils/lib/log4j.jar
 
Before you pin a virtual machine's CPUs to an Oracle VM Server's CPU cores, its necessary to understand the Oracle VM Server's CPU topology. There are a number of commands to list an Oracle VM Server's CPU topology. The xenpm command is my favorite command, xenpm stands for Xen Power Management. Xenpm is a userspace program that lists CPU power information and provides control over power policies. Type xenpm or xenpm --help to print the xenpm command list.
 
The next exmple shows the CPU topology from the Oracle VM Server used through this section. The example Oracle VM Server has 1 CPU, 4 cores with hyperthreading enabled.
 
#  xenpm get-cpu-topology
CPU     core    socket  node
CPU0     0       0       0
CPU1     0       0       0
CPU2     1       0       0
CPU3     1       0       0
CPU4     2       0       0
CPU5     2       0       0
CPU6     3       0       0
CPU7     3       0       0
 
The next example shows how to query the CPU pinning from a virtual machine named yum-chekov. Substitute admin with your Oracle VM Manager user account, password with your admin user account password, and yum-chekov with the name of your virtual machine, i.e. the name displayed in Oracle VM Manager.
 
Run ovm_vmcontrol from the Oracle VM Manager host:
 
./ovm_vmcontrol -u admin -p password -h localhost -v yum-chekov -c vcpuget
Oracle VM VM Control utility 0.5.2.
Connected.
Command : vcpuget
Virtual Machine 'yum-sulu' has no pinned vcpus.
 
The above example shows that the virtual machine is not pinned.
 
The next example shows how to pin both CPUs to core 0. Run ovm_vmcontrol from the Oracle VM Manager host.

# ./ovm_vmcontrol -u admin -p password -h localhost -v yum-chekov -c vcpuset -s 0
Oracle VM VM Control utility 0.5.2.
Connected.
Command : vcpuset
Pinning virtual CPUs
Pinning of virtual CPUs to physical threads  '0' 'yum-chekov' completed.
 
To confirm CPU pinning, access the Oracle VM Server running the pinned virtual machine, (Oracle VM Manager shows which server virtual machines are running on and the virtual machine's UUID/name), and as root type "xm vcpu-list Domain ID or UUID". The next example shows the output from "xm vcpu-list Domain ID or UUID" for yum-chekov. Replace 0004fb0000060000dbf90ab3718822c0 with your virtual machines name or ID, i.e. type xm list to list the running virtual machines on a host.

# xm vcpu-list 0004fb0000060000dbf90ab3718822c0
Name                                ID  VCPU   CPU State   Time(s) CPU Affinity
0004fb0000060000dbf90ab3718822c0    41     0     0   -b-      17.0 0
0004fb0000060000dbf90ab3718822c0    41     1     0   -b-      40.4 0

The next example shows how to pin both CPUs to core 0 and 3. Run ovm_vmcontrol from the Oracle VM Manager host.

# ./ovm_vmcontrol -u admin -p password -h localhost -v yum-chekov -c vcpuset -s 0,3
Oracle VM VM Control utility 0.5.2.
Connected.
Command : vcpuset
Pinning virtual CPUs
Pinning of virtual CPUs to physical threads  '0,3' 'yum-chekov' completed.
 
To confirm CPU pinning, access the Oracle VM Server running the pinned virtual machine, (Oracle VM Manager shows which server virtual machines are running on and the virtual machine's UUID/name), and as root type "xm vcpu-list Domain ID or UUID". The next example shows the output from "xm vcpu-list Domain ID or UUID" for yum-chekov. Replace 0004fb0000060000dbf90ab3718822c0 with your virtual machines name or ID, i.e. type xm list to list the running virtual machines on a host.

# xm vcpu-list 0004fb0000060000dbf90ab3718822c0
Name                                ID  VCPU   CPU State   Time(s) CPU Affinity
0004fb0000060000dbf90ab3718822c0    41     0     0   -b-      17.3 0,3
0004fb0000060000dbf90ab3718822c0    41     1     3   -b-      40.5 0,3

The next example shows how to pin both CPUs to core 1 and 2. Run ovm_vmcontrol from the Oracle VM Manager host.

# ./ovm_vmcontrol -u admin -p password -h localhost -v yum-chekov -c vcpuset -s 1,2
Oracle VM VM Control utility 0.5.2.
Connected.
Command : vcpuset
Pinning virtual CPUs
Pinning of virtual CPUs to physical threads  '1,2' 'yum-chekov' completed.

To confirm CPU pinning, access the Oracle VM Server running the pinned virtual machine, (Oracle VM Manager shows which server virtual machines are running on and the virtual machine's UUID/name), and as root type "xm vcpu-list Domain ID or UUID". The next example shows the output from "xm vcpu-list Domain ID or UUID" for yum-chekov. Replace 0004fb0000060000dbf90ab3718822c0 with your virtual machines name or ID, i.e. type xm list to list the running virtual machines on a host.

# xm vcpu-list 0004fb0000060000dbf90ab3718822c0
Name                                ID  VCPU   CPU State   Time(s) CPU Affinity
0004fb0000060000dbf90ab3718822c0    41     0     2   -b-      17.4 1-2
0004fb0000060000dbf90ab3718822c0    41     1     1   -b-      40.7 1-2
 
CPU Pinning and the vm.cfg File
In this section, we show how to view CPU pinning in a virtual machine's vm.cfg file. Each virtual machine has a vm.cfg file which controls all of the virual machine's resource allocations. vm.cfg files are managed by Oracle VM Manager, editing vm.cfg files by hand is not recomended and may cause unexpected results.
 
Before you can view a virtual machine's vm.cfg file, you must locate it.
 
To list all of the virtual machines vm.cfg files in an Oracle VM server pool, as root, access one of the Oracle VM pool members and type:
 
# find /OVS/Repositories -type f -name vm.cfg -exec grep -iH simple_name {} \;
 
To list a specific virtual machine's vm.cfg file, as root, access one of the Oracle VM pool members and type:
 
# find /OVS/Repositories -type f -name vm.cfg -exec grep -iH simple_name {} \; | grep <VIRTUAL MACHINE NAME>
 
Note: Replace <VIRTUAL MACHINE NAME> with the virtual machines name.
 
Once the vm.cfg file has been located, it can be viewed using Vim (vi). Vim is the default text editor for Oracle VM Server.
 
Let’s locate and view a virtual machine's default “unpinned” vm.cfg file. The virtual machine's vm.cfg file can be located by accessing one of the Oracle VM servers in the pool, and as root, type:
 
find /OVS/Repositories -type f -name vm.cfg -exec grep -iH simple_name {} \; | grep yum-chekov
 
/OVS/Repositories/0004fb000003000000c6307a0210108c/VirtualMachines/0004fb0000060000dbf90ab3718822c0/vm.cfg:OVM_simple_name = 'yum-chekov'
 
Note: Substitute yum-chekov with the name of your virtual machine to locate its vm.cfg file.
Please note the maxvcpus = 2 and the vcpus = 2 entries.
 
# vi /OVS/Repositories/0004fb000003000000c6307a0210108c/VirtualMachines/0004fb0000060000dbf90ab3718822c0/vm.cfg
vif = ['mac=00:21:f6:00:00:52,bridge=0004fb001025f15', 'mac=00:21:f6:00:00:69,bridge=192.168.3.0']
OVM_simple_name = 'yum-chekov'
disk = ['file:/OVS/Repositories/0004fb000003000000c6307a0210108c/VirtualDisks/0004fb00001200001715425de783bb2a.img,xvda,w', 'file:/OVS/Repositories/0004fb000003000000c6307a0210108c/VirtualDisks/0004fb0000120000b400de1a5c40d6dc.img,xvdb,w', 'file:/OVS/Repositories/0004fb000003000000c6307a0210108c/VirtualDisks/0004fb00001200005266f7966823c7c8.img,xvdc,w']
uuid = '0004fb00-0006-0000-dbf9-0ab3718822c0'
on_reboot = 'restart'
boot = 'c'
cpu_weight = 27500
memory = 1024
cpu_cap = 0
maxvcpus = 2
OVM_high_availability = True
maxmem = 1024
timer_mode = 0
OVM_description = ''
on_poweroff = 'destroy'
on_crash = 'restart'
bootloader = '/usr/bin/pygrub'
name = '0004fb0000060000dbf90ab3718822c0'
guest_os_type = 'linux'
vfb = ['type=vnc,vncunused=1,vnclisten=127.0.0.1,keymap=en-us']
vcpus = 2
OVM_os_type = 'Oracle Linux 5'
OVM_cpu_compat_group = None
OVM_domain_type = 'xen_pvm'
:q!
 
The maxvcpus = 2 entry defines the maximum CPU count for the virtual machine. In this example the virtual machine can have up to two CPUs (CPUs actually mean CPU cores). The vcpus = 2 entry defines the allocated number of CPUs. In this example, vcpus = 1 and vcpus = 2 are the two possible entries, vcpus = 2 for two CPUs and vcpus = 1 for 1 CPU.
 
Listing the above virtual machine CPU pinning with ovm_vmcontrol would show that the virtual machine is not pinned. The next example shows the output from ovm_vmcontrol on an unpinned virtual machine.
 
./ovm_vmcontrol -u admin -p password -h localhost -v yum-chekov -c vcpuget
Oracle VM VM Control utility 0.5.2.
Connected.
Command : vcpuget
Virtual Machine 'yum-sulu' has no pinned vcpus.
 
The next vm.cfg example shows a new line in the vm.cfg file, cpus = '1,2'. The cpus = '1,2' entry shows that the virtual machine’s CPUs are pinned to the Oracle VM server’s CPU threads, 1 and 2. The following example vm.cfg CPU pinning was set by typing the following command:
 
# ./ovm_vmcontrol -u admin -p password -h localhost -v yum-chekov -c vcpuset -s 1,2
Oracle VM VM Control utility 0.5.2.
Connected.
Command : vcpuset
Pinning virtual CPUs
Pinning of virtual CPUs to physical threads  '1,2' 'yum-chekov' completed.
 
Please note the vcpus = 2 entry, one line above the cpus = '1,2' entry. The vcpus = 2 entry defines the total number of CPUs. The vcpus = directive can be edited to select the desired number of virtual CPUs.
 
# vi /OVS/Repositories/0004fb000003000000c6307a0210108c/VirtualMachines/0004fb0000060000dbf90ab3718822c0/vm.cfg
vif = ['mac=00:21:f6:00:00:52,bridge=0004fb001025f15', 'mac=00:21:f6:00:00:69,bridge=192.168.3.0']
OVM_simple_name = 'yum-chekov'
disk = ['file:/OVS/Repositories/0004fb000003000000c6307a0210108c/VirtualDisks/0004fb00001200001715425de783bb2a.img,xvda,w', 'file:/OVS/Repositories/0004fb000003000000c6307a0210108c/VirtualDisks/0004fb0000120000b400de1a5c40d6dc.img,xvdb,w', 'file:/OVS/Repositories/0004fb000003000000c6307a0210108c/VirtualDisks/0004fb00001200005266f7966823c7c8.img,xvdc,w']
uuid = '0004fb00-0006-0000-dbf9-0ab3718822c0'
on_reboot = 'restart'
boot = 'c'
cpu_weight = 27500
memory = 1024
cpu_cap = 0
maxvcpus = 2
OVM_high_availability = True
maxmem = 1024
timer_mode = 0
OVM_description = ''
on_poweroff = 'destroy'
on_crash = 'restart'
bootloader = '/usr/bin/pygrub'
name = '0004fb0000060000dbf90ab3718822c0'
guest_os_type = 'linux'
vfb = ['type=vnc,vncunused=1,vnclisten=127.0.0.1,keymap=en-us']
vcpus = 2
cpus = '1,2'
OVM_os_type = 'Oracle Linux 5'
OVM_cpu_compat_group = None
OVM_domain_type = 'xen_pvm'
:wq!
 
The above example vm.cfg file shows a hard partitioned virtual machine with two CPUs using one Oracle processor license. The virtual machine’s CPUs are pinned to the Oracle VM Server’s CPU threads 1 and 2.
 

CPU Pinning with the XM Command

The “xm vcpu-set” command can be used to pin CPUs of running virtual machines. Using the “xm vcpu-set” command allows us to test and troubleshoot CPU mappings before they are added to a virtual machines vm.cfg file. Please note that using the “xm vcpu-set” command to pin virtual CPU is not recognized by Oracle for hard partitioning.
 
Tip: If you have hard coded the CPU mapping in a guest’s vm.cfg file and use the xm command to change the CPU properties, the hard coded CPU mapping will be lost.
 
The “xm vcpu-set” command can be used to select any number of CPUs up to number of CPUs listed in the vcpus = n directive in the vm.cfg file. For example, if a virtual machine has four CPUs, (vcpus = 4) the “xm vcpu-set” command could be used to configure the virtual machine to use 0, 1, 2, 3 or all four of the CPUs.
 
To view a virtual machine's CPU statistics, access the Oracle VM Server running the target virtual machine, as root, type xm vcpu-list <DOMAIN NAME OR DOMAIN ID>, as shown in the next example. If you type “xm vcpu-list”, it will list all of the running guest’s virtual CPU statistics.
 
# xm vcpu-list|grep 0004fb0000060000dbf90ab3718822c0
Name ID VCPU CPU State Time(s) CPU Affinity
0004fb0000060000dbf90ab3718822c0 5 0 1 -b- 32.7 any cpu
0004fb0000060000dbf90ab3718822c0 5 1 0 -b- 4.5 any cpu
 
In the above example, the virtual machine has two virtual CPUs, 0 and 1. Both CPUs are in the "blocked" state on the physical core number 1 and 0. A CPU in blocked state means the CPU is waiting on I/O or has gone to sleep. There is a total of six virtual CPU states, r for running, b for blocked, p for paused, s for shutdown, c for crashed and finally, d for dying.
 
The next example shows how to change the virtual CPU count from two virtual CPUs to one virtual CPU using the “xm vcpu-set” command.
 
# xm vcpu-set 0004fb0000060000dbf90ab3718822c0 1
 
Typing “xm vcpu-set 0004fb0000060000dbf90ab3718822c0 1” will pause one of the two CPUs. A paused CPU is not eligible for scheduling by the credit scheduler. The paused CPU will remain paused until resumed, for example, by typing “xm vcpu-set 0004fb0000060000dbf90ab3718822c0 2”.
 
The next example shows how to pin a virtual machine's CPUs to specific CPU cores from an Oracle VM Server using the “xm vcpu-pin <domain> <vcpu> <pcpu>” command. The next example shows how to pin a virtual machines CPU 0 to core 1, and CPU 1 to core 4.
 
# xm vcpu-pin 0004fb0000060000dbf90ab3718822c0 0 1
# xm vcpu-pin 0004fb0000060000dbf90ab3718822c0 1 4
 
Tip: Use the xm command to test CPU mappings. CPUs that are pinned with the xm command are not persistent between reboots.

Oracle Linux Yum Server Setup

Show a printer friendly version of this chapter of the Oracle Cloud Cookbook

 

Copyright © 2013 Mokum Solutions, Inc. All rights reserved.
Distribution of the Oracle Cloud Cookbook or derivative of the work in any form for commercial purposes is prohibited unless prior permission is obtained from the copyright holder.
 
 
 
Change Log
Revision
Change Description
Updated By
Date
.9
Beta Release
Roddy Rodstein
07/16/12
1.0 First Release Roddy Rodstein 08/30/12
1.1 Content Refresh Roddy Rodsten 12/29/12
1.2 How to Patch the Oracle Linux Yum Server Operating System Roddy Rodstein 04/23/13
This document applies to Oracle Linux and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4, 5 and 6, Oracle VM 2 and 3, Exadata and Exalogic.
 
Table of Contents
Oracle Linux Yum Server Setup Introduction
How to Patch the Oracle Linux Yum Server Operating System
Oracle Linux Yum Server Setup with the Unbreakable Linux Network
...Register the Oracle Linux Host with the Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network
...Install and Setup Apache
...Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network Yum Server Setup
...Synchronize the Linux Yum Server with Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network
Oracle Linux Yum Server using the Oracle Pubic Repository
...Install and Setup Apache
...Synchronize the Oracle linux Yum Server with the Oracle Public Yum Repository
Oracle Linux Yum Client Setup
Yum Command Examples – Repository Listing, Install, Uninstall, & Update RPM Packages
 
Oracle Linux Yum Server Setup Introduction
This chapter of the Oracle Cloud Cookbook describes how to setup an Oracle Linux yum server. An Oracle Linux yum server can be used to host Oracle Linux, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, Oracle VM, Exadata and Exalogic RPM packages, the latest software patches, updates and fixes. With an Oracle Linux yum server, administrators can centrally manage and install Oracle Linux, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, Oracle VM, Exadata and Exalogic RPM packages and updates locally over your network, not over the internet, using a yum client. An Oracle Linux yum server can also host custom channels with Oracle RPMs and 3rd party RPMs. A custom channel is a RPM repository created by you to host a collection of RPM packages from Oracle or any vendor, i.e. EMC, HP, IBM, Red Hat, Open Source, etc..
 
An Oracle Linux YUM Server can be configured to host Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network RPMs, Oracle public yum server RPMs as well as custom channels. The Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network and the Oracle public yum server are Oracle' cloud repositories for Oracle VM, Oracle Linux, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, Exadata and Exalogic RPMs, software patches, updates and fixes. Access to Unbreakable Linux Network requires an Oracle Single Sign-on account, a valid customer service identifier (CSI) and registration. Access to the Oracle public yum server is open to the public without registration.
 
Table 1 reviews the Oracle Linux yum server components:
Unbreakable Linux Network (ULN)
The Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network is Oracle' cloud repository for Oracle VM, Oracle Linux, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, Exadata and Exalogic RPMs, software patches, updates and fixes. The Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network is part of the Oracle Linux support program.
Oracle Linux Support Oracle Linux is not a licensed Oracle technology product. There are no license fees for Oracle Linux. Oracle offers enterprise support for Oracle Linux on third-party hardware as well as bundled support with Sun hardware. Support for Oracle Linux for third-party hardware is purchased as an add-on component of Oracle’s enterprise support package. Support for Oracle Linux on Sun x64 hardware is bundled with hardware support as an add-on to the Premier Support for Systems package.
Customer Service Identifier A valid Oracle Linux and/or Oracle VM customer service identifier (CSI) is required to access the RPM repositories, software patches, updates and fixes at the Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network. Oracle Linux and/or Oracle VM customer service identifiers (CSIs) are only valid for the Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network, not for My Oracle Support.
Oracle public yum server
The Oracle public yum server is Oracle' public cloud repository for Oracle VM, Oracle Linux and Red Hat Enterprise Linux RPMs, software patches, updates and fixes.
ULN Channel
An Unbreakable Linux Network channel is a collection of RPM packages hosted on Unbreakable Linux Network. The Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network hosts ULN Channels for Oracle Linux, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, Oracle VM, Exadata and Exalogic.
RPM Repository
A RPM repository is a directory on an Apache web server which contains RPM packages.
Yum server A yum server hosts RPM packages for yum clients. The Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network and Oracle public yum servers host Oracle's RPM channels. The RPM channels include the base OS version installation RPM packages along with the latest software patches, updates and fixes. With a local Oracle yum server, Oracle Linux, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, Oracle VM, Exadata and Exalogic hosts can install packages and updates locally over your network, not over the internet, using the yum client. Custom channels can be created with 3rd party RPM packages to install packages and updates from any vendor, i.e. EMC, HP, IBM, Red Hat, Open Source, etc..
Custom Channel
A custom channel is a RPM repository created by the user to host a collection of RPM packages.
Oracle's public yum server allows us to keep Oracle Linux, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, and Oracle VM  system up to date to the latest update version, using the "_latest" RPM repository. The Oracle public yum repository RPMs, patches, updates and erratas do not include Oracle support or any of the benefits of the Oracle Linux Support program.
 
The Oracle Linux Support program offers the following benefits over and above the free Oracle Linux RPM patches, updates and erratas from the Oracle public yum server:
  • Full indemnification against intellectual property claims.  Remember the SCO lawsuits?
  • Use of the Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Linux Host Patching feature for patch management. Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Linux Host Patching feature has feature parity with Red Hat Satellite Server.
  • Use of the Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Virtualization Plug-in for Oracle VM for provisioning, patching, management and monitoring.
  • Access to additional Oracle software channels on the Unbreakable Linux Network (ULN).
  • Patch channels for each Linux update level.
  • The ability to create Support Requests with Oracle' World Class support organization.
The Oracle public yum server latest RPM channel include the base OS version installation RPM packages along with the latest software patches, updates and fixes. Patch jobs using the latest RPM channel update hosts to their respected latest version update with the latest software patches, updates and fixes. A patch job executed on a Oracle Linux 6 host would update the host from 6 to 6U3 with the latest latest software patches, updates and fixes. To keep a host at its respected update level, a valid CSI and the Unbreakable Linux Network is required. With the Unbreakable Linux Network, it is possible to register a host the el*/ol*_base channel along with the el*/ol*_patch RPM channel. When hosts are patched using the el*/ol*_base and el*/ol*_patch RPM channels, the hosts are patched with the latest software patches, updates and fixes from their respected update channel, i.e. 6, 6U1, 6U2 and 6U3.
 
With an Oracle Linux yum Server, Linux, Oracle VM, Exadata and Exalogic hosts can install packages and updates locally over your network, not over the internet, using the yum client. Custom channels can be created with 3rd party RPM packages to install packages and updates from any vendor, i.e. EMC, HP, IBM, Red Hat, Open Source, etc...
 
The following table shows the steps to setup an Oracle Linux Yum Server using the Unbreakable Linux Network.
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Step 5
Register the Linux host with ULN
Install and Setup Apache
Access ULN, enable YUM, and select RPM channels
Synchronize the Linux Yum server with ULN
Setup Yum clients
The following table shows the steps to setup an Oracle Linux Yum Server using the Oracle public yum repository.
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Install and Setup Apache
Synchronize the Linux Yum server with the Oracle public yum repository
Setup Yum clients
The chapter is broken into three sections. The first section reviews how to setup an Oracle Yum server using the Unbreakable Linux Network. The second section reviews how to setup an Oracle Yum server using the Oracle public yum repository. The third section reviews how to setup Linux yum clients.
 

How to Patch the Oracle Linux Yum Server Operating System

Once an Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network yum server has been set-up, RPM installations and updates for the yum server operating system must be done using the --disablerepo=* and --enablerepo= options to ensure that the RPMs originate only from desired RPM channels. Patching a Linux host using the --disablerepo=* option disables all RPM channels, followed by the --enablerepo= option with a list of desired RPM repositories (separated by a single comma) instruct the yum client to only use the RPM channels listed in --enablerepo=. Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network yum servers that are patched without --disablerepo=* and --enablerepo= will use RPMs from all enabled Unbreakable Linux Network RPM channels, which would promptly corrupt the Linux yum server operating system.
 
To list the configured RPM channels from an Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network yum server, type yum repolist or yum repolist -v for verbose. The next example shows the results from yum repolist on an Oracle Linux 6 Unbreakable Linux Network yum server.
 
# yum repolist
Loaded plugins: rhnplugin, security
This system is receiving updates from ULN.
repo id
repo name
status
el5_x86_64_addons
Enterprise Linux 5 Add ons(x86_64)
231
el5_x86_64_latest
Enterprise Linux 5 Latest (x86_64)
21,976
epel
Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux 6 - x86_64
8,615
ol6_x86_64_addons
Oracle Linux 6 Add ons (x86_64)
82
ol6_x86_64_latest
Oracle Linux 6 Latest (x86_64)
21,156
ovm3_x86_64_latest
Oracle VM 3 latest
825
repolist: 52,885
 
 
 
If the “yum update” command was used on the example Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network yum server, the RPM packages from all of the above listed RPM channels would be used for the update, which would promptly corrupt the operating system.
 
The next example shows how to update the above example Oracle Linux 6 hosts only using the ol6_x86_64_latest and el5_x86_64_addons RPM channels.
 
# yum update --disablerepo=* --enablerepo=ol6_x86_64_latest -y
 
The next example shows how to update the above example Oracle Linux 6 hosts only using the ol6_x86_64_latest RPM channel.
 
# yum update --disablerepo=* --enablerepo=ol6_x86_64_latest, el5_x86_64_addons -y
 
Tip: To list the RPM channels from an Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network yum server, type “yum repolist”. Select the desired RPM channels from “yum repolist” and place them after --enablerepo=, i.e. --enablerepo=el5_x86_64_latest,el5_x86_64_addons to install packages from the el5_x86_64_latest and el5_x86_64_addons RPM channels, etc...
 
To search for and install the bind RPM only from the ol6_x86_64_latest RPM channel, use the following --disablerepo=* and --enablerepo= options.
 
To search for the bind RPM from the ol6_x86_64_latest RPM channel:
yum list bind --disablerepo=* --enablerepo=ol6_x86_64_latest
 
To install the bind RPM ol6_x86_64_latest RPM channel:
yum install bind --disablerepo=* --enablerepo=ol6_x86_64_latest
 

Oracle Linux YUM Server Setup with the Unbreakable Linux Network

Register the Oracle Linux Host with the Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network

Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Step 5
Register the Linux host with ULN
Install and Setup Apache
Access ULN, enable YUM, and select RPM channels
Synchronize the Linux Yum server with ULN
Setup Yum clients

Before an Oracle Linux or Red Hat Enterprise Linux host can connect to the Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network, Oracle’s GPG key must be imported using the rpm command. To import the Oracle’s GPG key, as root type “rpm --import /etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY”, as shown in the next example.

Note: Unbreakable Linux Network registration requires an Oracle Single Sign-on account and a valid customer service identifier (CSI). Before registering the yum server, visit the Unbreakable Linux Network, sign in, or create an Oracle Single Sign-on account, then sign in to the Unbreakable Linux Network portal.
 
# rpm --import /etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY
 
Tip: If the RPM-GPG-KEY is not in the /etc/pki/rpm-gpg/ directory, locate the file and use the correct path to import the GPG key. For example, as root, type "find / -name RPM-GPG-KEY -print" to locate the RPM-GPG-KEY file.
 
Once the GPG key has been imported, the Linux host can be registered at the Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network from the command line or using a X Windows application. Linux 4 and 5 systems use the up2date command as root to access the registration screen by typing “up2date --register” for X Windows or "up2date --nox --register" for text mode. Linux 6 systems use the "uln_register" command as root to access the registration screen. The registration process requires you to enter your Unbreakable Linux Network associated Oracle Single Sign-on user name and password and a valid Oracle Linux Support Identifier number (CSI).
 
If a proxy server is in the mix, for Oracle Linux 4 and 5 systems, as root type “up2date --configure” to list and edit the up2date program defaults. There are five proxy configurations that can be edited to allow access from your Linux host to the internet. The next example shows the up2date proxy configuration items with their default settings and item numbers.
To edit an up2date program item, type the item number, i.e. enter 3 or 4, etc.... then type C to clear the default value or type q to quit without saving. Next, type the new value and press Enter to save the new value and to exit. If you need to enter multiple values, separate them with semicolons (;).
 
Oracle Linux 6 systems use the “--proxy” option to specify a http proxy, i.e. “# uln_register –proxy=<HOST NAME>:<PORT NUMBER> “. If your proxy server requires authentication, use the “--proxyUser” and “--proxyPassword” to add a username and password, i.e “# uln_register –proxy=<HOST NAME>:<PORT NUMBER> --proxyUser=<USER NAME> --proxyPassword=<PASSWORD>”
 
List 4 shows the six steps to register a Linux host with the Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network:
1.      Review the Unbreakable Linux Privacy Statement
2.      Register a User Account
3.      Register a System Profile—Hardware
4.      Register a System Profile—Packages
5.      Send Profile Information to the Unbreakable Linux Network
6.      Finished Registration
 
The following examples walk through the six steps to register a Linux host with the Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network.
 
Step 1. Review the Unbreakable Linux Privacy Statement
From the Review the Unbreakable Linux Privacy Statement screen use the Alt key to select the Next tab, once the Next tab is selected press the Enter key to proceed.  
 
Figure 1 shows the Review the Unbreakable Linux Privacy Statement screen.
Unbreakable Linux Privacy Statement

Step 2. Register a User Account
On the Register a User Account screen, enter your  your Unbreakable Linux Network associated Oracle Single Sign-on User namePassword, Password confirmation and a valid Oracle VM CSI number. Use the Alt key to select the Next tab, and then press the Enter key to proceed.
 
Figure 2 shows the Register a User Account screen.
Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network Register a User Account
 
Step 3. Register a System Profile—Hardware
On the Register a System Profile—Hardware screen, accept the defaults and use the Alt key to select the Next tab. Once the Next tab is selected, press the Enter key to proceed.
 
Note: The information gathered from the system profile step is saved in your user profile at the Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network. 
 
Figure 3 shows the Register a System Profile—Hardware screen.
Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network Register a System Profile
 
Step 4. Register a System Profile— Packages
On the Register a System Profile—Packages screen, accept the defaults and use the Alt key to select the Next tab. Once the Next tab is selected, press the Enter key to proceed.
 
Figure 4 shows the Register a System Profile—Packages screen.
Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network Register a System Profile
 
Step 5. Send Profile Information to the Unbreakable Linux Network
From the Send Profile Information to the Unbreakable Linux Network screen, accept the defaults and use the Alt key to select the Next tab. Once the Next tab is selected, press the Enter key to proceed.
 
Figure 5 shows the Send Profile Information to the Unbreakable Linux Network screen.
Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network Send Profile Information
 
Step 6 Finished Registration
On the Finished Registration screen, accept the defaults and use the Alt key to select the Next tab. Once the Next tab is selected, press the Enter key to proceed.
 
Figure 6 shows the Finished Registration screen.
Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network Registration Finnshed
 
The Oracle Linux host has been successfully registered.
 

Install and Setup Apache

Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Step 5
Register the Linux host with ULN
Install and Setup Apache
Access ULN, enable YUM, and select RPM channels
Synchronize the Linux Yum server with ULN
Setup Yum clients

Installing Apache from an Unbreakable Linux Network registered Oracle Linux host is accomplished by typing “up2date -i httpd” for 5.x hosts or "yum install httpd" for 6.x hosts while logged in as root.

 
Once Apache is installed, configure Apache to automatically start by typing “chkconfig httpd on”. Next, start Apache by typing “service httpd start”. The next example shows how to install, configure and start Apache.
 
Using up2date, as root type (OL 5.x):
# up2date -i httpd
# chkconfig httpd on && service httpd start
 
Using yum, as root type (OL 5 & 6.x):
# yum install httpd
# chkconfig httpd on && service httpd start
 
Once the “up2date -i httpd”, or "yum install httpd", “chkconfig httpd on” and “service httpd start” commands have completed, test Apache by pointing a web browser to the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) or the IP address of the Apache server. You will see the default Apache test page as shown in Figure 7.
 
Oracle Linux Apache Web Server
 
Tip: If you don’t see the default Apache test page, check if iptables is blocking http traffic on the Apache host. Consider disabling iptables to test Apache by typing “sudo /sbin/service iptables stop”.
 
Next, create the yum repository base directory in /var/www/html by typing "mkdir -p /var/www/html/yum".

Table 2 shows the approximate disk space requirements for the Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network Oracle VM and Linux RPM channels:

RPM Channel
Binaries
el*/ol*_latest
3-10G
el*/ol*_addons
600M
el*/ol*_oracle
1G
el*/ol*_base
3G
el*/ol*_patch
1G
ovm*_latest
500M
ovm*_base
400M
ovm*_patch
100M

Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network Yum Server Setup

Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Step 5
Register the Linux host with ULN
Install and Setup Apache
Access ULN, enable YUM, and select RPM channels
Synchronize the Linux Yum server with ULN
Setup Yum clients
Once your yum server has been registered, and apache has been installed and configured, sign in to Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network and click the Systems tab. From the Systems tab click on the yum server to access its System Details page.
 
Figure 8 shows the Systems tab and the YUM server.
Oracle Unbrekable Linux Network Systems
 
From the YUM servers Systems Details page click the Edit button, as shown in Figure 9.
Oracle Linux YUM Server Configuration Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network
From the Edit Systems Properties page, select the Yum Server check box, enter a valid CSI number, then click the Apply Changes button, as shown in Figure 10.
Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network YUM Server
Next, click the Manage Subscriptions button, as shown in Figure 11.
Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network System Details
 
From the System summary page select the Oracle VM 3 latest channel. Next, click the Save Subscriptions button to save the changes, as shown in Figure 12.
 
Note: A prerequisite to synchronize an Oracle Linux and/or Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.x yum server with the Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network is the uln-yum-proxy RPM package. To install the uln-yum-proxy RPM, from the Manage Subscriptions page add the Enterprise Linux Add ons (platform) RPM channel. Once the Enterprise Linux Add ons RPM channel has been added, as root, type "up2date -i uln-yum-proxy". The Enterprise Linux Add ons RPM channel can be removed from the Manage Subscriptions page after the uln-yum-proxy RPM is installed.
 
Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network System Summary
 
The yum server has been successfully configured using the Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network dashboard.  The next step is to populated and synchronize the local yum repository with the Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network using the 167283.sh script.
 

Synchronize the Linux Yum Server with Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network

Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Step 5
Register the Linux host with ULN
Install and Setup Apache
Access ULN, enable YUM, and select RPM channels
Synchronize the Linux Yum server with ULN
Setup Yum clients
Local yum repositories are synchronized to the Unbreakable Linux Network using a script (167283.sh) and a cron job, or with Oracle Enterprise Manager. To populate the yum repository using the 167283.sh script, as root type “cd” to change to the /root directory, then “wget http://www.oracle.com/ocom/groups/public/@otn/documents/webcontent/167283.sh to download the 167283.sh script. Next, type “chmod 755 167283.sh” to make the script executable. Then type “nohup sh 167283.sh &” to run the script. Once the 167283.sh script completes, the yum RPM repository will be populated and ready to update or patch Oracle VM Servers.
 
To automatically synchronize your local yum RPM repository to the Unbreakable Linux Network, use a cron job with the 167283.sh script. As root or any other user with access to the 167283.sh script, type "chrontab -e" to edit your crontab file, or create a new crontab file if one does not already exist. The next example shows how to create a crontab file as root that will run the 167283.sh script at midnight every weekday.
 
# crontab -e
0 0 * * 1-5 /root/167283.sh
:wq!

To view the current cronjob on an Oracle Linux host, type "crontab -l". To edit the cronjob type "crontab -e".

Crontab Syntax:
1 2 3 4 5 /path/to/command arg1 arg2
1: Minute (0-59)
   2: Hours (0-23)
       3: Day (0-31)
          4: Month (0-12 [12 == December])
              5: Day of the week(0-7 [7 or 0 == sunday])
                 /path/to/command - Command name or script to schedule
 

Oracle Linux Yum Server Setup using the Oracle Pubic Repository

Install and Setup Apache

Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Install and configure Apache
Synchronize the Linux Yum server with the Oracle public yum repository
Setup Yum clients
Installing Apache from the Oracle public yum repository is accomplished by typing "cd /etc/yum.repos.d/", then “wget http://public-yum.oracle.com/public-yum-el5.repo” for 5.x hosts or “wget http://public-yum.oracle.com/public-yum-ol6.repo” for 6.x hosts followed by "yum install httpd".
 
Once Apache is installed, configure Apache to automatically start by typing “chkconfig httpd on”. Next, start Apache by typing “service httpd start”. The next example shows how to install, configure and start Apache.
 
Using yum, as root type (Public 5.x):
# cd /etc/yum.repos.d/
# wget http://public-yum.oracle.com/public-yum-el5.repo
# yum install httpd
# chkconfig httpd on && service httpd start
 
Using yum, as root type (Public 6.x):
# cd /etc/yum.repos.d/
# wget http://public-yum.oracle.com/public-yum-ol6.repo
# yum install httpd
# chkconfig httpd on && service httpd start
 
Once the "yum install httpd", “chkconfig httpd on” and “service httpd start” commands have been completed, test Apache by pointing a web browser to the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) or the IP address of the Apache server. You will see the default Apache test page as shown in Figure 13.
 
Oracle Linux Apache Web Server
 
Tip: If you don’t see the default Apache test page, check if iptables is blocking http traffic on the Apache host. Consider disabling iptables to test Apache by typing “sudo /sbin/service iptables stop”.
 
Next, create a the yum repository base directory in /var/www/html by typing "mkdir -p /var/www/html/yum".

Table 3 shows the approximate disk space requirements for Oracle's public Linux and Oracle VM RPM repositories:

RPM Channel
Binaries
el*/ol*_latest
13-19G
el*/ol*_addons
600M
el*/ol*_base
3G
ovm3_latest 500M
 

Synchronize the Oracle linux Yum Server with the Oracle Public Yum Repository

Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Install and Setup Apache
Synchronize the Linux Yum server with the Oracle public yum repository
Setup Yum clients
Local yum repositories are setup using Oracle's public .repo files, the reposync and createrepo commands along with a cron job to automatically synchronize the local Yum repository to the Oracle public Yum repository.
 
Tip: The reposync and createrepo commands are part of the yum-utils RPM package. If your Oracle Linux Yum server does not have reposync and/or createrepo, install the yum-utils RPM by typing "yum install yum-utils" as the root user.
 
The first step is to download a repo file for each Linux version that your Yum server will support. To download the repo files, as root type the following commands:
 
# cd /etc/yum.repos.d/
# wget http://public-yum.oracle.com/public-yum-el4.repo (Linux 4)
# wget http://public-yum.oracle.com/public-yum-el5.repo (Linux 5)
# wget http://public-yum.oracle.com/public-yum-ol6.repo (Linux 6)
 
For Oracle VM 3, create a repo file on the yum server name "/etc/yum.repos.d/public-yum-ovm3.repo" with the following contents:
 
[ovm3_latest]
name=Oracle VM Server 3 Latest ($basearch)
baseurl=http://public-yum.oracle.com/repo/OracleVM/OVM3/latest/x86_64/
gpgkey=http://public-yum.oracle.com/RPM-GPG-KEY-oracle-el5
gpgcheck=1
enabled=1
 
Next, using your favorite text editor, edit the repo files and enable each desired RPM repository by changing enabled=0 to enabled=1. To enable a repository change enabled=0 to enabled=1. Note that enabled=0 disableds an RPM repository and enabled=1 enables an RPM repository.
 
Next, check for and if necessary install the yum-utils and createrepo prerequisite RPM packages. As root, type the following commands to check for and if necessary install yum-utils and createrepo.
 
# rpm -q yum-utils createrepo
yum-utils-1.1.16-21.el5
createrepo-0.4.11-3.el5
 
The above example shows a host with the two prerequisite RPM packages. If your host does not have one or both of the prerequisite RPM packages, install the RPMs as shown in the next example.
 
Note: The Yum server must have a .repo file for the Linux OS version to be able to install RPMs from the Oracle public repository, i.e. if the Yum server is Oracle Linux 5, the public-yum-el5.repo file needs to be in the /etc/yum.repos.d/ directoty to install RPM packages.
 
# yum install yum-utils
# yum install createrepo
 
Next, validate the configured RPM repositories by typing "yum repolist -v". If the RPM repositories are listed, you can proceed. If you see errors check the repo file syntax, and/or the Proxy settings. The Proxy settings can be set by typing "export http_proxy=http://<proxy host>:/port". Substitute http://<proxy host>:/port with your specific Proxy details.
 
Next, download the RPMs for the first time using the reposync command. The next example shows how to dowload the el5_latest RPMs.
# reposync -r el5_latest -p /var/www/html/yum/public/
 
The next example shows how to dowload the ol6_latest RPMs to the /var/www/html/yum/public/ directory.
# reposync -r ol6_latest -p /var/www/html/yum/public/
The next example shows how to dowload the ovm3_latest RPMs.
# reposync -r ovm3_latest -p /var/www/html/yum/public/
 
Note: As needed substitute the path, i.e. -p /var/www/html/yum/public/ with the desired path.
 
The reposync command -r switch is used to indicate which repository in the repo file to download. The reposync command -p switch is used to indicate which directory is used for the local repository. Consult resosync's man pages for further deatails by typing "man reposync". 
 

Once the repositories have been populated, create a script to update the repositories and add it to cron to automatically synchronize the local yum RPM repository to Oracle.

 
The next example shows the contents of a script named update-oracle-repo.log located in the /usr/local/bin/ directory that updates the Oracle Linux 5 and 6 latest repositories.
# cat /usr/local/bin/update-oracle-repo.log
reposync -r ol6_latest -p /var/www/html/yum/public/
createrepo /var/www/html/yum/public/el5_latest/getPackage/
reposync -r el5_latest -p /var/www/html/yum/public/
createrepo /var/www/html/yum/public/ol6_latest/getPackage/
 
Next, make the script executable by typing: chmod +x /usr/local/bin/update-oracle-repo.log
 
As root or any other user with access to the script, type "chrontab -e" to edit your crontab file, or create a new crontab file if one does not already exist. The next example shows how to create a crontab file as root that will run the update-oracle-repo.log script at midnight every weekday and log the results to /var/log/update-oracle-repo-result.log.
 
# crontab -e
15 0 * * * /usr/local/bin/update-repository.sh > /var/log/update-oracle-repo-result.log
:wq!

To view the current cronjob on a Oracle Linux host, type "crontab -l". To edit the cronjob type "crontab -e".

Crontab Syntax:
1 2 3 4 5 /path/to/command arg1 arg2
1: Minute (0-59)
   2: Hours (0-23)
       3: Day (0-31)
          4: Month (0-12 [12 == December])
              5: Day of the week(0-7 [7 or 0 == sunday])
                 /path/to/command - Command name or script to schedule
 

Oracle Linux Yum Client Setup

To make a Yum Server available to a Linux or Oracle VM host create a .repo file that points to the Yum Server. On a Linux or Oracle VM host, as root create a file in /etc/yum.repos.d/ directory with the .repo extention, i.e. my-ol5-local-yum-server.repo. The .repo file can have any name as long as it has a .repo extention. In the .repo file add the desired RPM channel connection settings.
 
A yum .repo configuration file can contain one or more sections to define RPM repositories.

Table 4 lists the repository directives.
Directive Description Explanation
baseurl The location of the RPM repository, i.e. file://, ftp://, or http://. This directive is required
enabled If set to 1, enables the RPM repository.
name A descriptive name for the RPM repository. This directive is required

Tip: Consult the yum.conf(5) man page for additional details.

 
The next example shows a .repo file named my-ol5-local-yum-server.repo that points a Linux host to use the el5_latest RPM channel on a Yum server named "<yum_server>". Replace <yum_server> with the IP address or fully qualified domain name (FQDN) of your Yum server.
 
# vi /etc/yum.repos.d/my-ol5-local-yum-server.repo
[el5_latest]
name=Oracle Linux $releasever - $basearch - latest
baseurl=http://<yum_server>/var/www/html/yum/public/el5_latest/getPackage/
gpgcheck=1
enabled=1
 
The next example shows a .repo file named my-ovm3-local-yum-server.repo that points a Oracle VM host to use the ovm3_latest RPM channel on a Yum server named "<yum_server>". Replace <yum_server> with the IP address or fully qualified domain name (FQDN) of your Yum server.
 
# vi /etc/yum.repos.d/my-ovm3-local-yum-server.repo
[ovm3_latest]
name=Oracle VM Server 3 Latest ($basearch)
baseurl=http://<yum_server>/var/www/html/yum/public/ovm_latest/getPackage/
gpgcheck=1
enabled=1
 
The following list shows all of the Oracle public RPM channels that can be added to a Linux host's .repo file. Replace <yum_server> with the IP address or fully qualified domain name (FQDN) of your Yum server.

Oracle Linux 5 .repo File Entries:
[el5_latest]
name=Oracle Linux $releasever - $basearch - latest
baseurl=http://<yum_server>/yum/OracleLinux/OL5/latest/$basearch/
gpgcheck=1
enabled=1

[el5_ga_base]
name=Oracle Linux $releasever GA installation media copy - $basearch - base
baseurl=http://<yum_server>/yum/EnterpriseLinux/EL5/5/base/$basearch/
gpgcheck=1
enabled=0

[el5_u1_base]
name=Enterprise Linux $releasever U1 - $basearch - base
baseurl=http://<yum_server>/yum/EnterpriseLinux/EL5/1/base/$basearch/
gpgcheck=1
enabled=0

[el5_u2_base]
name=Enterprise Linux $releasever U2 - $basearch - base
baseurl=http://<yum_server>/yum/EnterpriseLinux/EL5/2/base/$basearch/
gpgcheck=1
enabled=0

[el5_u3_base]
name=Enterprise Linux $releasever U3 - $basearch - base
baseurl=http://<yum_server>/yum/EnterpriseLinux/EL5/3/base/$basearch/
gpgcheck=1
enabled=0

[el5_u4_base]
name=Enterprise Linux $releasever U4 - $basearch - base
baseurl=http://<yum_server>/yum/EnterpriseLinux/EL5/4/base/$basearch/
gpgcheck=1
enabled=0

[el5_u5_base]
name=Enterprise Linux $releasever U5 - $basearch - base
baseurl=http://<yum_server>/yum/EnterpriseLinux/EL5/5/base/$basearch/
gpgcheck=1
enabled=0

[el5_u6_base]
name=Enterprise Linux $releasever U6 - $basearch - base
baseurl=http://<yum_server>/yum/EnterpriseLinux/EL5/6/base/$basearch/
gpgcheck=1
enabled=0

[el5_u7_base]
name=Enterprise Linux $releasever U7 - $basearch - base
baseurl=http://<yum_server>/yum/EnterpriseLinux/EL5/7/base/$basearch/
gpgcheck=1
enabled=0

[el5_u8_base]
name=Enterprise Linux $releasever U8 - $basearch - base
baseurl=http://<yum_server>/yum/EnterpriseLinux/EL5/8/base/$basearch/
gpgcheck=1
enabled=0

[el5_addons]
name=Enterprise Linux $releasever Add ons ($basearch)
baseurl=http://<yum_server>/yum/EnterpriseLinux/EL5/addons/$basearch/
gpgkey=http://public-yum.oracle.com/RPM-GPG-KEY-oracle-el5
gpgcheck=1
enabled=0

[el5_oracle_addons]
name=Oracle Software addons for Enterprise Linux $releasever ($basearch)
baseurl=http://<yum_server>/yum/EnterpriseLinux/EL5/oracle_addons/$basearch/
gpgkey=http://public-yum.oracle.com/RPM-GPG-KEY-oracle-el5
gpgcheck=1
enabled=0

[ol5_UEK_latest]
name=Latest Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel for Oracle Linux $releasever ($basearch)
baseurl=http://<yum_server>/yum/OracleLinux/OL5/UEK/latest/$basearch/
gpgkey=http://public-yum.oracle.com/RPM-GPG-KEY-oracle-el5
gpgcheck=1
enabled=0

[ol5_UEK_base]
name=Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel for Oracle Linux $releasever ($basearch)
baseurl=http://<yum_server>/yum/OracleLinux/OL5/UEK/base/$basearch/
gpgkey=http://public-yum.oracle.com/RPM-GPG-KEY-oracle-el5
gpgcheck=1
enabled=0

[el5_unsupported]
name=Productivity Applications for Enterprise Linux $releasever ($basearch)
baseurl=http://<yum_server>/yum/EnterpriseLinux/EL5/unsupported/$basearch/
gpgkey=http://public-yum.oracle.com/RPM-GPG-KEY-oracle-el5
gpgcheck=1
enabled=0

Oracle Linux 6 .repo File Entries:
[el6_latest]
name=Oracle Linux $releasever - $basearch - latest
baseurl=http://<yum_server>/yum/OracleLinux/OL6/latest/$basearch/
gpgcheck=1
enabled=1

[el6_ga_base]
name=Oracle Linux $releasever GA - $basearch - base
baseurl=http://<yum_server>/yum/OracleLinux/OL6/0/base/$basearch/
gpgcheck=1
enabled=0

[el6_u1_base]
name=Oracle Linux $releasever U1 - $basearch - base
baseurl=http://<yum_server>/yum/OracleLinux/OL6/1/base/$basearch/
gpgcheck=1
enabled=0

[el6_u2_base]
name=Oracle Linux $releasever U2 - $basearch - base
baseurl=http://<yum_server>/yum/OracleLinux/OL6/2/base/$basearch/
gpgcheck=1
enabled=0

[el6_u3_base]
name=Oracle Linux $releasever U3 - $basearch - base
baseurl=http://<yum_server>/yum/OracleLinux/OL6/3/base/$basearch/
gpgcheck=1
enabled=0

[el6_UEK_latest]
name=Latest Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel for Oracle Linux - $basearch - base
baseurl=http://<yum_server>/yum/OracleLinux/OL6/UEK/latest/$basearch/
gpgcheck=1
enabled=1

[el6_UEK_base]
name=Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel for Oracle Linux - $basearch - base
baseurl=http://<yum_server>/yum/OracleLinux/OL6/UEK/base/$basearch/
gpgcheck=1
enabled=0
 
Yum Command Examples – Repository Listing, Install, Uninstall, & Update RPM Packages
Installing, removing, and updating RPM packages is a fundamental Linux lifecycle operation. This section of the Oracle Cloud Cookbook introduces the most frequently used yum commands to query RPM repositories, install, uninstall, & update RPM packages.
 
Linux distributions have one or more package managers. The yum package manager is the default RPM package manager for Red Hat distributions such as Oracle Linux and CentOS. Yum stands for Yellowdog Updater Modified. Yum is a client command for updating RPMs from RPM repositories on yum servers. Yum servers maintain up-to-date RPM header and metadata that point yum clients to RPMs and their RPM dependencies.
 
The yum command requires an argument to specify the action to take. The most commonly used yum commands are:
  • install
  • remove
  • update
  • list
  • search

The install and remove commands work as expected, they install or remove the listed RPM packages. The install, remove and update commands determine what other packages must be installed or removed (dependencies) and presents the details for confirmation. Wildcards can be used in the package names to specify a group of related packages. For example:

# yum install 'foo'
# yum remove 'foo'
# yum update 'foo'
# yum install 'foo fie fo fum'
# yum remove 'foo fie fo fum'
# yum update 'foo fie fo fum'

Repository Listing and Maintenance:
The repolist command with its subcommands queries the RPM repository entries in a yum client's .repo files.
 
The next example shows the output from the "yum repolist enabled" command. The "yum repolist enabled" command lists a yum client's enabled repositories with the status and the number of RPMs.
# yum repolist enabled
Loaded plugins: rhnplugin, security
This system is not registered with ULN.
ULN support will be disabled.
repo id                                             repo name                                                                               status
el5_latest                                       Oracle Linux 5 Latest (x86_64)                                                 4,221
epel                                                Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux 5 - x86_64                       7,194
repolist: 11,415
 
The next example shows the output from the "yum repolist disabled" command. The "yum repolist disabled" command lists a yum client's disabled repositories.
# yum repolist disabled
Loaded plugins: rhnplugin, security
This system is not registered with ULN.
ULN support will be disabled.
repo id                                             repo name                                                                                     
epel-debuginfo                                Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux 5 - x86_64 - Debug                                        
epel-source                                     Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux 5 - x86_64 - Source                                       
epel-testing                                     Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux 5 - Testing - x86_64                                      
epel-testing-debuginfo                   Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux 5 - Testing - x86_64 - Debug                              
epel-testing-source                         Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux 5 - Testing - x86_64 - Source                             
repolist: 0
 
The next example shows the output from the "yum repolist all" command. The "yum repolist all" command lists a yum client's enabled and disabled repositories with the status and the number of RPMs.
# yum repolist all
Loaded plugins: rhnplugin, security
This system is not registered with ULN.
ULN support will be disabled.
repo id                                     repo name                                                                                             status
el5_latest                             Oracle Linux 5 Latest (x86_64)                                                                enabled: 4,221
epel                                      Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux 5 - x86_64                                      enabled: 7,194
epel-debuginfo                     Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux 5 - x86_64 - Debug                        disabled
epel-source                          Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux 5 - x86_64 - Source                        disabled
epel-testing                          Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux 5 - Testing - x86_64                        disabled
epel-testing-debuginfo         Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux 5 - Testing - x86_64 - Debug           disabled
epel-testing-source              Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux 5 - Testing - x86_64 - Source          disabled
repolist: 11,415
 
The "yum repolist -v" command verbosly lists all enabled repositories. The yum repolist -v command is useful to list the details from all configured repositories. The next example shows the output from the "yum repolist -v" command.
# yum repolist -v
Loading "rhnplugin" plugin
Loading "security" plugin
Config time: 0.048
This system is not registered with ULN.
ULN support will be disabled.
Yum Version: 3.2.22
Setting up Package Sacks
pkgsack time: 0.039
Repo-id      : el5_latest
Repo-name    : Oracle Linux 5 Latest (x86_64)
Repo-updated : Fri Oct 26 10:30:15 2012
Repo-pkgs    : 4,221
Repo-size    : 5.3 G
Repo-baseurl : http://192.168.4.13/yum/OracleLinux/OL5/latest/x86_64/
Repo-expire  : 3,600 second(s) (last: Fri Oct 26 16:47:06 2012)

Repo-id      : epel
Repo-name    : Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux 5 - x86_64
Repo-revision: 1351273445
Repo-tags    : binary-x86_64
Repo-updated : Fri Oct 26 10:46:18 2012
Repo-pkgs    : 7,194
Repo-size    : 5.4 G
Repo-mirrors : http://mirrors.fedoraproject.org/mirrorlist?repo=epel-5&arch=x86_64
Repo-expire  : 3,600 second(s) (last: Fri Oct 26 16:47:13 2012)

repolist: 11,415
 
Clean the yum cache using yum clean
The yum clean command with its subcommands (clean [ headers | packages | metadata | dbcache | plugins | expire-cache | all) is used to clean the yum cache headers, packages, metadata, dbcache, plugins and expire-cache. The yum clean command with its subcommands is useful to make sure the yum cache is clean. The next example shows how to clean the yum cache.
# yum clean all
Loaded plugins: rhnplugin, security
Cleaning up Everything
 
Rebuild the yum cache using yum makecache
The yum makecache command downloads the metadata for all enabled yum repositories. The yum makecache command is useful to make sure the cache is current.
# yum makecache
Loaded plugins: rhnplugin, security
This system is not registered with ULN.
ULN support will be disabled.
el5_latest                                            | 1.9 kB     00:00
el5_latest/filelists_db                          | 7.1 MB     00:00
el5_latest/other_db                             |  20 MB     00:01
el5_latest/primary_db                         | 6.1 MB     00:00
epel                                                     | 3.7 kB     00:00
epel/filelists_db                                    | 5.5 MB     00:06
epel/updateinfo                                    | 473 kB     00:01
epel/other_db                                       | 2.3 MB     00:03
epel/group_gz                                      | 168 kB     00:00
epel/primary_db                                   | 3.8 MB     00:05
Metadata Cache Created
 
Listing RPM Packages & RPM Groups
List all available RPM packages using yum list
The yum list command without any options lists all of the packages in all configured repositories and all of the installed packages on a Linux host. Note that yum list all and yum list generate the same output. The next example shows how to list all the available packages.
# yum list | less
 
List all the installed RPM packages using yum list installed
The yum list installed command lists all the installed packages on the system. The yum list installed command is equivalent to rpm -qa. The next example shows how to list all the installed packages on the system.
# yum list installed | less
 
Check if a particular RPM package is installed using yum list
The next example shows how to confirm if a package, i.e. ntp, is already installed. Substitute the RPM package name ntp with the name of the RPM package you would like to query.
# yum list ntp
Loaded plugins: rhnplugin, security
This system is not registered with ULN.
ULN support will be disabled.
Installed Packages
ntp.x86_64                     4.2.2p1-15.el5_7.1                      installed
 
List available software groups with yum grouplist
Repositories offer package groups to manage related packages as sets. Many 3rd party repositories add packages to these groups and provide their packages as additional groups. The next example shows how to list all the available RPM package groups.
# yum grouplist
 
List which RPM package a file belong to with yum provides
The "yum provides" command lists which package a file belongs to. For example, to list the name of the package that has the /etc/ntp.conf file, type the following:
# yum provides /etc/ntp.conf
Loaded plugins: rhnplugin, security
This system is not registered with ULN.
ULN support will be disabled.
ntp-4.2.2p1-15.el5_7.1.x86_64 : Synchronizes system time using the Network Time Protocol (NTP).
Repo        : el5_latest
Matched from:
Filename    : /etc/ntp.conf

ntp-4.2.2p1-15.el5_7.1.x86_64 : Synchronizes system time using the Network Time Protocol (NTP).
Repo        : installed
Matched from:
Other       : Provides-match: /etc/ntp.conf
 
Installing, Removing, Updating and Searching RPM Packages & RPM Groups
The yum install <packagename> command installs <packagename> including all of the required dependencies. The next example shows how to install the ntp package. Substitute ntp with the package you would like to install.
# yum install ntp
 
It is possible to install multiple packages by adding the package names to the end of the line.
# yum install foo fie fo fum
 
The yum remove <packagename> command removes <packagename> including all of the required dependencies. The next example shows how to remove the ntp package. Substitute ntp with the package you would like to remove.
# yum remove ntp
 
The yum update <packagename> command updates <packagename> including all of the required dependencies. The next example shows how to update the ntp package. Substitute ntp with the package you would like to update.
# yum update ntp
 
The yum update command updates all of the RPM packages that need to be updated, including all of the required dependencies. The next example shows how to update all of the packages that need to be updated.
# yum update
 
TIp: The -y option can be used to answer yes to all questions. For example, yum update -y would install all packages without having to type "yes".
 
The yum search <search term> command searches the enables repositories for the search term. The next example shows how to search for the ntp package. Substitute ntp with the package you would like to find.
# yum search ntp
 
Tip: Wildcards can be used with the search directive, such as * (match anything) and ? (match any single character).
 
The yum groupinstall 'the group's name enclosed in single quotes' command is used to install package groups. The following example shows how to install, update and remove a package group.
# yum groupinstall 'FTP Server'
# yum groupupdate 'FTP Server'
# yum groupremove 'FTP Server'
 
 

Oracle VM for x86 Server Sizing Advisor

UNDER CONSTRUCTION - UPGRADE IN PROGRESS

Version 2.0 - Copyright © 2013 Mokum Solutions, Inc. All rights reserved.

The Oracle VM for x86 Server Sizing Advisor offers Oracle VM 3.x Server sizing recommendations. 

How to use Mokum Solutions, Inc.' Oracle VM Server Sizing Advisor.

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Oracle VM Manager Installation

Show a printer friendly version of this chapter of the Oracle Cloud Cookbook

 

Copyright © 2013 Mokum Solutions, Inc. All rights reserved.
Distribution of the Oracle Cloud Cookbook or derivative of the work in any form for commercial purposes is prohibited unless prior permission is obtained from the copyright holder.
 
 
 
Change Log
Revision
Change Description
Updated By
Date
1.0
First Release
Roddy Rodstein
09/19/11
1.1
Oracle VM 3.0.3 Updates
Roddy Rodstein
01/12/12
1.2
Oracle VM 3.1.1 Updates
Roddy Rodstein
05/23/12
1.3
Content Refresh
Roddy Rodstein
12/18/12
1.4
Content Refresh
Roddy Rodstein
01/19/13
1.5 Oracle VM 3.2.x Updates Roddy Rodstein 04/10/13
1.6 Oracle VM Manager user management & How to Disable IPv6 Roddy Rodstein 04/27/13
 
This chapter of the Oracle Cloud Cookbook describes how to plan for, install, update and recover Oracle VM Manager. This chapter applies to all Oracle VM 3 releases.
 
Table of Contents
Oracle VM Manager Introduction
Oracle VM Manager Hardware and Software Requirements
Oracle VM Manager Inter Component Communication and Data Exchange
Download the Oracle VM Manager Installation Media
Oracle VM Manager Prerequisite Packages
Oracle VM Manager Host /etc/hosts Requirements
Oracle VM Manager Host NTP Requirements
SELinux and Oracle VM Manager
Disable IPv6
Oracle VM Manager Environment Configuration Script
Oracle VM Manager Simple Installation
...Oracle VM Manager Simple Uninstallation
Oracle VM Manager Custom Installation
...Oracle VM Manager Custom Uninstallation
Oracle VM Manager Production Installation
...Oracle VM Manager Production Uninstallation
Oracle VM Manager Demo Installation
...Oracle VM Manager Demo Uninstallation
Oracle VM Manager Post Installation Checklist
...Enable the Virtual Machine VNC Console
...Download and Install the Oracle VM Manager Utilities
...VMPinfo3 Installation for Diagnostic Capture & Troubleshooting
...Patch Oracle VM Manager
...Create Oracle VM Manager Admin Users
Oracle VM Manager Log Files and Log File Analysis
Restore Oracle VM Manager
...Oracle VM Manager Restore Roadmap
...Delete the Standard or Enterprise Edition Oracle VM Manager Database Repository
...Oracle VM Manager Installation with the UUID Restore Switch
...Discover the Oracle VM Servers and Configure the Storage
Oracle VM Manager Backups

Oracle VM Manager Configuration File Backup
Oracle VM Manager Database Repository Backup Options
...Oracle 11g Standard or Enterprise Edition Database Repository Backup
...Oracle 11g Express Database Repository Backup

Oracle VM Manager Introduction

At Oracle OpenWorld 2007, Oracle announced its entry into the x86 server virtualization market with the first release of Oracle VM. The first release of Oracle VM was actually version 2.1 because of Larry Ellison's aversion to using 1.0 for Oracle product releases to help drive early adoption. As of this writing, there has been a total of 12 Oracle VM Releases.
 
A key component of a successful Oracle VM deployment is acquiring and vetting new releases, patches and updates for production systems. New Oracle VM releases, patches and updates must be researched to identify which release, patches and updates are applicable to your environment. Newly released versions, patches and updates should be vetted before being deployed into production. A best practice is to run the latest stable release of Oracle VM. As of this writing, the latest stable Oracle VM release is 3.1.1 with the Oracle VM Manager 3.1.1-625 patch (patch ID 14227416). 
 
Tip: To support the Oracle VM 3.1.1 release, from the Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network, please subscribe your yum server to the Oracle VM 3.1.1 Server Installation Media copy RPM channel and the Oracle VM 3.1.1 Server Patches RPM channels. Patch jobs using the latest RPM channel will update hosts to their respected latest version update with the latest software patches, updates and fixes. A patch job executed on a Oracle VM 3.1.1 host using the latest RPM channel would update the host from 3.1.1 to 3.2.x with the latest software patches, updates and fixes.
 
The relevant parts of Oracle VM releases are:
  • Major release numbers: 2.1, 2.2, 3.0, 3.1 and 3.2
  • Minor release numbers: 2.1.x, 2.2.x and 3.0.x
Oracle VM 3.0.1 Release
  • Oracle VM 3.0.1 was released on August 23rd 2011. Oracle VM 3.0.1 was the first Oracle VM 3.0 release. 
Oracle VM 3.0.2 Release
  • Oracle VM 3.0.2 was released on September 30th 2011. Oracle VM 3.0.2 includes over 140 fixes without any new features.
Oracle VM 3.0.3 Release
  • Oracle VM 3.0.3 was released on Janurary 20th 2012. Oracle VM 3.0.3 includes numerious bug fixes along with several new features.
Oracle VM 3.1.1 Release
  • Oracle VM 3.1.1 was released on May 8th 2012. Oracle VM 3.1.1 includes numerious bug fixes along with several new features.
Oracle VM 3.2.1 Release
  • Oracle VM 3.2.1 was released on Janurary 18th 2013. Oracle VM 3.2.1 includes numerious bug fixes along with several new features.
Oracle VM 3.2.2 Release
  • Oracle VM 3.2.2 was released on March 18th 2013. Oracle VM 3.2.2 includes numerious bug fixes.
Even after a fresh installation of Oracle VM Manager, if a patch update is available, a best practice is to patch Oracle VM Manager before using Oracle VM Manager to avoid previously patched bugs. When updating Oracle VM, Oracle VM Manager must be updated first, followed by the Oracle VM Servers managed by Oracle VM Manager. As of this writing (04-14-2013), there are three Oracle VM Manager patch updates; Oracle VM Manager Release 3.0.3.546, Oracle VM Manager Release 3.1.1.625, and Oracle VM Manager Release 3.2.2.521.
 
Table 1 lists the Oracle VM Manager Patch Updates.
Oracle VM Release
Latest Oracle VM Patch Update
Available From My Oracle Support
Oracle VM Upgrades
Available From eDelivery
Oracle VM 3.0.1    
Oracle VM 3.0.2  
Oracle VM Manager 3.0.2 - Upgrade only
upgrade Oracle VM Manager 3.0.1
Oracle VM 3.0.3 Patch 13614645: ORACLE VM MANAGER PATCH 3.0.3-546 RELEASE
Oracle VM Manager 3.0.3 - Upgrade only
Upgrade from Oracle VM Manager 3.0.1 or Oracle VM Manager 3.0.2
Oracle VM 3.1.1 Patch 14227416: ORACLE VM MANAGER PATCH 3.1.1-625 RELEASE (Patch)
Oracle VM Manager 3.1.1 - Upgrade only
Upgrade from Oracle VM Manager 3.0.2 or Oracle VM Manager 3.0.3
Oracle VM 3.2.1  
Oracle VM Manager 3.2.1 - Upgrade only
Upgrade from Oracle VM Manager 3.0.3 or Oracle VM Manager 3.1.1
Oracle VM 3.2.2 (Build 520) Patch 16410417: ORACLE VM 3.2.3 MANAGER UPGRADE ISO RELEASE (Patch) (Build 521)
Oracle VM Manager 3.2.2 - Upgrade only
Upgrade from Oracle VM Manager 3.0.3 or Oracle VM Manager 3.1.1
 
Oracle VM uses the concept of a "server pool" to group together and centrally manage one or more server pools with up to 32 Oracle VM servers per server pool. If more than one location exists, Oracle VM server pools may be dispersed to different locations. Oracle VM Manager with Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Cloud Control provide comprehensive centralized virtual infrastructure and cloud lifecycle management for one or more dispersed Oracle VM server pools.
 
The Oracle VM product family; Oracle VM Server, Oracle VM Manager, Oracle VM Templates and Assemblies can be managed with Oracle VM Manager and Cloud Control. Unlike Oracle VM 2.x, which could only be managed by Oracle VM Manager or Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control, not both, Oracle VM 3.0.2 and above can be managed simultaneously by Oracle VM Manager along with Cloud Control.
 
Oracle VM is a default Cloud Control feature that provides Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), Database as a Service (DBaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS) and Testing as a Service (TaaS) provisioning with a self-service portal. Oracle VM can be enabled in Cloud Control by installing an Oracle Management Agent with the Virtualization plug-in on a managed Linux target with Oracle VM Manager. Once Oracle VM is enabled, Oracle VM Servers, virtual machines, Oracle VM Templates and Assemblies can be managed, monitored and provisioned with Cloud Control.
 
Tip: Oracle VM Servers, pools, storage, networks, virtual machines, templates, assemblies, etc, can be setup using Oracle VM Manager and/or Cloud Control.
 
Table 2 contrasts the high-level feature set from Oracle VM Manager and Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Cloud Control.
Capabilities
Oracle VM Manager
Cloud Control
Centralized Virtual Infrastructure Life Cycle Management (Oracle VM Server Pools, Oracle VM Servers, Networks, Storage, Virtual Machines, Templates, Assemblies)
Oracle VM Manager and Cloud Control
Oracle VM Manager and Cloud Control
Self Service Provisioning:
  • Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)
  • Database as a Service (DBaaS)
  • Platform as a Service (PaaS)
  • Testing as a Service (TaaS)
 
Oracle VM Self Service Provisioning
Operating System Life Cycle Management:
  • Provisioning
  • Patching
  • Configuration Management
  • Monitoring
  • Alerting with Automated Help Desk Ticketing
(Physical and Virtual: Oracle VM, Linux, UNIX & Windows)
 
OEM 12c Operating System Life Cycle Management
Application Life Cycle Management:
  • Database 
  • Middleware
  • Applications
(Oracle and non Oracle)
 
OEM 12c Application Life Cycle Management
Software Provisioning (Oracle and non Oracle)
 
OEM 12c Software Provisioning

Oracle VM Manager is a traditional Oracle application consisting of an Oracle Database, one Oracle WebLogic server hosting J2EE web applications with a browser based application development framework (ADF) GUI. All of the Oracle VM Manager components are supported exclusively on Oracle Linux and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5U5 x86_64 bit or later and Oracle Linux and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6+. In the context of Oracle VM Manager, the Oracle Database repository stores configuration data for Oracle VM server pools, including the data displayed in the GUI as well as the data collected by the Oracle VM Server Agents. WebLogic is the J2EE platform which hosts Oracle VM Manager (GUI) and the Core API. The Oracle VM Manager application and the Core API are deployed on WebLogic in the Oracle Middleware home. The Oracle Middleware home is the parent directory of the Oracle WebLogic Server home. Oracle VM Manager provides a limited-use license for a Standard Edition or Enterprise Edition Oracle Database and a limited-use license for Standard Edition or Enterprise Edition WebLogic, as long as they are “only” used for Oracle VM Manager.

 
The Oracle VM Manager installer provides two installation options. Oracle VM 3.0.1 up to 3.1.1 offers a Demo or Production installation. Oracle VM 3.2.1 and above offers a Simple or Custom installation. 
 
Table 3 Shows the Oracle VM Manager Installaion Options.
Installation Option
Explanation
Simple Installation
Oracle VM 3.2.1 and Above
A Simple installation is an all-in-one installation with Oracle MySQL Enterprise Edition v5.5, WebLogic 11g, and the Oracle VM Manager applications.
 
A Simple installation is fully supported for production environments.
Custom or Production Installation
All Oracle VM Releases
Custom and Production Oracle VM Manager installations are identical and will install WebLogic 11g with the Oracle VM Manager applications using an existing local or remote Oracle 11g Standard or Enterprise Edition database and/or a RAC database.
 
Custom and Production installations are fully supported for production environments.
 
Oracle VM 3.2.1 and above use the word Custom for a local or remote Oracle 11g Standard or Enterprise Edition database and/or a RAC database installation.
 
Oracle VM 3.0.1 up to 3.1.1 use the word Production for a local or remote Oracle 11g Standard or Enterprise Edition database and/or a RAC database installation.
Demo Installation
Oracle VM 3.0.1 up to 3.1.1
A Demo installation is an all-in-one installation with Oracle 11g Express Database, WebLogic 11g, and the Oracle VM Manager applications.
 
A Demo installation is intended only for evaluations, not for production environments. Demo installations are a great option for testing.
 
Note: A Demo installation is not supported by Cloud Control or Oracle support due to the use of the Oracle 11g Express Database, which is a free unsupported version of the Oracle Database.
For large environments (>33 hosts), the Oracle VM Manager Database repository should be on dedicated virtual or physical servers. If your Oracle VM environment starts out small and scales out, make sure to have a plan to scale up Oracle VM Manager with more RAM and CPUs and scale out the Oracle VM Manager Database repository on dedicated virtual or physical servers with RAC.

For the Oracle VM Manager Database repository, scaling out means moving from a single server Database to a multi node RAC cluster. An important consideration when scaling out an Oracle VM Manager environment is to determine if the underlying hardware where the Oracle VM Manager Database repository runs is capable to transition to RAC. If the hardware is not capable to transition to RAC, it is possible to move and/or export the Oracle VM Manager Database repository to a different system with more resources.
 
Oracle VM Manager can be accessed from Linux, MAC and Windows using Firefox 3.5 and above, Safari 5.0 and above, Chrome 1.0 and above and Internet Explorer 9.0 and above on Windows.
 
The following table shows the Oracle VM Manager Installation Roadmap:
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Download the Oracle VM Manager Installation Media
Oracle VM Manager Prerequisites
Install Oracle VM Manager
Oracle VM Manager Post Installation Checklist

Oracle VM Manager Hardware and Software Requirements

Table 4 shows the hardware and software requirements for Oracle VM Manager.
Items
Demo (11g Express) Installation Minimum Requirements
Up to Oracle VM 3.1.1
Simple (MySQL) Installation Minimum Requirements
Oracle VM 3.2.1 and above
Custom/Production (11g EE) Installation Minimum Requirements
All Oracle VM Releases
RAM
4 GB
8 GB
1.5 GB without an Oracle Database - 4 GB is recommended
6 GB with an Oracle Database Standard Edition or Enterprise Edition
CPU Type
64 bit
64 bit
64 bit
Processor Speed
1.83 GHz*1
1.83 GHz*1
1.83 GHz*1
Swap Space
2.1 GB
2.1 GB
2.1 GB with SE or EE Oracle Database
Hard Disk Space
5 GB in /u01
2 GB in /tmp
5.5 GB in /u01
2 GB in /tmp
500 MB in /var
500 MB in /usr
12 GB in /u01
2 GB in /tmp
Operating System
Oracle & Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 Update 5 64-bit or later
Oracle & Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 64-bit or later
Oracle & Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 Update 5 64-bit or later
Oracle & Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 64-bit or later
Oracle & Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 Update 5 64-bit or later
Oracle & Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 64-bit or later
RPM Packages
libaio, bc, unzip
unzip
Without an Oracle Database: unzip
With a SE or EE Oracle Database:
  • 5U5 oracle-validated, unzip
  • 6.x oracle-rdbms-server-11gR2-preinstall, unzip
Oracle Database Standard Edition or Enterprise Edition Release     Oracle Database Release 10.2.0.4 or greater
Oracle Database Release 11.1.0.7 or greater
Oracle Database Release 11.2.0.1 or greater


Oracle VM Manager Inter Component Communication and Data Exchange

The Oracle VM Manager GUI, the Oracle Database repository and the WebLogic server running Oracle VM Manager can be on different hosts throughout your enterprise. Understanding Oracle VM Manager intra component communication and data exchange will help configure firewalls in order to allow Oracle VM Manager to operate in your enterprise. During the Oracle VM Manager installation, the default communication ports for each component will be selected and assigned. If the default ports are modified be sure to use the new port assignments when you configure your firewalls.

Table 5 shows the default ports used by Oracle VM Manager.
Port
Usage
TCP 7001
Client PC to the Oracle VM Manager GUI (HTTP).
TCP 7002 Client PC to the Oracle VM Manager GUI (HTTPS).
TCP 15901 Client PC to Oracle VM Manager for the Secure VNC Proxy. Oracle VM uses the Remote Access Service java applet to proxy all virtual machine VNC console access from the Oracle VM Manager host to the “ovs-consoled” service on the Oracle VM servers.
TCP 8080 Client PC to to the Oracle Database XE web console (HTTP). Only for Oracle Database 11g Express Edition (XE).
TCP 22 Client PC to Oracle VM Server for SSH access
TCP 7788 Client PC to Cloud Control (HTTP)
TCP 7799 Client PC to Cloud Control (HTTPS)
TCP 8899 Oracle VM Manager to Oracle VM Agent
TCP 6900-6999 (one port per VM) Oracle VM Manager to Oracle VM Server for virtual machine VNC access/tunneling.
TCP 7900-7999 (one port per VM) Oracle VM Manager to Oracle VM Server for virtual machine serial console access/tunneling.
TCP 1521 Oracle VM Manager to the Oracle Database listener. Only for remote Oracle Database 11g Standard Edition or Enterprise Edition.
TCP 7001 Oracle VM Server to Oracle VM Manager for the HTTP console.
TCP 7002
Oracle VM Server to Oracle VM Manager for the HTTPS console.
TCP 54321 tcp

TCP 54322 tcps
Oracle VM Server to the Oracle VM Manager Core API.
Note: Since Oracle VM 3.1, tcps is required for Oracle Enterprise Manager integration.
UDP 123 Oracle VM Server to Oracle VM Manager for NTP. If iptables is enabled on the Oracle VM Manager host, ensure that UDP port 123 is open.
TCP 3872 Oracle Management Service to Oracle Management Agent 
ICMP 7 Oracle Management Service to Oracle Management Agent
TCP 4889-4897 Oracle Management Agent to Oracle Management Service Upload (HTTP). The upload port is the first available port in the range 4889-4897.
TCP 1159, 4899-4908 Oracle Management Agent to Oracle Management Service Upload (HTTPS). 1159 is the default port. If 1159 is not available, the Oracle Management Service will search in the specified range (4889-4897).
Figure 1 shows the Oracle VM Manager intra component communication and data exchange.
 
Oracle VM Firewall Requirements
 
Download the Oracle VM Manager Installation Media
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Download the Oracle VM Manager Installation Media
Oracle VM Manager Prerequisites
Install Oracle VM Manager
Oracle VM Manager Post Installation Checklist
The Oracle VM Media Pack is available at the Oracle Software Delivery Cloud - Oracle Linux and Oracle VM portal. Access to the Oracle Software Delivery Cloud requires an Oracle.com user account and password. If you do not already have an Oracle.com user account, visit the Oracle Software Delivery Cloud, portal click the Sign In / Register link or button to create an Oracle.com account.
 
Figure 2 shows the Oracle Software Delivery Cloud - Oracle Linux and Oracle VM portal.
Oracle Software Delivery Cloud Oracle VM
 

From the Sign In page, enter your Oracle.com user name and password, then click the Sign In button.

Figure 3 shows the Oracle Software Delivery Cloud - Oracle Linux and Oracle VM portal Sign In page.
Oracle.com Sign In
Once authenticated, accept the registration/export regulations to access to the Oracle VM and Oracle Linux Media.

Figure 4 shows the registration/export regulations form.
Oracle Software Delivery Cloud Terms & Restrictions
 
After completing the registration/export regulation form, you will be redirected to the Media Pack Search page. From the Media Pack Search page, select Oracle VM from the Select a Product Pack dropdown menu. Next, select x86 64-bit from the Platform dropdown menu, then click the Go button to be taken to the Oracle VM Media Pack download page.

Tip: If you do not see Oracle VM from the Select a Product Pack dropdown menu, you are not in the Oracle Linux and Oracle VM section of the Oracle Software Delivery Cloud. Click the Cloud Portal link in the page header, then click the Oracle Linux/VM drop down menu to be redirected to the Oracle Linux and Oracle VM section of the Oracle Software Delivery Cloud portal.

Figure 5 shows the Media Pack Search page.
Oracle VM Download
From the Media Pack Search page, click the desired Oracle VM 3.x Media Pack radio button, then the Continue button, or click the Oracle VM 3.x Media Pack hyperlink to go directly to the download page.

Figure 6 shows the Oracle VM Media Pack page.
Download Oracle VM Manager 3
From the Oracle VM Server 3.x Media Pack for x86 (64 bit) download page, click the desired Oracle VM Manager Revision Download button to download the Oracle VM media pack.
 
Tip: Oracle VM is distributed as Open Source software, therefore the source code is also available along with the ISO image. The Source Code is not used for the Oracle VM installation.  
 
The next Figure shows the Oracle VM Media Pack page.
Download Oracle VM Manager  Media
 
The Oracle VM Manager media is packaged as a zip file. The zip file name corresponds to the Part Number listed on the download page. The zip file contains the Oracle VM Manager ISO file. Once the zip file is downloaded, use your favorite zip utility to unzip the ISO file. Next, burn the ISO file to DVD to be able to install Oracle VM Manager with a CD-ROM drive, or copy the ISO file to the Oracle VM Manager host, mount the ISO file and then perform the installation.
 

Oracle VM Manager Prerequisite Packages

Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Download the Oracle VM Manager Installation Media
Oracle VM Manager Prerequisites
Install Oracle VM Manager
Oracle VM Manager Post Installation Checklist
 
Oracle VM Manager 3.x has a total of two operating system prerequisite packages, libaio 0.3.104 or above, which is only necessary with the Oracle XE Database and unzip 3.3.2.4.2 or above. To check if a Linux host has the libaio and unzip packages, as root, type “ rpm -qa libaio unzip” as shown in the next example.
# rpm -qa libaio unzip
unzip-5.52-3.el5
libaio-0.3.106-5
libaio-0.3.106-5

The above example shows that the Oracle VM Manager host has both of the prerequisite packages.
 
If your Oracle VM Manager host is missing one or both of the prerequisite packages, both RPM packages are available at the Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network, the Oracle public yum repository and on the Oracle Linux media.

If your Oracle VM Manager host is registered with Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network, as root, type “up2date -i libaio” and/or “up2date -i unzip” for Oracle Linux 5 systems, or “yum install libaio” and/or “yum install unzip” for Oracle Linux 6 systems.

To install the RPMs from the Oracle public yum repository, for Oracle Linux 6 systems, as root type the following commands:
 
# cd /etc/yum.repos.d/
# wget http://public-yum.oracle.com/public-yum-el6.repo
# yum install libaio
and/or
# yum install unzip

For Oracle Linux 5 systems, as root type the following commands:

# cd /etc/yum.repos.d/
# wget http://public-yum.oracle.com/public-yum-el5.repo
# yum install libaio
and/or
# yum install unzip

To install the libaio and/or the unzip RPMs from the Oracle Linux DVD or ISO file, as root, mount the DVD or ISO file, cd to the directory with the RPMs, and type “rpm -ivh libaio-<version>.rpm” and/or “rpm -ivh unzip-<version>.rpm”.

The next example shows how to download and mount the Oracle Linux installation media file and install RPMs from the installation media.
  1. Download the Oracle Linux installation media (not source) from the  Oracle Software Delivery Cloud - Oracle Linux and Oracle VM portal portal.
  2. Copy the Oracle Linux installation media to a directory on the Oracle VM Manager host.
  3. Log in to the Oracle VM Manager host as root, and unzip the file.
  4. Mount the ISO file by typing “mount -o loop <FILE NAME>.iso /media”.
  5. Change (cd) to the /media directory, i.e. “cd /media and type "find /media -name <RPM NAME> -print" to locate the RPMs. 
  6. Change (cd) to the directory with the RPMs, and type "rpm -ivh libaio-<version>.rpm” and/or “rpm -ivh unzip-<version>.rpm”.

The Oracle VM Manager Host /etc/hosts Requirements

Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Download the Oracle VM Manager Installation Media
Oracle VM Manager Prerequisites
Install Oracle VM Manager
Oracle VM Manager Post Installation Checklist
 
All Oracle technology products, including Oracle VM Manager, rely on a properly formatted /etc/hosts file. The hostname in the /etc/hosts file must be associated with the server's public IP address.

The next example shows the proper syntax for an Oracle Linux 5 /etc/hosts file. Note that the localhost entries are on one line, and the IP address with the long and short names are on the next line.

127.0.0.1 localhost.localdomain localhost
192.168.4.8 servername.com servername
 
The next example shows the proper syntax from an Oracle Linux 6 /etc/hosts file. Note that the localhost entries are on one line, and the IP address with the long and short names are on the next line.
 
192.168.3.9 servername.com servername
127.0.0.1   localhost localhost.localdomain localhost4 localhost4.localdomain4
::1         localhost localhost.localdomain localhost6 localhost6.localdomain6

An /etc/hosts file can be edited by the root user by typing “vi /etc/hosts”.
 

The Oracle VM Manager Host NTP Requirements

Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Download the Oracle VM Manager Installation Media
Oracle VM Manager Prerequisites
Install Oracle VM Manager
Oracle VM Manager Post Installation Checklist
 
With Oracle VM, accurate time is essential to maintain system stability due to time-sensitive cluster transactions between Oracle VM Servers. Without accurate time, Oracle VM clusters can be brought to a complete standstill.
 
By default, Oracle VM Servers that are discovered by Oracle VM Manager are configured to use the Oracle VM Manager host as the upstream NTP time host. Oracle VM Manager hosts must have NTP installed and configured to synchronize with upstream Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) sources as well as provide time services to Oracle VM pool members.
 
The Network Time Protocol (NTP) is used to synchronize computer clocks over a network to a common timebase, usually UTC. UTC is the worlds primary time standard used to regulate clocks and time. There are numerous upstream public UTC time sources that allow the public to synchronize with them.
 
Oracle Linux and Red Hat Enterprise Linux ship with a default /etc/ntp.conf file that points to three of Red Hat's upstream public UTC time sources. A best practice is to have two internal NTP servers on your local network to provide time services for internal systems and devices. Using internal time servers normalizes system event time-stamps across the Enterprise as well as reduces NTP Internet bandwidth usage.

Oracle VM Manager Host NTP Configuration Roadmap:
1- Install NTP on the Oracle VM Manager host
2- Configure the upstream public UTC time sources
3- Disable the default "noquery" option for the Oracle VM Server Management network and restart the NTP service
4- Validate upstream synchronization by using the ntpq command
 
1- Install NTP on the Oracle VM Manager host
To validate if the NTP RPM is installed on the Oracle VM Manager host, as root, type "rpm -qa ntp".  
 
The next example shows the output from "rpm -qa ntp" on an Oracle VM Manager host with the NTP RPM installed.  
# rpm -qa ntp
ntp-4.2.4p8-2.el6.x86_64
 
If your Oracle VM Manager host is missing the NTP RPM, the NTP RPM is available at the Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network, the Oracle public yum repository and on the Oracle Linux media.
 
If your Oracle VM Manager host is registered with Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network, as root, type “up2date -i ntp” for Oracle Linux 5 systems, or “yum install ntp” for Oracle Linux 6 systems followed by "chkconfig ntpd on".
 
To install the NTP RPM from the Oracle public yum repository, for Oracle Linux 6 systems, as root type the following commands:
 
# cd /etc/yum.repos.d/
# wget http://public-yum.oracle.com/public-yum-el6.repo
# yum install ntp
# chkconfig ntpd on
 
For Oracle Linux 5 systems, as root type the following commands:
 
# cd /etc/yum.repos.d/
# wget http://public-yum.oracle.com/public-yum-el5.repo
# yum install ntp
# chkconfig ntpd on
 
To install the NTP RPM from the Oracle Linux DVD or ISO file, as root, mount the DVD or ISO file, cd to the directory with the NTP rpm, and type “rpm -ivh ntp”.
 
The next example shows how to mount the Oracle Linux ISO file.
2- Configure the upstream public UTC time sources
An Oracle VM Manager ntp.conf file should use two local NTP servers as the upstream UTC time sources as well as disable the default "noquery" option for the Oracle VM Server Management network. Oracle VM Servers that are discovered by Oracle VM Manager will be configured to use the Oracle VM Manager host as the NTP time host.
 
The next example shows the default /etc/ntp.conf NTP servers settings for Oracle Linux and Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
 
server 0.rhel.pool.ntp.org
server 1.rhel.pool.ntp.org
server 2.rhel.pool.ntp.org
 
As root, edit the /etc/ntp.conf file and replace the Red Hat upstream public UTC time sources with your local NTP servers fully qualified domain names (FQDN) or IP addresses.
 
3- Disable the default "noquery" option for the Oracle VM Server Management network and restart the NTP service
Next, disable the default "noquery" option for the Oracle VM Server Management network. The next example shows the default /etc/ntp.conf "noquery" option.
 
#restrict 192.168.1.0 mask 255.255.255.0 nomodify notrap
 
Uncomment the line by removing "#", replace 192.168.1.0 with your Oracle VM Server Management network address, and replace 255.255.255.0 with the mask of your Oracle VM Server Management network.
 
Next, as root, restart the NTP server by typing "service ntpd restart".
 
# service ntpd restart
Shutting down ntpd:                                  [  OK  ]
Starting ntpd:                                            [  OK  ]
 
4- Validate upstream synchronization by using the ntpq command
Once the NTP service has been restarted, use the ntpq command to see the upstream servers with which the host is synchronized. ntpq -p lists the configured time servers, stratum, delay, poll, reach, offset and jitter values. For correct synchronization, the delay and offset values should be non-zero and the jitter value should be under 100.
 
As root, type "ntpq -p" as shown in the next example.  
 
# ntpq -p
     remote           refid      st t when poll reach   delay   offset  jitter
==============================================
+dns-pike.sf.mok 149.20.68.17     3 u   34   64  377    0.637   10.165   4.514
*ntp1.Rescomp.Be 128.32.206.55    3 u   61   64  377   28.341    5.549   4.854
 
Tip: An indication of improper synchronization is when the remote servers have jitter, delay and reach values of 0.
 
NTP Troubleshooting

 

SELinux and Oracle VM Manager

Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Download the Oracle VM Manager Installation Media
Oracle VM Manager Prerequisites
Install Oracle VM Manager
Oracle VM Manager Post Installation Checklist
 
Security Enhanced Linux (SELinux) is a default Linux feature that offers mandatory access controls using Linux kernel security modules (LSM) along with user-space tools. Security Enhanced Linux is not supported with Oracle VM Manager, and if enabled, Security Enhanced Linux will break Oracle VM Manager.
 
Note: Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2), Security Enhanced Linux is supported for Oracle Linux 4, Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4, Oracle Linux 5, and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.
 
To confirm the status of SELinux, as root type sestatus as shown in the next example.
# sestatus
SELinux status:                 disabled
 
The above example shows a host with SELinux disabled.
 
Security Enhanced Linux can be temporarily disabled by typing "echo 0 > /selinux/enforce", as root. Security Enhanced Linux can be re-enabled by typing "echo 1 > /selinux/enforce", as root.
 
Security Enhanced Linux can be permanently disabled by changing the "SELINUX=enforcing" entry to "SELINUX=disabled" in the "/etc/selinux/config" file. Security Enhanced Linux can be re-enabled by changing the "SELINUX=disabled" entry to "SELINUX=enforcing" in the "/etc/selinux/config" file. A re-boot is required after changing the "SELINUX=” value to enable to new settings.
 

Disable IPv6

Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4
Download the Oracle VM Manager Installation Media Oracle VM Manager Prerequisites
Install Oracle VM Manager
Oracle VM Manager Post Installation Checklist
Even if IPv6 is not being used, IPv6 can still cause problems such a duplicate addresses with Oracle VM Manager (WebLogic). For example, IPv6 uses a dual stack protocol format that runs IPv4 and IPv6 at the same time. IPv6 creates an IPv6 interface for each IPv4 interface. WebLogic and many other Oracle technologies see the IPv6 interfaces as duplicate address. If IPv6 is not being used, a best practice is to disable IPv6.
 
For Oracle Linux 6+:
Add the following entries to /etc/sysctl.conf:
 
net.ipv6.conf.all.disable_ipv6 = 1
net.ipv6.conf.default.disable_ipv6 = 1
 
To disable IPv6 on a running system, as root type:
 
echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv6/conf/all/disable_ipv6
echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv6/conf/default/disable_ipv6
 
or
 
sysctl -w net.ipv6.conf.all.disable_ipv6=1
sysctl -w net.ipv6.conf.default.disable_ipv6=1
 
With IPv6 disabled, if X forwarding breaks, edit /etc/ssh/sshd_config and make one of the following changes:
 
(1) Change the line
 
#AddressFamily any
 
to
 
AddressFamily inet
(inet is ipv4 only; inet6 is ipv6 only)
 
or
 
(2) Remove the hash mark (#) in front of the line
 
#ListenAddress 0.0.0.0
 
Next, restart ssh.
 
Next, type chkconfig ip6tables off
 
Finally, remove the IPv6 entries in the /etc/hosts file to aviod "Bug 13652664 : AGENT DEPLOY FAILS WITH AGENT PORT PASSED BY USER IS BUSY" with Oracle Management Agent installations. The next example shows the Pv6 entries in the /etc/hosts file that should be removed.
::1         localhost localhost.localdomain localhost6 localhost6.localdomain6
 
For Oracle Linux 5+:
Add the following entries to /etc/sysctl.conf:
 
net.ipv6.conf.all.disable_ipv6 = 1
 
To disable IPv6 on a running system, as root type:
 
echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv6/conf/all/disable_ipv6
 
Finally, remove the IPv6 entries in the /etc/hosts file to aviod "Bug 13652664 : AGENT DEPLOY FAILS WITH AGENT PORT PASSED BY USER IS BUSY" with Oracle Management Agent installations. The next example shows the Pv6 entries in the /etc/hosts file that should be removed.
::1         localhost localhost.localdomain localhost6 localhost6.localdomain6


Oracle VM Manager Environment Configuration Script

Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4
Download the Oracle VM Manager Installation Media Oracle VM Manager Prerequisites
Install Oracle VM Manager
Oracle VM Manager Post Installation Checklist

The createOracle.sh is on the Oracle VM Manager ISO file and can be used to setup the oracle user account, the /u01 directory and iptables for an Oracle VM Manager installation. The createOracle.sh script must be run as root. The createOracle.sh will perform the following tasks:

  • Creates the dba group
  • Creates the oracle user and adds the oracle user to the dba group
  • Creates the /u01 directory
  • Configures the /etc/security/limits.conf file
  • Opens the required ports in iptables by editing the /etc/sysconfig/iptables file


To run the createOracle.sh script, as root, mount the Oracle VM Manager installer ISO file, change to the mount point and type “./createOracle.sh”.

The next example shows how to mount the Oracle VM Manager installation media and run the createOracle.sh script.

  • Download the Oracle VM Manager installation media from the Oracle Software Delivery Cloud - Oracle Linux and Oracle VM portal.
  • Copy the Oracle VM Manager installation media to a directory on the Oracle VM Manager host, and unzip the file.
  • Log in to the Oracle VM Manager 3.0 host as root.
  • Mount the ISO file by typing “mount -o loop OracleVM-Manager-<VERSION>.iso /media”
  • Change to the /media directory, i.e. “cd /media.
  • Type “./createOracle.sh” to run the createOracle.sh script.

Oracle VM Manager installer expects a directory named /u01 with a minimum of 2.4 GB of available space. Oracle VM Manager and the Core API will be installed into the /u01/app/oracle directory. The “oracle” user account, in the “dba” group, must be the owner of the “/u01/app/oracle” directory.

The /u01 installation directory follows the Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) standard. The OFA Optimal Flexible Architecture is a set of recommendations for naming files and folders when installing and implementing an Oracle technology products.

The “/u01/app/oracle” directory can be created and prepared using the configuration script (createOracle.sh ) located in the Oracle VM Manager installation media, or as root by typing the following commands.
# mkdir -p /u01/app/oracle
# chown oracle:dba /u01/app/oracle

Tip: The default firewall used by an Oracle Linux 5U5 and above Oracle VM Manager host is iptables. In order to use Oracle VM Manager, the Core API and the Oracle Management Agent with iptables enabled, it is necessary to open tcp ports 7001, 7002, tcp-54321 or tcps-54322, 15901 and 3872 as well as UDP 123.

To open the necessary ports in iptables, as root edit the /etc/sysconfig/iptables file and ensure that the following iptables rules are present.
 
# vi /etc/sysconfig/iptables
*filter
:INPUT ACCEPT [0:0]
:FORWARD ACCEPT [0:0]
:OUTPUT ACCEPT [0:0]
-A INPUT -m state --state NEW -m tcp -p tcp --dport 7001 -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -m state --state NEW -m tcp -p tcp --dport 7002 -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -m state --state NEW -m tcp -p tcp --dport 15901 -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -m state --state NEW -m tcp -p tcp --dport 54322 -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -m state --state NEW -m tcp -p tcp --dport 3872 -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -m state --state NEW -m tcp -p udp --dport 123 -j ACCEPT
COMMIT
:wq!

Next, restart iptables, by typing the following command:
# /etc/init.d/iptables restart

If you experience connection challenges, a troubleshooting first step is to “temporarily” disable iptables.

To disable iptables, as root, type the following command:
# /etc/init.d/iptables stop && chkconfig iptables off
To re-enable iptables, as root, type the following command:
# chkconfig iptables on && /etc/init.d/iptables start
 

Oracle VM Manager Simple Installation

Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4
Download the Oracle VM Manager Installation Media Oracle VM Manager Prerequisites Oracle VM Manager Simple Installation (Oracle VM 3.2 and Above)
Oracle VM Manager Post Installation Checklist

The next example shows how to perform a Oracle VM Manager Simple installation (applicable for Oracle VM Release 3.2 and above). A Oracle VM Manager Simple installation is an all-in-one installation with Oracle MySQL Enterprise Edition v5.5, WebLogic 11g, and the Oracle VM Manager applications. Oracle VM Manager Simple installation is fully supported for production environments.
 
Note: Restoring Oracle VM Manager includes using the UUID restore switch (-u, or --uuid) with the UUID of the Oracle VM Manager installation that will be restored. The Oracle VM Manager UUID is listed in the “.config ” file on the Oracle VM Manager host in the /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/ directory as well as in each server pool' .ovsrepo file (OVS_REPO_MGR_UUID=UUID) located in the pool file system. The UUID restore switch is used with the runInstall.sh script, i.e. ./runInstaller.sh -u UUID.
 
During an Oracle VM Manager Simple installation, the installation program asks for one password for all users created and used during the installation. The password cannot contain special characters and must be between 8 and 16 characters in length. Passwords must contain at least 1 lower case and 1 upper case letter. Passwords must contain at least 1 numeric value.
 
Tip: The alphanumeric character set consists of the numbers 0 to 9 and letters A to Z.
 
  • Download the Oracle VM Manager installation media (not source) from the Oracle Software Delivery Cloud - Oracle Linux and Oracle VM portal.
  • Copy the Oracle VM Manager installation media to a directory on the Oracle VM Manager host.
  • Log in to the Oracle VM Manager host as root, and unzip the file.
  • Mount the ISO file by typing “mount -o loop <FILE NAME>.iso /media”
  • Change to the /media directory, i.e. “cd /media.
  • Verify that host name in the /etc/hosts file is associated with the server's public IP address.
  • Run the installer script as root, by typing “./runInstaller.sh”
Note: Remember, do no select passwords containing special character (!;:# etc.)
 
# ./runInstaller.sh
 
Oracle VM Manager Release 3.2.2 Installer
 
Oracle VM Manager Installer log file:
/tmp/ovm-manager-3-install-2013-02-04-205536.log
 
Please select an installation type:
   1: Simple (includes database if necessary)
   2: Custom (using existing Oracle database)
   3: Uninstall
   4: Help
 
   Select Number (1-4): 1
 
Starting production with local database installation ...
 
Verifying installation prerequisites ...
 
One password is used for all users created and used during the installation.
Enter a password for all logins used during the installation: 
Enter a password for all logins used during the installation (confirm): 
 
Verifying configuration ...
 
Start installing the configured components:
   1: Continue
   2: Abort
 
   Select Number (1-2): 1
 
Step 1 of 9 : Database Software...
Installing Database Software...
Retrieving MySQL Database 5.5 ...
Unzipping MySQL RPM File ...
Installing MySQL 5.5 RPM package ...
Configuring MySQL Database 5.5 ...
Installing MySQL backup RPM package ...
 
Step 2 of 9 : Java ...
Installing Java ...
 
Step 3 of 9 : Database schema ...
Creating database 'ovs' ...
Creating user 'ovs' for database 'ovs'...
 
Step 4 of 9 : WebLogic ...
Retrieving Oracle WebLogic Server 11g ...
Installing Oracle WebLogic Server 11g ...
 
Step 5 of 9 : ADF ...
Retrieving Oracle Application Development Framework (ADF) ...
Unzipping Oracle ADF ...
Installing Oracle ADF ...
Installing Oracle ADF Patch...
 
Step 6 of 9 : Oracle VM  ...
Retrieving Oracle VM Manager Application ...
Extracting Oracle VM Manager Application ...
Installing Oracle VM Manager Core ...
 
Step 7 of 9 : Domain creation ...
Creating Oracle WebLogic Server domain ...
Starting Oracle WebLogic Server 11g ...
Configuring data source 'OVMDS' ...
Creating Oracle VM Manager user 'admin' ...
 
Step 8 of 9 : Deploy ...
Deploying Oracle VM Manager Core container ...
Deploying Oracle VM Manager UI Console ...
Deploying Oracle VM Manager Help ...
Granting ovm-admin role to user 'admin' ...
Set Log Rotation ...
Disabling HTTP and enabling HTTPS...
Configuring Https Identity and Trust...
Configuring Weblogic parameters...
 
Step 9 of 9 : Oracle VM Manager Shell ...
Retrieving Oracle VM Manager Shell & API ...
Extracting Oracle VM Manager Shell & API ...
Installing Oracle VM Manager Shell & API ...
 
Retrieving Oracle VM Manager Upgrade tool ...
Extracting Oracle VM Manager Upgrade tool ...
Installing Oracle VM Manager Upgrade tool ...
 
Retrieving Oracle VM Manager CLI tool ...
Extracting Oracle VM Manager CLI tool...
Installing Oracle VM Manager CLI tool ...
Copying Oracle VM Manager shell to '/usr/bin/ovm_shell.sh' ...
Installing ovm_admin.sh in '/u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/bin' ...
Installing ovm_upgrade.sh in '/u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/bin' ...
Enabling Oracle VM Manager service ...
Shutting down Oracle VM Manager instance ...
Restarting Oracle VM Manager instance ...
Waiting for the application to initialize ...
Oracle VM Manager is running ...
Oracle VM Manager installed.
 
Please wait while WebLogic configures the applications... This can take up to 5 minutes.
 
Installation Summary
--------------------
Database configuration:
  Database type               : MySQL
  Database host name          : localhost
  Database name               : ovs
  Database listener port      : 49500
  Database user               : ovs
 
Weblogic Server configuration:
  Administration username     : weblogic
 
Oracle VM Manager configuration:
  Username                    : admin
  Core management port        : 54321
  UUID                        : 0004fb00000100004533d12e31e78b07
 
 
Passwords:
There are no default passwords for any users. The passwords to use for Oracle VM Manager, Database, and Oracle WebLogic Server have been set by you during this installation. In the case of a default install, all passwords are the same.
 
Oracle VM Manager UI:
  https://<HOSTNAME>:7002/ovm/console
Log in with the user 'admin', and the password you set during the installation.
 
Please note that you need to install tightvnc-java on this computer to access a virtual machine's console.
 
For more information about Oracle Virtualization, please visit:
  http://www.oracle.com/virtualization/
 
Oracle VM Manager installation complete.
 
Please remove configuration file /tmp/ovm_configzvH9bi.
#
 
Oracle VM Manager was sucessfully installed.
 

Next, as suggested by the Oracle VM Manager installer, remove the configuration file in the /tmp directory (see your Oracle VM Manager install message for the file name).
# rm -fr /tmp/file-name

Figure 7 shows the Oracle VM Manager Login page.
Oracle VM Manager Simple Installation Login

 

To login to Oracle VM Manager, use the "admin" user account with the password entered during the installation. Figure 8 shows the Oracle VM Manager administrative console.

Oracle VM Manager Simple Installation

 

After a successful login, create a server pool by completing the following tasks:
  • Discover the Oracle VM Servers
  • Setup the Oracle VM Server's networking
  • Setup the Networking for the server pool
  • Setup NTP
  • Setup a YUM server
  • Create Tags (optional)
  • Register a file server or a storage array
  • Create a storage repository to host virtual machine resources
  • Create a server pool

Oracle VM Manager Simple Uninstallation

The ability to quickly rebuild, remove and restore Oracle VM Manager is an essential Oracle VM lifecycle operation. If the goal of an Oracle VM Manager uninstall is to start over without the need to preserve previous Oracle VM server pools, simply uninstall and reinstall Oracle VM Manager. If the goal is to recover Oracle VM Manager, with previous Oracle VM server pools, uninstall and reinstall Oracle VM Manager using the UUID restore switch. A UUID Oracle VM Manager installation can be done with or without an Oracle VM Manager Database repository schema backup and restore operation. If the intent is to restore Oracle VM Manager database schema, an Oracle VM Manager uninstall may not be necessary. Regardless of the Oracle VM Manager uninstall intent, it is necessary to completely uninstall each of the Oracle VM Manager components.

 
The next example shows the steps to perform a Oracle VM Manager Simple uninstall (applicable for Oracle VM Release 3.2 and above).
  • Download the Oracle VM Manager installation media (not source) from the Oracle Software Delivery Cloud - Oracle Linux and Oracle VM portal.
  • Copy the Oracle VM Manager installation media to a directory on the Oracle VM Manager host.
  • Log in to the Oracle VM Manager host as root, and unzip the file.
  • Mount the ISO file by typing “mount -o loop <FILE NAME>.iso /media”
  • Change to the /media directory, i.e. “cd /media.
  • Run the installer script as root, by typing “./runInstaller.sh”
# ./runInstaller.sh 
 
Oracle VM Manager Release 3.2.2 Installer
 
Oracle VM Manager Installer log file:
/tmp/ovm-manager-3-install-2013-04-10-192735.log
 
Please select an installation type:
   1: Simple (includes database if necessary)
   2: Custom (using existing Oracle database)
   3: Uninstall
   4: Help
 
   Select Number (1-4): 3
 
Uninstall Oracle VM Manager
 
DB component : MySQL 5.5 RPM package
MySQL 5.5 RPM package installed by OVMM was found...
Uninstall options
   1: Uninstall MySQL 5.5 RPM package
   2: Skip uninstall of MySQL 5.5 RPM package
 
   Select Number (1-2): 1
Removing MySQL 5.5 RPM package installation ...
 
Product component : Java in '/u01/app/oracle/java/'
Java is installed ...
 
Uninstall options
   1: Uninstall Java
   2: Skip uninstall of Java
 
   Select Number (1-2): 1
Removing Java installation ...
 
Product component : Oracle VM Manager in '/u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/'
Oracle VM Manager is installed ...
Uninstall options
   1: Uninstall Oracle VM 3.2.2 Manager
   2: Skip uninstall of Oracle VM 3.2.2 Manager
 
   Select Number (1-2): 1
Removing Oracle VM Manager installation ...
 
Product component : Oracle WebLogic Server in '/u01/app/oracle/Middleware/'
Oracle WebLogic Server is installed
 
Uninstall options
   1: Uninstall Oracle WebLogic Server
   2: Skip uninstall of Oracle WebLogic Server
 
   Select Number (1-2): 1
Removing Oracle WebLogic Server installation ...
 
Uninstall completed ...
 
Oracle VM Manager has been successfully uninstalled. 
 

Oracle VM Manager Custom Installation

Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4
Download the Oracle VM Manager Installation Media Oracle VM Manager Prerequisites Oracle VM Manager Custom Installation (Oracle VM 3.2 and Above)
Oracle VM Manager Post Installation Checklist

The next example shows how to perform a Oracle VM Manager Custom installation (Oracle VM 3.2 and Above). A Oracle VM Manager Custom installations will install WebLogic 11g with the Oracle VM Manager applications using an existing local or remote Oracle 11g Standard or Enterprise Edition database and/or a RAC database. Oracle VM 3.2.1 and above use the word Custom for a local or remote Oracle 11g Standard or Enterprise Edition database and/or a RAC database installation. Oracle VM Release 3.0.1 up to 3.1.1 use the word Production for a local or remote Oracle 11g Standard or Enterprise Edition database and/or a RAC database installation. Custom and Production installations are fully supported for production environments.
 
Note: Restoring Oracle VM Manager includes using the UUID restore switch (-u, or --uuid) with the UUID of the Oracle VM Manager installation that will be restored. The Oracle VM Manager UUID is listed in the “.config ” file on the Oracle VM Manager host in the /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/ directory as well as in each server pool' .ovsrepo file (OVS_REPO_MGR_UUID=UUID) located in the pool file system. The UUID restore switch is used with the runInstall.sh script, i.e. ./runInstaller.sh -u UUID.
 
A Oracle VM Manager Custom installation require that a Oracle SE or EE Database has already been created. The Oracle VM Manager install program will ask for the Oracle Database System ID (SID), the Oracle Database SYSTEM password, the Oracle Database listener port (the default is 1521), the Oracle VM Manager database schema (the default name is “ovs”, any name can be used), and the Oracle VM Manager database schema password.
 
During the Oracle VM Manager installation, the installation program asks for the following passwords:
The Oracle VM Manager OVS Database schema password must be selected.
The password must be a minimum of 8 characters in length.
The password cannot be the same as the username.
The password cannot be the same length as the username.
The password cannot be the username spelled backwards.
The password cannot be the same as the server name or the server name with digits from 1 to 100 appended.
The password must include 1 digit and 1 alpha character.
Simple passwords will be rejected.

The Oracle 11g SE and EE Database SYSTEM password must be selected.
The password must be a minimum of 8 characters in length.
The password cannot be the same as the username.
The password cannot be the same length as the username.
The password cannot be the username spelled backwards.
The password cannot be the same as the server name or the server name with digits from 1 to 100 appended.
The password must include one digit and one alpha character.
Simple passwords will be rejected.

The Oracle WebLogic admin account password must be selected.
The password must be between 8 and 16 characters in length
The password must have at least 1 lower case and 1 upper case letter
The password must have at least 1 numeric value or special character
    
The Oracle VM Manager admin account must be selected.
The password must be between 8 and 16 characters in length
The password must have at least 1 lower case and 1 upper case letter
The password must have at least 1 numeric value or special character

Each service has a slightly different password policy. Select your passwords carefully to avoid installation errors and post installation challenges.

Tip: The alphanumeric character set consists of the numbers 0 to 9 and letters A to Z.
 
  • Download the Oracle VM Manager installation media (not source) from the Oracle Software Delivery Cloud - Oracle Linux and Oracle VM portal.
  • Copy the Oracle VM Manager installation media to a directory on the Oracle VM Manager host.
  • Log in to the Oracle VM Manager host as root, and unzip the file.
  • Mount the ISO file by typing “mount -o loop <FILE NAME>.iso /media”
  • Change to the /media directory, i.e. “cd /media.
  • Verify that host name in the /etc/hosts file is associated with the server's public IP address.
  • Run the installer script as root, by typing “./runInstaller.sh”
./runInstaller.sh 
 
Oracle VM Manager Release 3.2.2 Installer
 
Oracle VM Manager Installer log file:
/tmp/ovm-manager-3-install-2013-04-10-180800.log
 
Please select an installation type:
   1: Simple (includes database if necessary)
   2: Custom (using existing Oracle database)
   3: Uninstall
   4: Help
 
   Select Number (1-4): 2
 
Starting production installation ...
 
 
Verifying installation prerequisites ...
 
Database Repository
==========================
Use an existing database
Enter the Oracle Database hostname [localhost]: 
Enter the Oracle Database System ID (SID) [ORCL]: 
Enter the Oracle Database SYSTEM password: 
Enter the Oracle Database listener port [1521]: 
Enter the Oracle VM Manager database schema [ovs]: 
Enter the Oracle VM Manager database password: 
Enter the Oracle VM Manager database password (confirm): 
 
Oracle Weblogic Server 11g
==========================
Enter the Oracle WebLogic Server 11g user [weblogic]: 
Enter the Oracle WebLogic Server 11g user password: 
Enter the Oracle WebLogic Server 11g user password (confirm): 
 
Oracle VM Manager application
=============================
Enter the username for the Oracle VM Manager administration user [admin]: 
Enter the admin user password: 
Enter the admin user password (confirm): 
 
Verifying configuration ...
 
Start installing the configured components:
   1: Continue
   2: Abort
 
   Select Number (1-2): 1
 
Step 1 of 9 : Database Software...
Installing Database Software...
Database Software installation skipped ...
 
Step 2 of 9 : Java ...
Installing Java ...
 
Step 3 of 9 : Database schema ...
Creating database schema 'ovs' ...
 
Step 4 of 9 : WebLogic ...
Retrieving Oracle WebLogic Server 11g ...
Installing Oracle WebLogic Server 11g ...
 
Step 5 of 9 : ADF ...
Retrieving Oracle Application Development Framework (ADF) ...
Unzipping Oracle ADF ...
Installing Oracle ADF ...
Installing Oracle ADF Patch...
 
Step 6 of 9 : Oracle VM  ...
Retrieving Oracle VM Manager Application ...
Extracting Oracle VM Manager Application ...
Installing Oracle VM Manager Core ...
 
Step 7 of 9 : Domain creation ...
Creating Oracle WebLogic Server domain ...
Starting Oracle WebLogic Server 11g ...
Configuring data source 'OVMDS' ...
Creating Oracle VM Manager user 'admin' ...
 
Step 8 of 9 : Deploy ...
Deploying Oracle VM Manager Core container ...
Deploying Oracle VM Manager UI Console ...
Deploying Oracle VM Manager Help ...
Granting ovm-admin role to user 'admin' ...
Set Log Rotation ...
Disabling HTTP and enabling HTTPS...
Configuring Https Identity and Trust...
Configuring Weblogic parameters...
 
Step 9 of 9 : Oracle VM Manager Shell ...
Retrieving Oracle VM Manager Shell & API ...
Extracting Oracle VM Manager Shell & API ...
Installing Oracle VM Manager Shell & API ...
 
Retrieving Oracle VM Manager Upgrade tool ...
Extracting Oracle VM Manager Upgrade tool ...
Installing Oracle VM Manager Upgrade tool ...
 
Retrieving Oracle VM Manager CLI tool ...
Extracting Oracle VM Manager CLI tool...
Installing Oracle VM Manager CLI tool ...
Copying Oracle VM Manager shell to '/usr/bin/ovm_shell.sh' ...
Installing ovm_admin.sh in '/u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/bin' ...
Installing ovm_upgrade.sh in '/u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/bin' ...
Enabling Oracle VM Manager service ...
Shutting down Oracle VM Manager instance ...
Restarting Oracle VM Manager instance ...
Waiting for the application to initialize ...
Oracle VM Manager is running ...
Oracle VM Manager installed.
 
Please wait while WebLogic configures the applications... This can take up to 5 minutes.
 
Installation Summary
--------------------
Database configuration:
  Database type               : OracleDB
  Database host name          : localhost
  Database instance name (SID): ORCL
  Database listener port      : 1521
  Application Express port    : None
  Oracle VM Manager schema    : ovs
 
Weblogic Server configuration:
  Administration username     : weblogic
 
Oracle VM Manager configuration:
  Username                    : admin
  Core management port        : 54321
  UUID                        : 0004fb0000010000e6ff42a4f2dc0290
 
 
Passwords:
There are no default passwords for any users. The passwords to use for Oracle VM Manager, Database, and Oracle WebLogic Server have been set by you during this installation. In the case of a default install, all passwords are the same.
 
Oracle VM Manager UI:
  https://<HOST NAME>:7002/ovm/console
Log in with the user 'admin', and the password you set during the installation.
 
Please note that you need to install tightvnc-java on this computer to access a virtual machine's console.
 
For more information about Oracle Virtualization, please visit:
  http://www.oracle.com/virtualization/
 
Oracle VM Manager installation complete.
 
Please remove configuration file /tmp/ovm_config2qR366.
 
Next, as suggested by the Oracle VM Manager installer, remove the configuration file in the /tmp directory (see your Oracle VM Manager install message for the file name).
# rm -fr /tmp/file-name

Figure 9 shows the Oracle VM Manager Login page.
Oracle VM Manager Custom Installation Login

To login to Oracle VM Manager, use the "admin" user account with the password entered during the installation. Figure 10 shows the Oracle VM Manager administrative console.
Oracle VM Manager Custom Installation Login
 
After a successful login, create a server pool by completing the following tasks:
  • Discover the Oracle VM Servers
  • Setup the Oracle VM Server's networking
  • Setup the Networking for the server pool
  • Setup NTP
  • Setup a YUM server
  • Create Tags (optional)
  • Register a file server or a storage array
  • Create a storage repository to host virtual machine resources
  • Create a server pool
 

Oracle VM Manager Custom Uninstallation

The ability to quickly rebuild, remove and restore Oracle VM Manager is an essential Oracle VM lifecycle operation. If the goal of an Oracle VM Manager uninstall is to start over without the need to preserve previous Oracle VM server pools, simply uninstall and reinstall Oracle VM Manager. If the goal is to recover Oracle VM Manager, with previous Oracle VM server pools, uninstall and reinstall Oracle VM Manager using the UUID restore switch. A UUID Oracle VM Manager installation can be done with or without an Oracle VM Manager Database repository schema backup and restore operation. If the intent is to restore Oracle VM Manager database schema, an Oracle VM Manager uninstall may not be necessary. Regardless of the Oracle VM Manager uninstall intent, it is necessary to completely uninstall each of the Oracle VM Manager components.
 
The next example shows the steps to perform a Oracle VM Manager Custom uninstall (Oracle VM 3.2 and Above).
  • Download the Oracle VM Manager installation media (not source) from the Oracle Software Delivery Cloud - Oracle Linux and Oracle VM portal.
  • Copy the Oracle VM Manager installation media to a directory on the Oracle VM Manager host.
  • Log in to the Oracle VM Manager host as root, and unzip the file.
  • Mount the ISO file by typing “mount -o loop <FILE NAME>.iso /media”
  • Change to the /media directory, i.e. “cd /media.
  • Verify that host name in the /etc/hosts file is associated with the server's public IP address.
  • Run the installer script as root, by typing “./runInstaller.sh”

 

./runInstaller.sh 
 
Oracle VM Manager Release 3.2.2 Installer
 
Oracle VM Manager Installer log file:
/tmp/ovm-manager-3-install-2013-04-10-190922.log
 
Please select an installation type:
   1: Simple (includes database if necessary)
   2: Custom (using existing Oracle database)
   3: Uninstall
   4: Help
 
   Select Number (1-4): 3
 
Uninstall Oracle VM Manager
 
DB component : MySQL 5.5 RPM package
MySQL 5.5 RPM package is not installed by OVMM
 
Product component : Java in '/u01/app/oracle/java/'
Java is installed ...
 
Uninstall options
   1: Uninstall Java
   2: Skip uninstall of Java
 
   Select Number (1-2): 1
Removing Java installation ...
 
Product component : Oracle VM Manager in '/u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/'
Oracle VM Manager is installed ...
Uninstall options
   1: Uninstall Oracle VM 3.2.2 Manager
   2: Skip uninstall of Oracle VM 3.2.2 Manager
 
   Select Number (1-2): 1
Removing Oracle VM Manager installation ...
 
Product component : Oracle WebLogic Server in '/u01/app/oracle/Middleware/'
Oracle WebLogic Server is installed
 
Uninstall options
   1: Uninstall Oracle WebLogic Server
   2: Skip uninstall of Oracle WebLogic Server
 
   Select Number (1-2): 1
Removing Oracle WebLogic Server installation ...
 
Uninstall completed ...
#
Oracle VM Manager has been successfully uninstalled. 

Oracle VM Manager Production Installation

Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Download the Oracle VM Manager Installation Media
Oracle VM Manager Prerequisites
Oracle VM Manager Production Installaion (Oracle VM 3.0.1 up to 3.1.1)
Oracle VM Manager Post Installation Checklist
The next example shows how to perform a Oracle VM Manager Production installation (Oracle VM 3.0.1 up to 3.1.1). A Oracle VM Manager Production installations will install WebLogic 11g with the Oracle VM Manager applications using an existing local or remote Oracle 11g Standard or Enterprise Edition database and/or a RAC database. Oracle VM Release 3.0.1 up to 3.1.1 use the word Production for a local or remote Oracle 11g Standard or Enterprise Edition database and/or a RAC database installation. Oracle VM 3.2.1 and above use the word Custom for a local or remote Oracle 11g Standard or Enterprise Edition database and/or a RAC database installation. Custom and Production installations are fully supported for production environments.
 
Note: Restoring Oracle VM Manager includes using the UUID restore switch (-u, or --uuid) with the UUID of the Oracle VM Manager installation that will be restored. The Oracle VM Manager UUID is listed in the “.config ” file on the Oracle VM Manager host in the /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/ directory as well as in each server pool' .ovsrepo file (OVS_REPO_MGR_UUID=UUID) located in the pool file system. The UUID restore switch is used with the runInstall.sh script, i.e. ./runInstaller.sh -u UUID.
 
A Oracle VM Manager Production installation requires that a Oracle SE or EE Database has already been created. The Oracle VM Manager install program will ask for the Oracle Database System ID (SID), the Oracle Database SYSTEM password, the Oracle Database listener port (the default is 1521), the Oracle VM Manager database schema (the default name is “ovs”, any name can be used), and the Oracle VM Manager database schema password.
 
During the Oracle VM Manager installation, the installation program asks for the following passwords:
The Oracle VM Manager OVS Database schema password must be selected.
The password must be a minimum of 8 characters in length.
The password cannot be the same as the username.
The password cannot be the same length as the username.
The password cannot be the username spelled backwards.
The password cannot be the same as the server name or the server name with digits from 1 to 100 appended.
The password must include 1 digit and 1 alpha character.
Simple passwords will be rejected.

The Oracle 11g SE and EE Database SYSTEM password must be selected.
The password must be a minimum of 8 characters in length.
The password cannot be the same as the username.
The password cannot be the same length as the username.
The password cannot be the username spelled backwards.
The password cannot be the same as the server name or the server name with digits from 1 to 100 appended.
The password must include one digit and one alpha character.
Simple passwords will be rejected.

The Oracle WebLogic admin account password must be selected.
The password must be between 8 and 16 characters in length
The password must have at least 1 lower case and 1 upper case letter
The password must have at least 1 numeric value or special character
    
The Oracle VM Manager admin account must be selected.
The password must be between 8 and 16 characters in length
The password must have at least 1 lower case and 1 upper case letter
The password must have at least 1 numeric value or special character

Each service has a slightly different password policy. Select your passwords carefully to avoid installation errors and post installation challenges.

Tip: The alphanumeric character set consists of the numbers 0 to 9 and letters A to Z.
 
# ./runInstaller.sh
Oracle VM Manager Release 3.1.1 Installer

Oracle VM Manager Installer log file:
 /tmp/install-2012-05-23-091242.log

Please select an installation type:
   1: Demo
   2: Production
   3: Uninstall
   4: Help

   Select Number (1-4): 2

Starting production installation ...


Verifying installation prerequisites ...

Oracle Database Repository
==========================
Use an existing Oracle database
Enter the Oracle Database hostname [localhost]:
Enter the Oracle Database System ID (SID) [XE]: orcl
Enter the Oracle Database SYSTEM password:
Enter the Oracle Database listener port [1521]:
Enter the Oracle VM Manager database schema [ovs]:
Enter the Oracle VM Manager database schema password:
Enter the Oracle VM Manager database schema password (confirm):

Oracle Weblogic Server 11g
==========================
Enter the Oracle WebLogic Server 11g user [weblogic]:
Enter the Oracle WebLogic Server 11g user password:
Enter the Oracle WebLogic Server 11g user password (confirm):

Oracle VM Manager application
=============================
Enter the username for the Oracle VM Manager administration user [admin]:
Enter the admin user password:
Enter the admin user password (confirm):

Verifying configuration ...

Start installing the configured components:
   1: Continue
   2: Abort

   Select Number (1-2): 1

Step 1 of 9 : Database ...
Installing Database ...
Database installation skipped ...

Step 2 of 9 : Java ...
Installing Java ...

Step 3 of 9 : Database Schema ...
Creating database schema 'ovs' ...

Step 4 of 9 : WebLogic ...
Retrieving Oracle WebLogic Server 11g ...
Installing Oracle WebLogic Server 11g ...

Step 5 of 9 : ADF ...
Retrieving Oracle Application Development Framework (ADF) ...
Unzipping Oracle ADF ...
Installing Oracle ADF ...
Installing Oracle ADF Patch...

Step 6 of 9 : Oracle VM  ...
Retrieving Oracle VM Manager Application ...
Extracting Oracle VM Manager Application ...
Installing Oracle VM Manager Core ...

Step 7 of 9 : Domain creation ...
Creating Oracle WebLogic Server domain ...
Starting Oracle WebLogic Server 11g ...
Configuring data source 'OVMDS' ...
Creating Oracle VM Manager user 'admin' ...

Step 8 of 9 : Deploy ...
Deploying Oracle VM Manager Core container ...
Deploying Oracle VM Manager UI Console ...
Deploying Oracle VM Manager Help ...
Enabling HTTPS ...
Granting ovm-admin role to user 'admin' ...

Step 9 of 9 : Oracle VM Manager Shell ...
Retrieving Oracle VM Manager Shell & API ...
Extracting Oracle VM Manager Shell & API ...
Installing Oracle VM Manager Shell & API ...

Retrieving Oracle VM Manager Upgrade tool ...
Extracting Oracle VM Manager Upgrade tool ...
Installing Oracle VM Manager Upgrade tool ...
Copying Oracle VM Manager shell to '/usr/bin/ovm_shell.sh' ...
Installing ovm_admin.sh in '/u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/bin' ...
Installing ovm_upgrade.sh in '/u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/bin' ...
Enabling Oracle VM Manager service ...
Shutting down Oracle VM Manager instance ...
Restarting Oracle VM Manager instance ...
Waiting 15 seconds for the application to initialize ...
Oracle VM Manager is running ...
Oracle VM Manager installed.

Please wait while WebLogic configures the applications... This can take up to 5 minutes.

Installation Summary
--------------------
Database configuration:
  Database host name          : localhost
  Database instance name (SID): orcl
  Database listener port      : 1521
  Application Express port    : None
  Oracle VM Manager schema    : ovs

Weblogic Server configuration:
  Administration username     : weblogic

Oracle VM Manager configuration:
  Username                    : admin
  Core management port        : 54321
  UUID                        : 0004fb00000100004aa039092e1841f3


Passwords:
There are no default passwords for any users. The passwords to use for Oracle VM Manager, Oracle Database 11g XE, and Oracle WebLogic Server have been set by you during this installation. In the case of a default install, all passwords are the same.

Oracle VM Manager UI:
  http://<ORACLE VM MANAGER HOST>:7001/ovm/console
  https://<ORACLE VM MANAGER HOST>:7002/ovm/console
Log in with the user 'admin', and the password you set during the installation.

Please note that you need to install tightvnc-java on this computer to access a virtual machine's console.

For more information about Oracle Virtualization, please visit:
  http://www.oracle.com/virtualization/

Oracle VM Manager installation complete.

Please remove configuration file /tmp/ovm_configK5B1Xk.
#
 
Oracle VM Manager was sucessfully installed.
 
Next, as suggested by the Oracle VM Manager installer, remove the configuration file in the /tmp directory (see your Oracle VM Manager install message for the file name).
# rm -fr /tmp/file-name

Figure 11 shows the Oracle VM Manager Login page.
Oracle VM Production Installaion

To login to Oracle VM Manager, use the "admin" user account with the password entered during the installation. Figure 12 shows the Oracle VM Manager administrative console.
Oracle VM Manager Production Servers and VMs
 
After a successful login, create a server pool by completing the following tasks:
  • Discover the Oracle VM Servers
  • Setup the Oracle VM Server's networking
  • Setup the Networking for the server pool
  • Setup NTP
  • Setup a YUM server
  • Create Tags (optional)
  • Register a file server or a storage array
  • Create a storage repository to host virtual machine resources
  • Create a server pool

Oracle VM Manager Production Uninstallation

The ability to quickly rebuild, remove and restore Oracle VM Manager is an essential Oracle VM lifecycle operation. If the goal of an Oracle VM Manager uninstall is to start over without the need to preserve previous Oracle VM server pools, simply uninstall and reinstall Oracle VM Manager. If the goal is to recover Oracle VM Manager, with previous Oracle VM server pools, uninstall and reinstall Oracle VM Manager using the UUID restore switch. A UUID Oracle VM Manager installation can be done with or without an Oracle VM Manager Database repository schema backup and restore operation. If the intent is to restore Oracle VM Manager database schema, an Oracle VM Manager uninstall may not be necessary. Regardless of the Oracle VM Manager uninstall intent, it is necessary to completely uninstall each of the Oracle VM Manager components.
 
The next example shows the steps to perform a Oracle VM Manager Production uninstall (applicable for Oracle VM 3.0.1 up to 3.1.1).
  • Download the Oracle VM Manager installation media (not source) from the Oracle Software Delivery Cloud - Oracle Linux and Oracle VM portal.
  • Copy the Oracle VM Manager installation media to a directory on the Oracle VM Manager host.
  • Log in to the Oracle VM Manager host as root, and unzip the file.
  • Mount the ISO file by typing “mount -o loop <FILE NAME>.iso /media”
  • Change to the /media directory, i.e. “cd /media.
  • Verify that host name in the /etc/hosts file is associated with the server's public IP address.
  • Run the installer script as root, by typing “./runInstaller.sh”

# ./runInstaller.sh

Oracle VM Manager Release 3.1.1 Installer

Oracle VM Manager Installer log file:
 /tmp/install-2012-06-01-064122.log

Please select an installation type:
   1: Demo
   2: Production
   3: Uninstall
   4: Help

   Select Number (1-4): 3

Uninstall Oracle VM Manager

Product component : Oracle 11g XE in '/u01/app/oracle/product'
Oracle 11g XE is not installed

Product component : Java in '/u01/app/oracle/java/'
Java is installed ...

Uninstall options
   1: Uninstall Java
   2: Skip uninstall of Java

   Select Number (1-2): 1
Removing Java installation ...

Product component : Oracle VM Manager in '/u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/'
Oracle VM Manager is installed ...
Uninstall options
   1: Uninstall Oracle VM 3.0 Manager
   2: Skip uninstall of Oracle VM 3.0 Manager

   Select Number (1-2): 1
Removing Oracle VM Manager installation ...

Product component : Oracle WebLogic Server in '/u01/app/oracle/Middleware/'
Oracle WebLogic Server is installed

Uninstall options
   1: Uninstall Oracle WebLogic Server
   2: Skip uninstall of Oracle WebLogic Server

   Select Number (1-2): 1
Removing Oracle WebLogic Server installation ...

Uninstall completed ...

#

Oracle VM Manager has been successfully uninstalled.

Oracle VM Manager Demo Installation

Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4
Download the Oracle VM Manager Installation Media Oracle VM Manager Prerequisites Oracle VM Manager Demo Installation (Oracle VM 3.0.1 up to 3.1.1)
Oracle VM Manager Post Installation Checklist
The next example shows how to perform a Demo Oracle VM Manager installation (applicable for Oracle VM Release 3.0.1 up to 3.1.1). Please note that a Demo installation is not supported by Oracle Enterprise Manager or Oracle support due to the use of the Oracle 11g XE Database. The Oracle 11g XE Database is a free unsupported release of the Oracle Database.
 
Note: Restoring Oracle VM Manager includes using the UUID restore switch (-u, or --uuid) with the UUID of the Oracle VM Manager installation that will be restored. The Oracle VM Manager UUID is listed in the “.config ” file on the Oracle VM Manager host in the /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/ directory as well as in each server pool' .ovsrepo file (OVS_REPO_MGR_UUID=UUID) located in the pool file system. The UUID restore switch is used with the runInstall.sh script, i.e. ./runInstaller.sh -u UUID.
 

During an Oracle VM Manager Demo installation, the installation program asks for the following passwords:

  • The Oracle XE SYS and SYSTEM account passwords must be selected. The Oracle XE SYS and SYSTEM account passwords cannot contain special characters.
  • The Oracle VM Manager OVS Database schema password must be selected. The password cannot contain special characters and must be between 8 and 16 characters in length. Passwords must contain at least 1 lower case and 1 upper case letter. Passwords must contain at least 1 numeric value.
  • The Oracle WebLogic admin account password must be selected. The password must be between 8 and 16 characters in length and must have at least 1 lower case and 1 upper case letter. The password must have at least 1 numeric value or special character
  • The Oracle VM Manager admin account password must be selected. The password must be between 8 and 16 characters in length and must have at least 1 lower case and 1 upper case letter. The password must have at least 1 numeric value or special character
Each service has a slightly different password policy. Select your passwords carefully to avoid installation errors and post installation challenges.

Tip: The alphanumeric character set consists of the numbers 0 to 9 and letters A to Z.
 
  • Download the Oracle VM Manager installation media (not source) from the Oracle Software Delivery Cloud - Oracle Linux and Oracle VM portal.
  • Copy the Oracle VM Manager installation media to a directory on the Oracle VM Manager host.
  • Log in to the Oracle VM Manager host as root, and unzip the file.
  • Mount the ISO file by typing “mount -o loop <FILE NAME>.iso /media”
  • Change to the /media directory, i.e. “cd /media.
  • Verify that host name in the /etc/hosts file is associated with the server's public IP address.
  • Run the installer script as root, by typing “./runInstaller.sh”

# ./runInstaller.sh

Oracle VM Manager Release 3.1.1 Installer

Oracle VM Manager Installer log file:
 /tmp/install-2012-09-11-212603.log

Please select an installation type:
   1: Demo
   2: Production
   3: Uninstall
   4: Help

   Select Number (1-4): 1

Starting demo installation ...

The Demo installation type will use an XE database.  The usage of XE is for *demo purposes only* and is not supported for production. Please *do not* plan to start with XE and migrate to a supported version of the database as this may not be possible. For production environments or any long term usage please use the "Production" option with an SE or EE database.
   1: Continue
   2: Abort

   Select Number (1-2): 1

Verifying installation prerequisites ...

One password is used for all users created and used during the installation.
Enter a password for all logins used during the installation:
Enter a password for all logins used during the installation (confirm):

Verifying configuration ...

Start installing the configured components:
   1: Continue
   2: Abort

   Select Number (1-2): 1

Step 1 of 9 : Database ...
Installing Database ...
Retrieving Oracle Database 11g XE ...
Installing Oracle Database 11g XE ...
Configuring Oracle Database 11g XE ...

Step 2 of 9 : Java ...
Installing Java ...

Step 3 of 9 : Database Schema ...
Creating database schema 'ovs' ...

Step 4 of 9 : WebLogic ...
Retrieving Oracle WebLogic Server 11g ...
Installing Oracle WebLogic Server 11g ...

Step 5 of 9 : ADF ...
Retrieving Oracle Application Development Framework (ADF) ...
Unzipping Oracle ADF ...
Installing Oracle ADF ...
Installing Oracle ADF Patch...

Step 6 of 9 : Oracle VM  ...
Retrieving Oracle VM Manager Application ...
Extracting Oracle VM Manager Application ...
Installing Oracle VM Manager Core ...

Step 7 of 9 : Domain creation ...
Creating Oracle WebLogic Server domain ...
Starting Oracle WebLogic Server 11g ...
Configuring data source 'OVMDS' ...
Creating Oracle VM Manager user 'admin' ...

Step 8 of 9 : Deploy ...
Deploying Oracle VM Manager Core container ...
Deploying Oracle VM Manager UI Console ...
Deploying Oracle VM Manager Help ...
Enabling HTTPS ...
Granting ovm-admin role to user 'admin' ...

Step 9 of 9 : Oracle VM Manager Shell ...
Retrieving Oracle VM Manager Shell & API ...
Extracting Oracle VM Manager Shell & API ...
Installing Oracle VM Manager Shell & API ...

Retrieving Oracle VM Manager Upgrade tool ...
Extracting Oracle VM Manager Upgrade tool ...
Installing Oracle VM Manager Upgrade tool ...
Copying Oracle VM Manager shell to '/usr/bin/ovm_shell.sh' ...
Installing ovm_admin.sh in '/u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/bin' ...
Installing ovm_upgrade.sh in '/u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/bin' ...
Enabling Oracle VM Manager service ...
Shutting down Oracle VM Manager instance ...
Restarting Oracle VM Manager instance ...
Waiting 15 seconds for the application to initialize ...
Oracle VM Manager is running ...
Oracle VM Manager installed.

Please wait while WebLogic configures the applications... This can take up to 5 minutes.

Installation Summary
--------------------
Database configuration:
  Database host name          : localhost
  Database instance name (SID): XE
  Database listener port      : 1521
  Application Express port    : 8080
  Oracle VM Manager schema    : ovs

Weblogic Server configuration:
  Administration username     : weblogic

Oracle VM Manager configuration:
  Username                    : admin
  Core management port        : 54321
  UUID                        : 0004fb000001000080fc581c280f9d86


Passwords:
There are no default passwords for any users. The passwords to use for Oracle VM Manager, Oracle Database 11g XE, and Oracle WebLogic Server have been set by you during this installation. In the case of a default install, all passwords are the same.

Oracle VM Manager UI:
  http://<HOSTNAME>:7001/ovm/console
  https://<HOSTNAME>:7002/ovm/console
Log in with the user 'admin', and the password you set during the installation.

Please note that you need to install tightvnc-java on this computer to access a virtual machine's console.

For more information about Oracle Virtualization, please visit:
  http://www.oracle.com/virtualization/

Oracle VM Manager installation complete.

Please remove configuration file /tmp/ovm_configuREcOz.

#

Oracle VM Manager was sucessfully installed.
 
Next, as suggested by the Oracle VM Manager installer, remove the configuration file in the /tmp directory (see your Oracle VM Manager install message for the file name).
# rm -fr /tmp/file-name
 
Figure 12 shows the Oracle VM Manager Login page.
Oracle VM Production Installaion

To login to Oracle VM Manager, use the "admin" user account with the password entered during the installation. Figure 13 shows the Oracle VM Manager administrative console.
Oracle VM Manager Production Servers and VMs
 
After a successful login, create a server pool by completing the following tasks:
  • Discover the Oracle VM Servers
  • Setup the Oracle VM Server's networking
  • Setup the Networking for the server pool
  • Setup NTP
  • Setup a YUM server
  • Create Tags (optional)
  • Register a file server or a storage array
  • Create a storage repository to host virtual machine resources
  • Create a server pool

Oracle VM Manager Demo Uninstallation

The ability to quickly rebuild, remove and restore Oracle VM Manager is an essential Oracle VM lifecycle operation. If the goal of an Oracle VM Manager uninstall is to start over without the need to preserve previous Oracle VM server pools, simply uninstall and reinstall Oracle VM Manager. If the goal is to recover Oracle VM Manager, with previous Oracle VM server pools, uninstall and reinstall Oracle VM Manager using the UUID restore switch. A UUID Oracle VM Manager installation can be done with or without an Oracle VM Manager Database repository schema backup and restore operation. If the intent is to restore Oracle VM Manager database schema, an Oracle VM Manager uninstall may not be necessary. Regardless of the Oracle VM Manager uninstall intent, it is necessary to completely uninstall each of the Oracle VM Manager components.
 
The next example shows the steps to perform a Oracle VM Manager Demo uninstall (applicable for Oracle VM 3.0.1 up to 3.1.1).
  • Download the Oracle VM Manager installation media (not source) from the Oracle Software Delivery Cloud - Oracle Linux and Oracle VM portal.
  • Copy the Oracle VM Manager installation media to a directory on the Oracle VM Manager host.
  • Log in to the Oracle VM Manager host as root, and unzip the file.
  • Mount the ISO file by typing “mount -o loop <FILE NAME>.iso /media”
  • Change to the /media directory, i.e. “cd /media.
  • Verify that host name in the /etc/hosts file is associated with the server's public IP address.
  • Run the installer script as root, by typing “./runInstaller.sh”
./runInstaller.sh

Oracle VM Manager Release 3.0.3 Installer

Oracle VM Manager Installer log file:
/tmp/ovmm-installer.selfextract_gx5525/install-2011-09-10-160853.log

Please select an installation type:
1: Demo
2: Production
3: Uninstall
4: Help

   Select Number (1-4): 3

Uninstall Oracle VM Manager

Product component : Oracle 11g XE in '/u01/app/oracle/product'
Oracle 11g XE is installed ...

Uninstall options
1: Uninstall Oracle 11g XE
2: Skip uninstall of Oracle 11g XE

  Select Number (1-2): 1
Removing Oracle 11g XE installation ...

Product component : Java in '/u01/app/oracle/java/'
Java is installed ...
Uninstall options
1: Uninstall Java
2: Skip uninstall of Java

  Select Number (1-2): 1
Removing Java installation ...

Product component : Oracle VM Manager in '/u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/'
Oracle VM Manager is installed ...

Uninstall options
1: Uninstall Oracle VM 3.0 Manager
2: Skip uninstall of Oracle VM 3.0 Manager

Select Number (1-2): 1

Removing Oracle VM Manager installation ...
Product component : Oracle WebLogic Server in '/u01/app/oracle/Middleware/'
Oracle WebLogic Server is installed

Uninstall options
1: Uninstall Oracle WebLogic Server
2: Skip uninstall of Oracle WebLogic Server

Select Number (1-2): 1
Removing Oracle WebLogic Server installation ...

Uninstall completed ...
 
#
 
Oracle VM Manager has been successfully uninstalled.
 

Oracle VM Manager Post Installation Checklist

Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Download the Oracle VM Manager Installation Media
Oracle VM Manager Prerequisites
Install Oracle VM Manager
Oracle VM Manager Post Installation Checklist
After installing Oracle VM Manager, please review and complete the tasks on the post-installation checklist.
 
1. Enable the Virtual Machine VNC and Serial Consoles
Applicable to all Oracle VM 3.x Releases. 
Oracle VM Manager utilizes the Remote Access Service (RAS) java applet to proxy virtual machine VNC and serial console connections from an Oracle VM Server's ovm-consoled service to your desktop. To enable the VNC and serial console, download and install the TightVNC RPM package and the Java Telnet Application (JTA2) RPM package on the Oracle VM Manager host. The TightVNC and Java Telnet Application (JTA2) packages can be downloaded and installed in any directory, i.e. /tmp on the Oracle Linux host.
 
Note: I recommend installing the RealVNC client on your workstation to connect to the virtual machine VNC console. The RealVNC client is more full featured than the default TightVNC client. 
 
There is only one VNC packages for both Oracle Linux 5 and 6, and the following two Java Telnet Application (JTA2) RPM packages for Oracle Linux 5 and 6: 
JTA (Oracle Linux 5): http://public-yum.oracle.com/repo/EnterpriseLinux/EL5/addons/x86_64/jta-2.6-1.noarch.rpm
JTA (Oracle Linux 6): http://public-yum.oracle.com/repo/OracleLinux/OL6/addons/x86_64/jta-2.6-1.noarch.rpm
 
The next example shows how to download and install the TightVNC and Java Telnet Application (JTA2) packages on a Oracle Linux 6 Oracle VM Manager host.  
# cd /tmp
# wget http://oss.oracle.com/oraclevm/manager/RPMS/tightvnc-java-1.3.9-3.noarch.rpm
# wget http://public-yum.oracle.com/repo/OracleLinux/OL6/addons/x86_64/jta-2.6-1.noarch.rpm
# rpm -ivh tightvnc-java*
warning: tightvnc-java-1.3.9-3.noarch.rpm: Header V3 DSA/SHA1 Signature, key ID 1e5e0159: NOKEY
Preparing...                ########################################### [100%]
   1:tightvnc-java          ########################################### [100%]
# rpm -ivh jta-2.6-1.noarch.rpm
Preparing...                ########################################### [100%]
   1:jta                    ########################################### [100%]
 
2. Download and Install the Oracle VM Manager Utilities
Applicable to all Oracle VM 3.x Releases. 
The Oracle VM utilities provide a command line interface to the Oracle VM Manager Core API. The Oracle VM utilities allows Oracle VM Manager administrative tasks to be performed from the command line or executed using scripts.
 
Tip: The Oracle VM utilities are a great command line alternative to Oracle VM Manager and offer exceptional performance over WAN connections when Oracle VM Manager is not an option.
 
There are a total of seven [7] Oracle VM utilities:
  • ovm_managercontrol
  • ovm_poolcontrol
  • ovm_repocontrol
  • ovm_servercontrol
  • ovm_vmcontrol
  • ovm_vmdisks
  • ovm_vmmessage
The Oracle VM utilities are available as a patch download from http://support.oracle.com. As of this writing the latest release is patch 13602094. Once downloaded, unzip the files on the Oracle VM Manager host in the /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3 directory.
 
# unzip ovm_utils_0.5.2.zip -d /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3
Archive:  ovm_utils_0.5.2.zip
   creating: /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/ovm_utils/
  inflating: /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/ovm_utils/ovm_servercontrol  
  inflating: /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/ovm_utils/ovm_repocontrol  
   creating: /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/ovm_utils/man/
   creating: /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/ovm_utils/man/man8/
  inflating: /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/ovm_utils/man/man8/ovm_vmmessage.8  
  inflating: /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/ovm_utils/man/man8/ovm_poolcontrol.8  
  inflating: /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/ovm_utils/man/man8/ovm_repocontrol.8  
  inflating: /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/ovm_utils/man/man8/ovm_vmcontrol.8  
  inflating: /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/ovm_utils/man/man8/ovm_servercontrol.8  
  inflating: /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/ovm_utils/man/man8/ovm_managercontrol.8  
  inflating: /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/ovm_utils/man/man8/ovm_vmdisks.8  
  inflating: /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/ovm_utils/ovm_managercontrol  
  inflating: /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/ovm_utils/ovm_vmdisks  
  inflating: /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/ovm_utils/ovm_vmmessage  
  inflating: /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/ovm_utils/ovm_vmcontrol  
   creating: /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/ovm_utils/class/
  inflating: /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/ovm_utils/class/OvmPoolControl.class  
  inflating: /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/ovm_utils/class/OvmCoreControl.class  
  inflating: /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/ovm_utils/class/OvmVmMessage.class  
  inflating: /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/ovm_utils/class/OvmBackup.class  
  inflating: /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/ovm_utils/class/OvmRepoControl.class  
  inflating: /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/ovm_utils/class/OvmVmControl.class  
  inflating: /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/ovm_utils/class/OvmServerControl.class  
  inflating: /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/ovm_utils/ovm_poolcontrol  
   creating: /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/ovm_utils/lib/
  inflating: /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/ovm_utils/lib/commons-logging.jar  
  inflating: /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/ovm_utils/lib/OvmClient.jar  
  inflating: /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/ovm_utils/lib/log4j.jar
 
3. VMPinfo3 Installation for Diagnostic Capture & Troubleshooting
Applicable to all Oracle VM 3.x Releases. 
VMPinfo3 is a modified version of sosreport for Oracle VM. VMPinfo3 is a set of tools with a command line interface that use the Oracle VM API to collect log files and troubleshooting information from Oracle VM Server pools. VMPinfo3 runs from the Oracle VM Manager host and collects and consolidates log files from each Oracle VM Server managed by Oracle VM Manager.
 
Tip: VMPinfo3 is Oracle support's primary tool for working Oracle VM Service Requests (SRs). To expedite your Oracle VM SRs, always include a VMPinfo3 diagnostic capture.
 
Table 6 Shows the Oracle VM VMPInfo3 Support Matrix:
Oracle VM Release
Default Feature
Command to Run VMPinfo3
Oracle VM 3.0.2 up to 3.1.1
NO
Note:  VMPinfo is not installed by default
# cd /home/oracle
# ./vmpinfo3.sh --username=admin --password=PASSWORD
Note: The diagnostic capture will be created in the /tmp directory with the following name, date and format “vmpinfo3-<date-time>.tar.bz2”.
Oracle VM 3.2 and Above
YES
Note: VMPinfo is installed by default
# cd /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/ovm_shell/tools/vmpinfo
# ./vmpinfo3.sh  --username=admin --password=PASSWORD
Note: The diagnostic capture will be created in the /tmp directory with the following name, date and format “vmpinfo3-<date-time>.tar.bz2”.
Applicable for Oracle VM 3.0.1 up to 3.1.1:
VMPinfo3 consists of two RPM packages. The vmpinfo-manager-1.0.0-1.noarch.rpm RPM is installed on the Oracle VM Manager host. The vmpinfo-sosreport-1.0.3-1.noarch.rpm RPM is installed on each Oracle VM Server. The VMPinfo3 RPMs are downloadable from My Oracle Support via ID 1364933.1.

Once you have downloaded the VMPinfo3 RPMs, copy the vmpinfo-manager-1.0.0-1.noarch.rpm RPM to the Oracle VM Manager host, and vmpinfo-sosreport-1.0.3-1.noarch.rpm RPM to each Oracle VM Server.

On the Oracle VM manager host, as root type “rpm -ivh  vmpinfo-manager-1.0.0-1.noarch.rpm”
to install the vmpinfo-manager RPM.

On Oracle VM Server 3.1.1 and above, before installing the vmpinfo-sosreport-1.0.3-1.noarch.rpm RPM, remove the conflicting “vmpinfo3-sosreport-1.0.0-4.el5.noarch” RPM package by typing  “rpm -e  “vmpinfo3-sosreport-1.0.0-4.el5.noarch”. Next, type “rpm -ivh  vmpinfo-sosreport-1.0.3-1.noarch.rpm” to install vmpinfo3-sosreport.

To run VMPinfo3 and create a diagnostic capture, access the Oracle VM Manager host as the oracle user, and change to the “/home/oracle/vmpinfo3/” directory. From the vmpinfo3 directory, run the vmpinfo3.sh script as show in the next example.
$ cd vmpinfo3/
$ ./vmpinfo3.sh --username=admin --password=<ADMIN PASSWORD>

The password used for the vmpinfo3.sh script is for the Oracle VM Manager “admin” user account.  The diagnostic capture will be created in the /tmp directory with the following name, date and format “vmpinfo3-<date-time>.tar.bz2”.
 
4. Patch Oracle VM Manager
Applicable to Oracle VM 3.0.3, 3.1.1 and 3.2.2 
Even after a fresh installation of Oracle VM Manager, if a patch update is available, a best practice is to patch Oracle VM Manager before using Oracle VM Manager to avoid previously fixed bugs. When updating Oracle VM, Oracle VM Manager must be updated first, followed by the Oracle VM Servers managed by Oracle VM Manager. As of this writing (04-14-2013), there are three Oracle VM Manager patch updates; Oracle VM Manager Release 3.0.3.546, Oracle VM Manager Release 3.1.1.625, and Oracle VM Manager Release 3.2.2.521.
 
Table 7 lists the Oracle VM Manager Patch Updates.
Oracle VM Release
Latest Oracle VM Patch Update
Available From My Oracle Support
Oracle VM Upgrades
Available From eDelivery
Oracle VM 3.0.1
 
 
Oracle VM 3.0.2
 
Oracle VM Manager 3.0.2 - Upgrade only
upgrade Oracle VM Manager 3.0.1
Oracle VM 3.0.3
Patch 13614645: ORACLE VM MANAGER PATCH 3.0.3-546 RELEASE
Oracle VM Manager 3.0.3 - Upgrade only
Upgrade from Oracle VM Manager 3.0.1 or Oracle VM Manager 3.0.2
Oracle VM 3.1.1
Patch 14227416: ORACLE VM MANAGER PATCH 3.1.1-625 RELEASE (Patch)
Oracle VM Manager 3.1.1 - Upgrade only
Upgrade from Oracle VM Manager 3.0.2 or Oracle VM Manager 3.0.3
Oracle VM 3.2.1
 
Oracle VM Manager 3.2.1 - Upgrade only
Upgrade from Oracle VM Manager 3.0.3 or Oracle VM Manager 3.1.1
Oracle VM 3.2.2 (Build 520)
Patch 16410417: ORACLE VM 3.2.3 MANAGER UPGRADE ISO RELEASE (Patch) (Build 521)
Oracle VM Manager 3.2.2 - Upgrade only
Upgrade from Oracle VM Manager 3.0.3 or Oracle VM Manager 3.1.1
 
I actually have a whole chapter of the Oracle Cloud Cookbook, Oracle VM Patch Updates, devoted to applying patch updates to Oracle VM Manager and Oracle VM Server.
 

5. Create Oracle VM Manager Admin Users

A best practice is to create an individual user account for each administrator that access Oracle VM Manager. Oracle VM Manager has two default administrative user accounts; the admin user account and the weblogic user account (lowercase). The passwords for the admin and the weboigic accounts are set during the Oracle VM Manager installation. By default Oracle VM Manager user accounts are local user accounts that are stored and managed using WebLogic and the ovm_admin script. User accounts can be created, deleted, listed, modified, locked, and unlocked using WebLogic and the Oracle VM Manager ovm_admin script.
 
Oracle VM Manager does not support role based access control. All administrative users with access to the Oracle VM Manager GUI have root administrative access to all of the objects managed by Oracle VM Manager. If role based access control is a requirement, role based access control can be configured for Oracle VM Manager using Enterprise Manager Cloud Control. With Cloud Control, each object managed by Oracle VM Manager can be configured using role based access control. The Oracle VM product family; Oracle VM Server, Oracle VM Manager, Oracle VM Templates and Assemblies can be managed with Oracle VM Manager and Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Cloud Control. Unlike Oracle VM 2.x, which could only be managed by Oracle VM Manager or Oracle Enterprise Manager, not both, Oracle VM 3 and above can be managed simultaneously by Oracle VM Manager along with Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Cloud Control.
 
Tip: Oracle VM Manager as well as Enterprise Manager support LDAP integration for user management and authentication.
 
User accounts can be created, deleted, listed, modified, locked, and unlocked using the Oracle VM Manager ovm_admin script.
 
Table 8 shows the ovm_admin script options. Type /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/bin/ovm_admin --help to list the options. 
Options
--help Shows this message
--createuser <admin> <password> Create new Oracle VM Manager admin user
--deleteuser <admin> Delete Oracle VM Manager admin user
--listusers List Oracle VM Manager users
--modifyuser <admin> <password> <new_password> Modify Oracle VM Manager user password
--lockusers <tries> Max login tries before locking account. This setting is global.
--unlockuser <admin> Unlock user account
--modifyds <SID> <host> <port> <schema> <password> Modify Data Store 'OVMDS'
--listconfig List configuration
--rotatelogsdaily <time> Rotate Logs Daily (HH:MM)
--rotatelogsbysize <size> Rotate Logs By Size (KB)
The following examples how how to create, list, modify and delete an Oracle VM Manager administrative users. The example user name is user1. Change the example user name user1 to the desired user name.  
 
As root, access an Oracle VM Manager host, and type "/u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/bin/ovm_admin --createuser" as shown in the next example. 
 
# /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/bin/ovm_admin --createuser
 
Oracle VM Manager Release 3.2.3 Admin tool
 
Please enter the username : user1
 
Please enter the password for user1 (minimum 8 chars. with one numeric/special char.) : 
Please re-enter the password : 
 
Please enter the password for weblogic : 
 
Initializing WebLogic Scripting Tool (WLST) ...
 
Welcome to WebLogic Server Administration Scripting Shell
 
Type help() for help on available commands
 
Connecting to WebLogic server ...
 
Connected ...
Creating user 'user1' ...
Created user 'user1' successfully ...
Exiting...
 
The next examples how how to list the Oracle VM Manager administrative users. As root, access an Oracle VM Manager host, and type "/u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/bin/ovm_admin --listusers" as shown in the next example. 
 
# /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/bin/ovm_admin --listusers
Oracle VM Manager Release 3.2.3 Admin tool
 
Please enter the password for weblogic : 
 
Initializing WebLogic Scripting Tool (WLST) ...
 
Welcome to WebLogic Server Administration Scripting Shell
 
Type help() for help on available commands
 
Connecting to WebLogic server ...
 
Connected ...
Listing Oracle VM users ...
User : admin
User : user1
Listed users successfully ...
Exiting...
 
The next examples how how to change an Oracle VM Manager administrative users password. As root, access an Oracle VM Manager host, and type "/u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/bin/ovm_admin --modifyuser" as shown in the next example. 
 
# /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/bin/ovm_admin --modifyuser
 
Oracle VM Manager Release 3.2.3 Admin tool
 
Please enter the username : user1
 
Please enter the current password : 
 
Please enter a new password for user1 (minimum 8 chars. with one numeric/special char.) : 
Please re-enter the password : 
 
Please enter the password for weblogic : 
 
Initializing WebLogic Scripting Tool (WLST) ...
 
Welcome to WebLogic Server Administration Scripting Shell
 
Type help() for help on available commands
 
Connecting to WebLogic server ...
 
Connected ...
Modifying user 'roddyr' ...
Failed to modify user 'roddyr' ...
Exiting...
 
The next examples how how to delete an Oracle VM Manager administrative users password. As root, access an Oracle VM Manager host, and type "/u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/bin/ovm_admin --deleteuser username" as shown in the next example. 
 
# /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/bin/ovm_admin --deleteuser user1
 
Oracle VM Manager Release 3.2.3 Admin tool
 
Please enter the password for weblogic : 
 
Initializing WebLogic Scripting Tool (WLST) ...
 
Welcome to WebLogic Server Administration Scripting Shell
 
Type help() for help on available commands
 
Connecting to WebLogic server ...
 
Connected ...
Deleting user 'user1' ...
Deleted user 'user1' successfully ...
Exiting...

 

Oracle VM Manager Log Files and Log File Analysis

When things go wrong with Oracle VM Manager, being able to quickly determine the “root cause” of an issue can eliminate or reduce down time. The most effective way to identify problems with Oracle VM Manager is to analyze the WebLogic application logs on the Oracle VM Manager host.
 
The WebLogic application logs contain all of the Oracle VM Manager messages. The WebLogic application logs are located in the following directory:
/u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/machine1/base_adf_domain/servers/AdminServer/logs
 
Table 8 lists each of the WebLogic application logs for Oracle VM Manager.
Log File Name Description
access.log The access.log shows each GET and POST method for Oracle VM Manager.
AdminServer-diagnostic.log The AdminServer-diagnostic.log shows the WebLogic Admin Server's diagnostic logs.
AdminServer.log The AdminServer.log shows the WebLogic Admin Server's logs.
base_adf_domain.log The base_adf_domain.log shows the Oracle Application Development Framework (ADF) logs.
Use grep to quickly find errors, i.e.
grep -i "error" /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/machine1/base_adf_domain/servers/AdminServer/logs/AdminServer*
 

Restore Oracle VM Manager

The ability to quickly restore Oracle VM Manager is an essential Oracle VM lifecycle operation. If the goal is to start over without the need to preserve previous Oracle VM server pools, a restore is not necessary, simply uninstall and reinstall Oracle VM Manager. If the goal is to recover Oracle VM Manager, with previous Oracle VM server pools, uninstall and reinstall Oracle VM Manager using the UUID restore switch. The UUID restore switch enables Oracle VM Manager to re-discover existing server pools without interrupting running Oracle VM Servers and virtual machines. A Oracle VM Manager UUID restore installation can be done with or without an Oracle VM Manager Database repository schema backup and restore opertaion. If the intent is to restore Oracle VM Manager database schema, Oracle VM Manager would only need to be uninstalled and reinstalled, if it is crashed and is unrecoverable. Regardless of the Oracle VM Manager recovery use case (excluding a Database repository schema restore), if Oracle VM Manager is installed on the host to be recovered, it is necessary to completely uninstall each of the Oracle VM Manager components.
 
If Oracle VM Manager is installed on the host to be restored, Oracle VM Manager must be completely uninstalled before conducting the Oracle VM Manager installation using the UUID restore option. Uninstalling Oracle VM Manager wipes the previous Oracle VM Manager installation without disrupting existing server pool configurations. Oracle VM Server pool configurations are saved in each Oracle VM Server pool's pool file system (poolfs). Uninstalling Oracle VM Manager with its Database repository does not delete a server pool's configurations. If the goal of a reinstall is to start over without previous pools, simply uninstall and reinstall Oracle VM Manager. If the goal is to recover Oracle VM Manager with previous pools, uninstall and reinstall Oracle VM Manager using the UUID restore switch.
 
Restoring Oracle VM Manager includes a Oracle VM Manager installation with the UUID restore switch (-u, or --uuid) using the UUID from the previous Oracle VM Manager installationfollowed by discovering the Oracle VM Server, and configurating the storage in Oracle VM Manager. The UUID restore switch enables Oracle VM Manager to re-discover existing server pools. If a production Oracle VM Manager system crashes and is unrecoverable, a fresh installation of Oracle VM Manager using the UUID restore switch will have no impact to the running Oracle VM Servers and virtual machines. Oracle VM Manager can be restored without interrupting running Oracle VM Servers and virtual machines.
 
Oracle VM Manager Restore Roadmap
1- Delete the Standard or Enterprise Edition Oracle VM Manager Database Repository (This step is only for Custom and Production Installations. XE and MySQL Databases are removed as part of a the uninstall).
2- Completely uninstall Oracle VM Manager using the runInstaller script.
3- Install Oracle VM Manager using the runInstaller script with the UUID restore switch.
4- From Oracle VM Manager Discover the Oracle VM Servers and Configure the Storage
 
Delete the Standard or Enterprise Edition Oracle VM Manager Database Repository (This step is only for Production Installations. XE and MySQL Databases are removed as part of the uninstall).
The first step to uninstall a Custom or Production Oracle VM Manager installation is to remove the Oracle VM Manager database repository schema. There are two options, the first option is to access the Oracle VM Manager database repository and drop the OVS user and the OVMM_PROFILE profile. The second option is to access the Oracle VM Manager host and run the ovm_upgrade.sh script with the switches to remove Oracle VM Manager database repository.
 
The first step is to stop Oracle VM Manager, i.e. the ovmm service. As root type "service ovmm stop" to stop Oracle VM Manager.
 
The next example shows the steps to drop the OVS user from the Oracle VM Manager database repository using sqlplus. The following sqlplus example uses the "oracle" user account with the environment variables set in the ~/.bash_profile file. If the account you are using does not have the environment variables set, and your unable to run sqlplus, please engage your DBA for assistance.xx
 
# sqlplus / AS SYSDBA
SQL> drop user ovs cascade;

User dropped.

SQL> 
 
Note: Only for Oracle VM 3.2.x and above, it is also necessary to delete the OVMM_PROFILE. Fro example, with the OVMM_PROFILE the Oracle VM installer throws the "ORA-02379: profile OVMM_PROFILE already exists" error and prompty fails. The next example shows how to drop the OVMM_PROFILE.
 
SQL> drop profile OVMM_PROFILE cascade;
 
Profile dropped.
 
SQL>
 
The next example shows the steps to delete the Oracle VM Manager database repository using the ovm_upgrade.sh script.
 
Note: Replace the bold sections with the proper entries for your environment.
 
# chmod 755 /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/ovm_upgrade/bin/ovm_upgrade.sh
# /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/bin/ovm_upgrade.sh --dbhost=localhost --dbport=1521 --dbsid=orcl --dbuser=ovs --dbpass=PASSWORD --deletedb

COMMAND: /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/ovm_upgrade/bin/ovm_upgrade.sh --dbhost=localhost --dbport=1521 --dbsid=orcl --dbuser=ovs --dbpass=PASSWORD --deletedb

Using existing transform XSL files
Copying deleted classes files to patch path location
`./deletedClasses.xml' -> `/tmp/ovmpatches/deletedClasses.xml'
 INFO (OvmUpgrade.java:206) Oracle OVM Manager Upgrade Processor
 INFO (OvmUpgrade.java:207)
 INFO (OvmUpgrade.java:488) Upgrade Initialization Starting
 INFO (OdofDirector.java:220) Oracle Distributed Object Fabric (ODOF): Copyright (C) 2007, 2012 Oracle.  All rights reserved.
 INFO (OdofDirector.java:221) ODOF Version: 1.0.0.0
 INFO (OdofDirector.java:222) Initializing...
 INFO (OdofDirector.java:279) Initialization Complete!
 INFO (OvmUpgrade.java:490) Upgrade Initialization Complete
 INFO (WipeDbStage.java:23) Database Wipe Starting
 INFO (ObjectStore.java:613) Wiping Exchange
 INFO (RelationalStore.java:542) Initializing / Clearing Database Tables
 INFO (ObjectStore.java:641) Wiping Complete!
 INFO (WipeDbStage.java:26) Database Wipe Complete
 
Oracle VM Manager Installation with the UUID Restore Switch
Restoring Oracle VM Manager includes a Oracle VM Manager installation with the UUID restore switch (-u, or --uuid) using the UUID from the previous Oracle VM Manager installation, followed by discovering the Oracle VM Server, and configurating the storage in Oracle VM Manager. The UUID restore switch enables Oracle VM Manager to re-discover existing server pools. Oracle VM Manager can be restored without interrupting running Oracle VM Servers and virtual machines.
 
The Oracle VM Manager UUID is listed in the following three files:
  • On the Oracle VM Manager host, the “.config ” file in the Oracle VM Manager home /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/
  • On the Oracle VM Manager host, the /etc/sysconfig/ovmm file
  • The .ovsrepo file in the pool file system (in the quorum disk), i.e. /poolfsmnt/UUID/.ovsrepo
The next example shows the content of the .config file with the Oracle VM Manager UUID in bold.

# cat /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/.config  
DBHOST=localhost
SID=orcl
LSNR=1521
APEX=None
OVSSCHEMA=ovs
WLSADMIN=weblogic
OVSADMIN=admin
COREPORT=54321
UUID=0004fb00000100009edfaa0f93184f44
BUILDID=3.0.3.126
 
The next example shows the content of the ovmm file with the Oracle VM Manager UUID in bold.
 
# cat /etc/sysconfig/ovmm
RUN_OVMM=YES
JVM_MEMORY_MAX=4096m
JVM_MAX_PERM=512m
DBBACKUP=/u01/app/oracle/mysql/dbbackup
DBBACKUP_CMD=/opt/mysql/meb-3.8/bin/mysqlbackup
UUID=0004fb00000100009edfaa0f93184f44


The next example shows the content of the .ovsrepo file with the Oracle VM Manager UUID in bold.


# cat .ovsrepo
OVS_REPO_UUID=0004fb0000030000554308a6997a6b2f
OVS_REPO_MGR_UUID=0004fb00000100009edfaa0f93184f44
OVS_REPO_VERSION=3.0
 
The next example shows how to restore the Oracle VM Manager pool with UUID=0004fb00000100009edfaa0f93184f44.
 
# ./runInstaller.sh -u 0004fb00000100009edfaa0f93184f44
 

Discover the Oracle VM Servers and Configure the Storage

UNDER CONSTRUCTION
 
The following images show a complete UUID restore.
 
Figure 14
Oracle VM Manager Backup Restore
 
Figure 15
Oracle VM Manager UUID Restore
 
Figure 16
Oracle VM Manager Discover Servers
 
Figure 17
Oracle VM Manager UUID Server Pool
 
Figure 18
Oracle VM Manager Restore ISCSI SAN NFS Storage
 
Figure 19
Oracle VM Manager Setup Storage
 
Figure 20
Oracle VM Manager UUID ISCSI
 
Figure 21
Oracle VM Manager Discover SAN server
 
Figure 22
Oracle VM Manager Access Server
 
Figure 23
Oracle VM Manager Create Access Host
 
Figure 24
Oracle VM Manager Setup Storage
 
Figure 25
Oracle VM Manager Add Admin Servers
 
Figure 26
Oracle VM Manager Default Access Group
 
Figure 27
Oracle VM Manager Storage Initiators
 
Figure 28
Oracle VM Manager Manage Access Group
 
Figure 29
Oracle VM Manager Refresh Storage
 
Figure 30
Oracle VM Manager SAN Storage
 
Figure 31
Oracle VM Manager Storage Initiators
 
Figure 32
Oracle VM Manager Repositories Setup
 
Figure 33
Oracle VM Manager Edit Repository
 
Figure 34
Oracle VM Manager Present Repository
 
Figure 35
Oracle VM Manager Refresh Repositories
 

Oracle VM Manager Backups

Before upgrading Oracle VM Manager, a best practice is to backup the Oracle VM Manager configuration file as well as the Oracle VM Manager Database repository. To be able to restore Oracle VM Manager from backup, a backup of the Oracle VM Manager configuration file and the Oracle VM Manager Database repository is required.

To restore Oracle VM Manager from backup, a backup of the Oracle VM Manager  hosts' “.config” file is used with the Oracle VM Manager runInstaller.sh script to re-install Oracle VM Manager using the backed up configurations. The runInstaller.sh script is located in the Oracle VM Manager ISO image. When Oracle VM Manager is re-installed with a backup of the .config file, Oracle VM Manager can re-discover the Oracle VM Servers, repositories and virtual machines resources.

Tip: The Oracle VM Manager installation parameters can be listed by running “runInstaller.sh -h”.

If the Oracle VM Manager Database repository needs to be restored from backup, access the Database system and restore the Oracle VM Manager ovs database schema from a backup.

In the event that Oracle VM Manager configurations need to be modified to restore from backup, the “ovm_admin" utility is used to modify Oracle VM Manager configurations. The next example shows the help file from the ovm_admin utility.

/u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/bin/ovm_admin --help

Oracle VM Manager Release 3.2.3 Admin tool

Table 10 shows the ovm_admin options: /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/bin/ovm_admin [options]
Options
--help Shows this message
--createuser <admin> <password> Create new Oracle VM Manager admin user
--deleteuser <admin> Delete Oracle VM Manager admin user
--listusers List Oracle VM Manager users
--modifyuser <admin> <password> <new_password> Modify Oracle VM Manager user password
--lockusers <tries> Max login tries before locking account. This setting is global.
--unlockuser <admin> Unlock user account
--modifyds <SID> <host> <port> <schema> <password> Modify Data Store 'OVMDS'
--listconfig List configuration
--rotatelogsdaily <time> Rotate Logs Daily (HH:MM)
--rotatelogsbysize <size> Rotate Logs By Size (KB)


Backup Oracle VM Manager Configuration File

The Oracle VM Manager configuration file “.config ” is located on the Oracle VM Manager host(s) in the /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/ directory. The next example shows the syntax of the Oracle VM Manager .config file.

DBHOST=<THE HOSTNAME OF THE DATABASE SERVER>
SID=<ORACLE DATABASE SID>
LSNR=<THE LISTENER PORT FOR THE DATABASE>
APEX=<THE APPLICATION EXPRESS PORT>
OVSSCHEMA=<THE DEFAULT ORACLE VM MANAGER DATABASE SCHEMA NAME>
WLSADMIN=<THE DEFAULT WEBLOGIC SERVER ADMIN NAME>
OVSADMIN=<THE DEFAULT ORACLE VM MANAGER ADMIN NAME>
COREPORT=<THE DEFAULT ORACLE VM MANAGER CORE PORT>
UUID=<THE ORACLE VM MANAGER UUID>

The next example shows a .config file from a production Oracle VM Manager host.

# cat /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/.config
# cat .config
DBHOST=localhost
SID=orcl
LSNR=1521
APEX=None
OVSSCHEMA=ovs
WLSADMIN=weblogic
OVSADMIN=admin
COREPORT=54321
UUID=0004fb00000100009edfaa0f93184f44
BUILDID=3.1.1.305
FROMVERSION=3.0.3
TOVERSION=3.1.1

Before backing up the .config file, Oracle VM Manager must be shut down. To shut down Oracle VM Manager, access the Oracle VM Manager host as the root user, and type “service ovmm stop”, as shown in the next example.

# service ovmm stop
Stopping Oracle VM Manager                                 [  OK  ]

Once Oracle VM Manager is stopped, backup the /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/.config. The next example shows how to backup the .config file in the root users home directly with a descriptive name “ovm-back-” and the date.

# zip -9r /~ovm-back-`hostname -s`-`date +%F`.zip /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/.config

Once the .config file is backed up, start Oracle VM Manager by typing “service ovmm start” as shown in the following example.

# service ovmm start
Starting Oracle VM Manager                                 [  OK  ]


Oracle VM Manager Database Repository Backup

Once the Oracle VM Manager configuration file is backed up, and Oracle VM Manager is running, the Oracle VM Manager repository should be backed up. Oracle recommends a full database repository backup. If you're brave, “only” backup the ovs schema.

The following example shows how to do a full Oracle Express, Standard or Enterprise Edition Database repository backup using the exp utility.

Note: The exp utility is one of many applications that can be used to do a full Oracle VM Manager Database repository backup.

The exp utility can be run in one of three modes: interactive dialogue, controlled through bypassed parameters and parameter file controlled. For the sake of brevity, we will use the interactive dialogue mode to do a full Oracle VM Manager 11g Standard or Enterprise Edition Database repository backup.

The exp utility usage is a field unto itself, a detailed review is beyond the scope of this book. The goal of this section is to explain how to do a full Oracle VM Manager 11g Standard or Enterprise Edition Database repository backup using the exp utility.

 
Oracle 11g Standard or Enterprise Edition Database Repository Backup

The following example shows how to do a full Oracle VM Manager 11g Standard or Enterprise Edition Database repository backup using the exp utility.

Log into the Oracle VM Manager Database repository system as the oracle user, or as root and type “su - oracle” to change to the oracle user.

Tip: The exp utility help files are available by typing “exp help=yes”

# su - oracle
$ exp

Export: Release 11.1.0.6.0 - Production on Tue Oct 4 14:03:33 2011

Copyright (c) 1982, 2007, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

Username: <USER NAME>
Password: <PASSWORD>

Connected to: Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.1.0.6.0 - 64bit Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options
Enter array fetch buffer size: 4096 >

Export file: expdat.dmp >

(1)E(ntire database), (2)U(sers), or (3)T(ables): (2)U > 1

Export grants (yes/no): yes >

Export table data (yes/no): yes >

Compress extents (yes/no): yes >

/

Export terminated successfully with warnings.

The above example creates a back up of the Database repository named expdat.dmp in the working directory.

The next example shows how to backup “only” the Oracle VM Manager 11g Standard or Enterprise Edition Database repository ovs schema. Change the user name and password for your environment.

$ exp USERID=<USER NAME>/<PASSWORD> OWNER=ovs FILE=exp_ovs.dmp

Export: Release 11.1.0.6.0 - Production on Mon Oct 3 16:24:09 2011

Copyright (c) 1982, 2007, Oracle.  All rights reserved.
 
Connected to: Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.1.0.6.0 - 64bit Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options
Export done in US7ASCII character set and AL16UTF16 NCHAR character set
server uses WE8MSWIN1252 character set (possible charset conversion)

/

Export terminated successfully with warnings.


How to Backup an Oracle 11g Express Database Repository

The next example shows how to backup an Oracle 11g Express Database repository using the exp utility.  

Log into the Oracle VM Manager host as the oracle user, or as root and type “su - oracle” to change to the oracle user. As the oracle user type the following commands to backup the  Oracle VM Manager 11g XE Database repository.

Note: Replace <PASSWORD> with the ovs database schema password that was selected during the Oracle VM Manager installation. In the below example a file named “ovsbackup.dmp” is created in the /tmp directory. Any name or directory can be used with the “file=” argument.

export ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/xe
export PATH=$ORACLE_HOME/bin:$PATH
export ORACLE_SID=XE

Oracle VM Server Installation

Show a printer friendly version of this chapter of the Oracle Cloud Cookbook

 

Copyright © 2013 Mokum Solutions, Inc. All rights reserved.
Distribution of the Oracle Cloud Cookbook or derivative of the work in any form for commercial purposes is prohibited unless prior permission is obtained from the copyright holder.
 
 
 
Change Log
Revision
Change Description
Updated By
Date
1.0
First Release
Roddy Rodstein
09/10/11
1.2 Post Installation Checklist Roddy Rodstein 05/10/12
1.3 Oracle VM Server Pre-Deployment Checklist Roddy Rodstein 08/26/12
1.4  Content Refresh Roddy Rodstein 04/03/13
1.5 ovs-support-tools Roddy Rodstein 04/27/13
This document applies to all Oracle VM 3 releases. 
 
Table of Contents
Oracle VM Server Installation Introduction
Oracle VM Server Pre-Deployment Checklist
Download the Oracle VM Media Pack
Oracle VM Server Installation
Oracle VM Post Installation Checklist
...Oracle VM Name Resolution
...Oracle VM /etc/hosts File Requirements
...Disable Extra C-states
...VMPinfo3 Installation for Diagnostic Capture & Troubleshooting
...Oracle OS Watcher Installation
...Patch the Oracle VM Server(s)
...Install the Oracle VM Server Support Tools
Uninstall / Remove Oracle VM
Oracle VM Server Installation Hangs While Loading Xen.gz
Appendix
...Oracle VM Default Runlevel Settings for System Services
...Oracle VM install.log File
...Oracle VM install.log.syslog File
...Oracle VM anaconda-ks.cfg File
 
Oracle VM Server Installation Introduction
This chapter of the Oracle Cloud Cookbook describes how to plan for and install Oracle VM Server. This chapter applies to all Oracle VM 3 releases. 
 
Oracle VM Server can be installed on Intel or AMD x86_64 hardware using a bootable CD-ROM or over the network using a pre-boot execution environment (PXE). Both Oracle VM Server installation methods, CD-ROM and PXE boot, require the Oracle VM Server Media Pack. The Oracle VM Server Media Pack is available at the Oracle Linux and Oracle VM Cloud Portal. Access to the Oracle Linux and Oracle VM Cloud Portal requires an Oracle.com user account and password. The Oracle VM Server Media Pack is downloaded as a zip file which contains the Oracle VM Server ISO image. The Oracle VM Server ISO image can be burned to a bootable CD and used for a CD-ROM installation as well as staged on a boot server for a PXE boot installation. Oracle VM is distributed as Open Source software, therefore the source code is also available along with the ISO image at the Oracle Linux and Oracle VM Cloud Portal.
 
Oracle VM Server can be installed from a CD-ROM, or over the network (PXE) with the installation media hosted via NFS, FTP, or HTTP. The difference between installing Oracle VM Server from a CD-ROM, or over the network is how the server boots and the location of the installation media. Contemporary servers can boot from a bootable CD in a local CD-ROM drive, from a remote CD-ROM drive using a Lights out Management (LOM) solution as well as over the network using a pre-boot execution environment (PXE). Once the server boots, the installation program can install Oracle VM Server from the CD-ROM, or over the network via NFS, FTP or HTTP.
 
Tip: Occasionally CD-ROM installations using Lights out Management (LOM) solutions terminate with file copy errors. If you encounter file copy errors with a Lights out Management (LOM) installation, the workaround is to stage the Oracle VM Server media files on the server’s hard disk, or on a NFS share, FTP server or a HTTP server on the same network as the target server. Once the Oracle VM Server media files have been staged on the server’s hard disk, a NFS share, FTP server or a HTTP server, boot the server with the bootable CD and when presented with the Install Method screen, enter the path to the installation media.
 
Oracle recommends a dual core CPU or multiple CPUs with at least 1GB or 2GB of RAM. Oracle’s minimum CPU and RAM recommendation for Oracle VM Server is a starting point for a proof of concept (POC) running only a couple virtual machines.
 
A minimum of one Ethernet network interface (NIC) card is required to install Oracle VM, although four or more 10G NICs is strongly recommended. NIC bonding with port-based VLANs and/or 802.1Q tag-based VLANs are supported and configured post Oracle VM Server installation with Oracle VM Manager or Enterprise Manager. Oracle VM 3.0.1 through 3.1.1 supports two NIC ports per network bond, and a total of five network bonds per Oracle VM Server. Oracle VM 3.2.x and above supports four NIC ports per network bond, and a total of ten network bonds per Oracle VM Server. 
 
The exact number of network interfaces for an Oracle VM Server entirely depends on your organization’s business requirements and network and storage infrastructure capabilities. For example, an Oracle VM Server with four 10G NICs, configured with two 802.1Q bonds could support the most demanding network and storage requirements, with only four NICs. By contrast, an Oracle VM Server using access ports/port-based VLANs or 802.1Q tag-based VLANS on a 1G copper network, could easily use the maximum number of supported NIC ports (<= 3.1.1 = 10 ports, >= 3.2 = 40 ports) to meet the minimum network requirements.
 
The Oracle VM 3.0 installation program allows the server' IP address to be assigned using DHCP or as a static IP address. It is recommended to use a static IP address for Oracle VM Servers to ensure that each server always receives the same IP address. Using DHCP assigned IP addresses can result in unexpected IP address changes due to DHCP lease expiry setting causing unexpected results.
 
The default behavior of the Oracle VM Server installation program is to allocate only 3GB of storage for the entire installation, regardless of the amount of available disk space. I recommend re-allocating the free space to the root “/” partition for log files and diagnostics. Since Oracle VM Server only requires 3 GB of storage, you might consider procuring disk-less hardware with a flash storage module or boot from SAN to reduce operating costs.
 
Tip: When installing Oracle VM Server on a small flash storage module, i.e. 4GB, it is necessary to select the "Create a minimal partition layout for installation to a USB drive" partition layout option.
 
The following table shows the Oracle VM Server installation roadmap:
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Oracle VM Server Pre-Deployment Checklist
Download the Oracle VM Media Pack
Oracle VM Server Installation
Oracle VM Post Installation Checklist
 

Oracle VM Server Pre-Deployment Checklist

Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Oracle VM Server Pre-Deployment Checklist
Download the Oracle VM Media Pack
Oracle VM Server Installation
Oracle VM Post Installation Checklist
This checklist should be completed before Oracle VM Server is installed.
Task Verify Notes Completion Status
Oracle Application Certification
Verify which version of Oracle VM is certified for the Oracle applications you plan to deploy on Oracle VM.
 
Note: Visit My Oracle Support and click the Certifications link to search for the Oracle products you plan to deploy on Oracle VM.
   
Hardware Certification
Verify that the server hardware is jointly supported by the hardware vendor and Oracle for the version of Oracle VM you plan to use.

Note: The following link is the Oracle' hardware certification page. http://linux.oracle.com/pls/apex/f?p=117:1:5773793518142288::NO:RP::
   
Storage Certification
Verify that the storage solution is jointly supported by the storage vendor and Oracle for the version of Oracle VM you plan to use.

Note: The following link is the Oracle' hardware certification page. http://linux.oracle.com/pls/apex/f?p=117:1:5773793518142288::NO:RP::
   
Download the The Oracle VM Server installation media. Verify that the Oracle VM Server installation media has been downloaded, burned to a bootable CDROM, and made available to the Oracle VM engineer.    
Select Passwords Verify that the passwords for the root user account and the Oracle VM Agent have been selected and documented.    
Switch Configurations
Verify that the VLANS have been provisioned and configured.
1) ILO Network
2) Server Management - eth0/eth1 802.1q trunk/LACP
3) Cluster Heartbeat - eth0/eth1 802.1q trunk/LACP
4) Live Migration - eth0/eth1 802.1q trunk/LACP
5) Virtual Machine VLANs – eth2/eth3 802.1q trunk/LACP
   
IP Addresses, Subnet Masks & Gateways
Verify that each Oracle VM Server's IP Addresses, Subnet Masks & Gateways have been selected, documented and provisioned for each of the following Oracle VM Management Networks:
1) ILO Network
2) Server Management
3) Cluster Heartbeat
4) Live Migration
5) Storage (iSCSI and/or NFS)
   
DNS Settings
1) Verify that the Oracle VM Server host names are in DNS and are accessible with both forward and reverse lookups.
Note: The Oracle VM Server's “Server Management” network IP addresses should be configured in DNS.
2) Verify that two DNS server IP addresses are available for the Oracle VM Server installation.
   
Storage Time Out Values
Verify the storage time out values (TOV).
 
Note: If a storage controller fail over takes 120 seconds, and OCFS2 is set to the default value of 60 seconds, Oracle VM Servers will reboot halfway through the controller fail over.
   
Storage Array
Verify that the pool file system storage (12G LUN or 12G Share) and the virtual machines file system storage (LUNs or Shares) have been provisioned, zoned and masked to each Oracle VM server.
 
Note: The storage does not need to be made available (zoned and masked) to Oracle VM Manager. The storage only needs to be made available to the Oracle VM servers. 
   
Rack and Cable the Server Hardware Verify that the server hardware has been racked, cabled (power, network and storage) and tested.    
BIOS Settings
1) Verify that the BIOS and FIRMWARE are at the latest release. 
2) Verify that C-States has been disabled in the BIOS.
3) Verify that Hyperthreading is enabled in the BIOS.
   
 

Download the Oracle VM Media Pack

Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Oracle VM Server Pre-Deployment Checklist
Download the Oracle VM Media Pack
Oracle VM Server Installation
Oracle VM Post Installation Checklist
The Oracle VM Media Pack is available at the Oracle Software Delivery Cloud - Oracle Linux and Oracle VM portal. Access to the Oracle Software Delivery Cloud requires an Oracle.com user account and password. If you do not already have an Oracle.com user account, visit the Oracle Software Delivery Cloud, portal click the Sign In / Register link or button to create an Oracle.com account.
 
Figure 1 shows the Oracle Software Delivery Cloud - Oracle Linux and Oracle VM portal.
Oracle Software Delivery Cloud Oracle VM
 

From the Sign In page, enter your Oracle.com user name and password, then click the Sign In button.

Figure 2 shows the Oracle Software Delivery Cloud - Oracle Linux and Oracle VM portal Sign In page.
Oracle.com Sign In
Once authenticated, accept the registration/export regulations to access to the Oracle VM and Oracle Linux Media.

Figure 3 shows the registration/export regulations form.
Oracle Software Delivery Cloud Terms & Restrictions
 
After completing the registration/export regulation form, you will be redirected to the Media Pack Search page. From the Media Pack Search page, select Oracle VM from the Select a Product Pack dropdown menu. Next, select x86 64-bit from the Platform dropdown menu, then click the Go button to be taken to the Oracle VM Media Pack download page.

Tip: If you do not see Oracle VM from the Select a Product Pack dropdown menu, you are not in the Oracle Linux and Oracle VM section of the Oracle Software Delivery Cloud. Click the Cloud Portal link in the page header, then click the Oracle Linux/VM drop down menu to be redirected to the Oracle Linux and Oracle VM section of the Oracle Software Delivery Cloud portal.

Figure 4 shows the Media Pack Search page.
Oracle VM Download
From the Media Pack Search page, click the desired Oracle VM Manager release radio button, then the Continue button, or simply click the Oracle VM 3.x hyperlink to go directly to the download page.

Figure 5 shows the Media Pack Search page.
Download Oracle VM Manager 3
From the Oracle VM Server 3.x Media Pack for x86 (64 bit) download page, click the desired Oracle VM Server 3.x for x86 64 (64 bit) Download button to download the Oracle VM media pack.
 
Tip: Oracle VM is distributed as Open Source software, therefore the source code is also available along with the ISO image. The Source Code is not used for the Oracle VM Server installation.  
 
Figure 6 shows the Oracle VM Media Pack page.
Download Oracle VM Manager  Media
 

The Oracle VM media is packaged as a zip file. The zip file name corresponds to the Part Number listed on the download page. The zip file contains the Oracle VM server ISO file. Once the zip file is downloaded, use your favorite zip utility to unzip the ISO file. Next, burn the ISO file to CD to be able to install Oracle VM with a CD-ROM drive, or copy the ISO file to a loaction where your Lights out Management (LOM) sofware can access the ISO file.

Oracle VM Server Installation

Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Oracle VM Server Pre-Deployment Checklist
Download the Oracle VM Media Pack
Oracle VM Server Installation
Oracle VM Post Installation Checklist
 
1. Insert the Oracle VM Server media into the CD-ROM drive.
2. Boot the server with the Oracle VM Server media in the CD-ROM drive.
3. The Oracle VM Server Welcome screen is displayed, as shown in Figure 7.
 
Oracle VM Server Welcome screen
From Oracle VM Server Welcome screen press the Enter key to start the install program. If the Enter key is not pressed for one minute, the install program will automatically start.
 
Figure 7 shows the Oracle VM Server Welcome screen.
Oracle VM Server Installation Welcome
 
The CD Found screen
On the CD Found screen, you can test the media for errors. To test the media, use the Tab key to select the OK button and press Enter. Once the media test is completed, any errors will be reported. To skip the media test and continue with the install, use the Tab key to select the Skip button and press Enter to continue.
 
Figure 8 shows the CD Found screen.
Oracle VM Server Installation CD Found
 
The Keyboard Selection screen
On the Keyboard Selection screen, use the Tab key to select the list of keyboard models. Then use the UP and DOWN keys (↑ or ↓) to select the desired keyboard model. The keyboard that is selected becomes the default keyboard for dom0. Next, use the Tab key to select OK, and press Enter to continue.
 
Figure 9 shows the Keyboard Selection screen.
ORacle VM Server Installation Keyboard Selection
 
OVS EULA screen
On the OVS EULA screen, use the UP and DOWN keys (↑ or ↓) to read the License Agreement. Next, use the Tab key to select the ACCEPT button to continue.
 
Figure 10 shows the OVS EULA screen.
Oracle VM Server Installation License Agreement
 
Partitioning Type screen
The Partitioning Type screen offers the following five partitioning options:
  • Remove all partitions and create a new default partition layout
  • Remove all Linux partitions and create a new default partition layout
  • Use the free space on selected drives to create a new default partition layout
  • Create a minimal partition layout for installation to a USB drive
  • Create a custom partition layout
Tip: The default behavior of the Oracle VM Server installation program is to allocate only 3GB of storage for the entire installation, regardless of the amount of available disk space. I recommend re-allocating the free space to the root “/” partition for log files and diagnostics. When installing Oracle VM Server on a small flash storage module, i.e. 4GB, select the "Create a minimal partition layout for installation to a USB drive" partition layout option.
 
Use the Tab key to select the Remove all partitions and create a new default partition layout option. Ensure that the appropriate drive is selected in the Which drive(s) do you want to use for this installation section. Use the Tab key to select the OK button to continue.
 
Figure 11 shows the Partitioning Type screen.
Oracle VM Server Installation Warning
 
Warning screen
On the Warning screen, use the Tab key to select the Yes button, then press Enter to continue.
 
Note: If your installing a new server that has been zones and masked to existing SAN storage, DO NOT REMOVE ANY OF THE SAN PARTITIONS! Removing the SAN partitions could delete the existing server pool with its virtual machines. 
 
Figure 12 shows the Warning screen.
ORacle VM Server Installation Partitioning Type
 
Review Partition Layout screen
On the Review Partition Layout screen, use the Tab key to select the YES to review and/or modify the Partition Layout, or use the Tab key to select the NO to accept the defaults and continue to the Boot Loader Configuration screen.
 
The default behavior of the Oracle VM Server installation program is to allocate only 3GB of storage for the entire Oracle VM Server installation, regardless of the amount of available disk space. I recommend re-allocating the free space to the root “/” partition for log files and diagnostics. 
 
The following examples show how to re-allocating the free space to the root “/” partition for log files and diagnostics.
 
Figure 13 shows the Review Partition Layout screen.
Oracle VM Server Installation Remove Partition Warning
 
Partitioning screen
On the Partitioning screen, use the Tab key to select the root “/ partition, then use the Tab key to select the Edit button. Press Enter to continue.
 
Figure 14 shows the Partition screen.
Oracle VM Server Installation Review Partition Layout
 
Add Partition screen
On the Add Partition screen, use the Tab key to select the Fill all available space option. Next, press the Space bar to select the Fill all available space option. Use the Tab key to select the OK button to proceed.
 
Figure 15 shows the Add Partition screen.
Oracle VM Server Installation Partitioning
 
Partitioning screen
On the Partitioning screen, use the Tab key to select OK to continue.
 
Figure 16 shows the Partitioning screen
Oracle VM Server Installation Add Partition
 
The Boot Loader Configuration screen
On the Boot Loader Configuration screen, use the Tab key to select the Master Boot Record (MBR) or the First sector of boot partition as the location to install the boot loader. For this example, we have selected the Master Boot Record (MBR) option. Next, use the Tab key to select the OK button and press Enter to continue.
 
Figure 17 shows the Boot Loader Configuration screen.
Oracle VM Server Installation Partition Screen
 
Oracle VM Server Management Interface screen (ACCESS PORTS - NOT 802.1q)
On the Oracle VM Server Management Interface screen, use the Tab key to select the network interface that will be dedicated for the server management network channel. If your using 802.1Q (VLANs), select the Add to VLAN tab to enter the VLAN ID of the server management network channel. Once the network interface is selected, use the Tab key to select the OK button and press Enter to continue.
 
If you select OK, skip to the The IPv4 Configuration for eth0 screen.
 
Note: The installer program selects eth0 as the default server management interface. The server management interface settings are controlled in the /etc/ovs-config file. The server management interface can be changed post installation using Oracle VM Manager.
 
Figure 18 shows the Oracle VM Server Management Interface screen.
Oracle VM Server Installation Boot Loader Configuration
 
Oracle VM Server Management Interface screen - Add to VLAN (802.1q)
On the Oracle VM Server Management Interface screen, use the Tab key to select the network interface that will be dedicated for the server management network channel. For 802.1Q (VLANs), select the Add to VLAN tab to enter the VLAN ID of the server management network channel. Once the network interface is selected, use the Tab key to select the OK button and press Enter to continue.
 
Note: The installer program selects eth0 as the default server management interface. The server management interface settings are controlled in the /etc/ovs-config file. The server management interface can be changed post installation using Oracle VM Manager.
 
Figure 19 shows the Oracle VM Server Management Interface screen.
Oracle VM Server Installation Management Interface
 
From the Oracle VM Management VLAN screen enter the VLAN ID of the server management network channel. 
 
Tip: VLAN ID 1 can not be used with Oracle VM Manager.
 
Figure 20 shows the Oracle VM Management VLAN screen.
Oracle VM Server Installation IPv4 Configuration
 
The IPv4 Configuration for eth0 screen
The IPv4 Configuration for eth0 screen offers the following three options:
  • Dynamic IP configuration (DHCP)
  • Manual address configuration
  • IP Address and Prefix (netmask)
If your Oracle VM server will use DHCP to assign its IP address, select the Dynamic IP configuration (DHCP) option. To select the Dynamic IP configuration (DHCP) entry, use the Tab key to highlight the Dynamic IP configuration (DHCP) entry, then use the Space bar to select the Dynamic IP configuration (DHCP) entry. Use the Tab key to select the OK button to continue.
 
If your Oracle VM server will use a static IP address, select the Manual address configuration entry. To select the Manual address configuration entry use the Tab key to highlight the Manual address configuration entry, then use the Space bar to select the Manual address configuration entry. Next, use the Tab key to enter the IP Address and Prefix (netmask). Use the Tab key to select the OK button to continue.
 
Figure 21 shows the IPv4 Configuration for eth0 screen.
Oracle VM Server Installation Miscellaneous Network Settings
 
The Miscellaneous Network Settings screen
On the Miscellaneous Network Settings screen, use the Tab key to select the GatewayPrimary DNS and optional Secondary DNS to enter the networking settings for your environment. Use the Tab key to select the OK button and press Enter to continue.
 
Figure 22 shows the Hostname Configuration screen.
Oracle VM Server Installation Hostname Configuration
 
Hostname Configuration screen
On the Hostname Configuration screen, select one of the following two options:
  • automatically via DHCP
  • manually
If the machine uses DHCP to assign its hostname, then select the automatically via DHCP option. Next, use the Tab key to select the OK button to continue.
 
To assign a hostname for your Oracle VM server, select the manually option and enter the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) in the text box. Then, use the Tab key to select the OK button to continue.
 
Figure 23 shows the Hostname Configuration screen.
Oracle VM Server Installation Time Zone Selection
 
Time Zone Selection screen
On the Time Zone Selection screen select the System clock uses UTC option to use Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), then use the Tab key and the UP or DOWN key (↑ or ↓) to select the time zone closest to your Oracle VM server’s physical location. Next, use the Tab key to select the OK button and press Enter to continue.
 
Figure 24 shows the Time Zone Selection screen.
 Oracle VM Server Installation Oracle VM Agent password
 
Oracle VM Agent password screen
On the Oracle VM Agent password screen, enter the password for the Oracle VM agent in the Password field. The Agent password should "not" contain special character, i.e. ;:#,!, etc. In the Password (confirm) field, re-enter the password. Use the Tab key to select the OK button and press Enter to continue. If the two passwords do not match, the installation program will ask you to re-enter the passwords.
 
The Oracle VM agent password is used by Oracle VM Manager and the Oracle VM Management Pack to dispatch commands and to retrieve pool-status data. The Oracle VM agent password can be changed after the installation from dom0 by typing “ovs-agent-passwd oracle” for the oracle account.
 
 
Figure 25 shows the Oracle VM Agent password screen.
Oracle VM Server Installation Root Password
 
Root Password screen
On the Root Password screen, enter a password with at least six characters for the root user in the Password field. In the Password (confirm) field, re-enter the password. Use the Tab key to select the OK button and press Enter to continue. If the two passwords do not match, the installation program will ask you to re-enter the passwords.
 
Figure 26 shows the Root Password screen.
Oracle VM Server Installation Installation to begin
 
Installation to begin screen
On the Installation to begin screen, select OK and press Enter to continue.
 
Figure 27 shows the Installation to begin screen.
Oracle VM Server Installation Complete
 
Complete screen
When the Complete screen appears, remove the Oracle VM Server media from the CD-ROM drive and press Enter to reboot the Oracle VM server.
 
Figure 28 shows the Complete screen.
 Oracle VM Server login prompt
 
Oracle VM Server login prompt screen
On the Oracle VM Server login prompt screen, enter ALT-F2 to access the login screen. From the login prompt, enter the root username and the password to access the dom0 console.
 
Figure 29 shows the Oracle VM Server login prompt screen.
 Oracle VM Server login prompt
 
After installing Oracle VM, review and complete all of the necessary tasks on the post-installation checklist before the server is added to a pool. Once the post-installation checklist is completed, the Oracle VM Server can be added to a server pool and patched using Oracle VM Manager or Oracle Enterprise Manager.
 

Oracle VM Post Installation Checklist

Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Oracle VM Server Pre-Deployment Checklist
Download the Oracle VM Media Pack
Oracle VM Server Installation
Oracle VM Post Installation Checklist
After installing Oracle VM, review and complete all of the necessary tasks on the post-installation checklist before the Oracle VM Server is added to a pool. These tasks involve validating the Oracle VM Server's networking prerequisites and disabling CPU operating states (C-states) in the BIOS. 
 
1. Oracle VM Name Resolution
Applicable to all Oracle VM 3.x Releases. 
The Oracle VM Server(s) must have consistent name resolution using DNS with both forward and reverse lookups.
 
First, open the “/etc/resolv.conf” file by typing “vi /etc/resolv.conf” and confirm that the domain name or names, and two DNS servers are listed. The next example shows one domain name and two DNS servers listed in a resolv.conf file.

# vi /etc/resolv.conf
search <DOMAIN NAME>
nameserver <MY DNS SERVER1 IP ADDRESS>
nameserver <MY DNS SERVER2 IP ADDRESS>

From each Oracle VM server ping each DNS server listed in the resolv.conf file to ensure network connectivity.
 
Next, validate the forward lookups for each Oracle VM Server and the Oracle VM Manager host using the “getent hosts” command. For example, to validate server2's forward lookup from server1 type “getent hosts server2” as shown in the next example.

# getent hosts server2
server2 has address 192.168.4.6

Note: Using hosts files without DNS is not advised and may produce unpredictable results.
 
2. Oracle VM /etc/hosts File Requirements
Applicable to all Oracle VM 3.x Releases. 
The Oracle VM Server’s host name in the /etc/hosts file must be associated with the server's public IP address. If an Oracle VM Server host name is associated with 127.0.0.1, the cluster.conf file will be malformed and the cluster will not be operational.
 
The next example shows the proper syntax for an Oracle VM Server’s hosts file entry.
127.0.0.1    localhost.localdomain localhost
192.168.4.8    servername.com servername

The next example shows the improper syntax from an Oracle VM Server's hosts file entry.
127.0.0.1    servername.com servername localhost.localdomain localhost
192.168.4.8     servername.com servername
 
3. Disable Extra C-states
Applicable to all Oracle VM 3.x Releases. 
To reduce the risk of unexpected server reboots, extra C-states should be disabled in the BIOS of each Oracle VM Server. If the BIOS has a settings named "Active Power Controller mode", disable this option as well. 
 
The Intel Nehalem CPU introduced a CPU power-saving feature called deep CPU operating states (C-states). C-states allows an idle processor to turn off unused components to save power. Some of the components that C-states turns off include the processor clock and interrupts. Under certain conditions, when C-states turns off unused CPU components, the Oracle VM OCFS2 heartbeat mechanism triggers an unexpected server reboot.
 
C-states server reboots log the following log entries in /var/log/messages. 
 
May  4 16:45:40 <HOST NAME> syslogd 1.4.1: restart.
May  4 16:45:40 <HOST NAME> kernel: klogd 1.4.1, log source = /proc/kmsg started.
 
On alive servers in the pool, the following OCFS2 o2net connection error appear in /var/log/messages.
 
server2 kernel: o2net: Connection to node "<HOST NAME>" (num 0) at xx.xx.xxx.xxx:7777 has been idle for 60.5 secs, shutting it down.
 
To confirm if extra C-states are enabled, as root type:
# xenpm get-cpuidle-states | grep total | uniq
total C-states : 2
 
If the "total C-states" is greater than 2, then extra C-states is enabled in the server's BIOS. The above example shows that extra C-states are disabled on the hosts, i.e. "total C-states : 2".  If extra C-States are enabled, the command output would show: "total C-states: 4"
 
How to Disable Extra C-states on HP Servers:
1. Reboot
2. Enter the BIOS Setup Utility by pressing F9 on POST
3. Navigate to Power Management Option" => Advanced Power Management Options => Minimum Processor Idle Power State
4. Choose "No C-States"
5. To exit the BIOS Setup Utility and save the new settings, press Esc.

How to Disable Extra C-states on SUN x86 Servers:
1. Reboot
2. Enter the BIOS Setup Utility by pressing F2 on POST
3. Navigate to Advanced => CPU Configuration => Intel (R) C-STATE tech => Options
4. Choose "Disabled"
5. To exit the BIOS Setup Utility and save the new settings, press Esc.
 
4. VMPinfo3 Installation for Diagnostic Capture & Troubleshooting
Applicable up to Oracle VM 3.1.1.. VMPinfo3 is included in Oracle VM 3.2.x and above. 
VMPinfo3 is a modified version of sosreport for Oracle VM. VMPinfo3 is a set of tools with a command line interface that use the Oracle VM 3.x API to collect log files and troubleshooting information from Oracle VM Server pools. VMPinfo3 runs from the Oracle VM Manager host and collects and consolidates log files from each Oracle VM Server managed by Oracle VM Manager.   

Tip: VMPinfo3 is Oracle support's primary tool for working Oracle VM Service Requests (SRs). To expedite your Oracle VM SRs, always include a VMPinfo3 diagnostic capture.

VMPinfo3 consists of two RPM packages. The vmpinfo-manager-1.0.0-1.noarch.rpm RPM is installed on the Oracle VM Manager host. The vmpinfo-sosreport-1.0.3-1.noarch.rpm RPM is installed on each Oracle VM Server. The VMPinfo3 RPMs are downloadable from My Oracle Support via ID 1364933.1.

Once you have downloaded the VMPinfo3 RPMs, copy the vmpinfo-manager-1.0.0-1.noarch.rpm RPM to the Oracle VM Manager host, and vmpinfo-sosreport-1.0.3-1.noarch.rpm RPM to each Oracle VM Server.

On the Oracle VM manager host, as root type “rpm -ivh  vmpinfo-manager-1.0.0-1.noarch.rpm”
to install the vmpinfo-manager RPM.

On each Oracle VM Server, before installing the vmpinfo-sosreport-1.0.3-1.noarch.rpm RPM, remove the conflicting “vmpinfo3-sosreport-1.0.0-4.el5.noarch” RPM package by typing  “rpm -e  “vmpinfo3-sosreport-1.0.0-4.el5.noarch”. Next, type “rpm -ivh  vmpinfo-sosreport-1.0.3-1.noarch.rpm” to install vmpinfo3-sosreport.

The next example shows how to remove the conflicting vmpinfo3-sosreport-1.0.0-4.el5.noarch RPM and, how to install the vmpinfo-sosreport-1.0.3-1.noarch.rpm RPM.

# rpm -e  vmpinfo3-sosreport-1.0.0-4.el5.noarch
# rpm -ivh vmpinfo-sosreport-1.0.3-1.noarch.rpm
Preparing...                ########################################### [100%]
   1:vmpinfo-sosreport      ########################################### [100%]

To run VMPinfo3 and create a diagnostic capture, access the Oracle VM Manager host as the oracle user, and change to the “/home/oracle/vmpinfo3/” directory. From the vmpinfo3 directory, run the vmpinfo3.sh script as show in the next example.
$ cd vmpinfo3/
$ ./vmpinfo3.sh --username=admin –password=<ADMIN PASSWORD>

The password used for the vmpinfo3.sh script is for the Oracle VM Manager “admin” user account.  The diagnostic capture will be created in the /tmp directory with the following name, date and format “vmpinfo3-<date-time>.tar.bz2”.
 
5. Oracle OS Watcher Installation
Applicable to all Oracle VM 3.x Releases. 
Oracle OS Watcher (OSW) is a utility that uses native Linux commands and shell scripts to collect and archive dom0 metrics for diagnostics and performance troubleshooting. OSW operates as a set of dom0 background processes that collect and archive data on a regular basis, using meminfo, netstat, ps slabinfo, top, vmstat, xentop. The version of OSW for Oracle VM is only available by opening a SR and requesting the RPM file. OSW is installed on Oracle VM Server.

Tip: OSW is one of Oracle support's primary tool for working Oracle VM Service Requests (SRs). To expedite your Oracle VM SRs, always include the OSW archive files from each Oracle VM Server.

Once you have downloaded the OSW RPM from Oracle support, copy it to each Oracle VM Server. Next, as root, type “rpm -ivh oswatcher-3.1-2.el5.noarch.rpm” to install OSW. The next example shows the installation of OSW.

# rpm -ivh oswatcher-3.1-2.el5.noarch.rpm
Preparing...                ########################################### [100%]
   1:oswatcher              ########################################### [100%]

The OSW installer automatically configures the oswatcher service to start at runlevel 3, 5 and 5. The next example shows the default runlevels for the oswatcher service.

# chkconfig --list |grep oswatcher
oswatcher       0:off   1:off   2:on    3:on    4:on    5:on    6:off

The OSW configuration file is located at /etc/sysconfig/oswatcher. The next example shows the default OSW settings.

# vi /etc/sysconfig/oswatcher
# The directory where oswatcher logs should be kept
DATADIR=/var/log/oswatcher
# The interval (in seconds) between runs runs of statistics collections
INTERVAL=30
# The maximum age (in hours) of the various log files
MAXAGE=48
# An optional program used to compress the log files
ZIP=

The DATADIR directive controls the {OSWHOME} directory. {OSWHOME} is where the oswatcher logs are kept. For example, the default DATADIR=/var/log/oswatcher creates the /var/log/oswatcher directory for the log files. The INTERVAL directive controls the interval in seconds between statistics collections. The default NTERVAL=30 should not have to be modified, unless requested by Oracle support. The MAXAGE directive controls the retention policy in hours of the log files in the {OSWHOME}/archive directory.  
 
The OSW log files are saved in the following directories:

/var/log/oswatcher/archive/
oswiostat (empty)
oswmeminfo
oswmpstat (empty)
oswnetstat
oswprvtnet (empty)
oswps
oswslabinfo
oswtop
oswvmstat
oswxentop

Note: The Oracle VM does not ship with iostat, mpstat and prvtnet.
 
6. Patch the Oracle VM Server(s)
Applicable to all Oracle VM 3.x Releases.
Even after a fresh installation of the lastest Oracle VM Server release, a best practice is to patch the Oracle VM Server before setting up the server pool, and doing any testing to avoid previously fixed bugs. 
 
When upgrading Oracle VM, Oracle VM Manager must be upgraded first, followed by the Oracle VM Servers managed by Oracle VM Manager. Oracle VM Servers are updated and patched using a local yum repository or the Oracle public yum server. A local yum repository can be configured on any Internet accessible Oracle Linux or Red Hat Enterprise Linux web server that has been registered with the Unbreakable Linux Network. A valid customer service identifier (CSI) for Oracle Linux and/or Oracle VM is required to configure a yum server at the Unbreakable Linux Network. Access to the Oracle public yum server is opened to the public without registration.
 
Oracle's public yum server allows us to keep Oracle Linux, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, and Oracle VM systems up to date to the "latest" update version, using the "_latest" RPM repository. "latest" patch job executed on a Oracle VM 3.1.1 host would update the host from 3.1.1 to 3.2.2 with the latest software patches, updates and fixes. To keep an Oracle VM host at its respected update level, a local yum server and a valid CSI and the Unbreakable Linux Network is required. With the Unbreakable Linux Network, it is possible to register and subscribe a yum server to the desired base and patch RPM channels. When Oracle VM hosts are patched using the ovm*_base and ovm*_patch RPM channels, the Oracle VM hosts are patched with the latest software patches, updates and fixes from their respected update channel. For example, an Oracle VM 3.1.1 host patched using the ovm3_3.1.1_x86_64_base and ovm3_3.1.1_x86_64_patch RPM channels are patched with the latest software patches, updates and fixes from the 3.1.1 RPM channels. If an Oracle VM 3.1.1 host is patched using the ULN or public yum server ovm3_x86_64_latest RPM channel, the host will be upgraded from 3.1.1 to 3.2.2 with the latest software patches, updates and fixes.
 
I actually have an entire chapter of the Oracle Cloud Cookbook, Oracle VM Patch Updatesthat describes how to apply patch updates to Oracle VM Manager and Oracle VM Server, as well as an entire chapterOracle Linux Yum Server Setup, that describes how to set-up a Oracle Linux yum server. 
 
If you do not have the time to setup a local yum server, Oracle VM Servers can be patched using the Oracle public yum server's latest RPM channel. To patch an Oracle VM Server using the Oracle public yum server, create a repo file on the Oracle VM Server in the /etc/yum.repos.d/ directory, i.e. /etc/yum.repos.d/public-yum-ovm3.repo with the following contents:
 
[ovm3_latest]
name=Oracle VM Server 3 Latest ($basearch)
baseurl=http://public-yum.oracle.com/repo/OracleVM/OVM3/latest/x86_64/
gpgkey=http://public-yum.oracle.com/RPM-GPG-KEY-oracle-el5
gpgcheck=1
enabled=1
 
Next, type "yum clean all", then "yum update -y" to update the server with the latest software patches, updates and fixes from the Oracle VM latest RPM channel.
 
7. Install the Oracle VM Server Support Tools
Applicable to all Oracle VM 3.x Releases.
The default behavior of the Oracle VM Server installation program is to allocate only 3GB of storage for the entire Oracle VM server installation, regardless of the amount of available disk space. Oracle VM Server 3.x was designed to be installed on small (3GB) flash storage modules. To accommodate such a small installation footprint, Oracle VM server does not include man pages, or standard Linux troubleshooting tools. Starting with Oracle VM 3.2.1, Oracle created a handy meta-package named “ovs-support-tools” to install sudo, bind-utils, iperf, rsync, sysstat, traceroute, and vixie-cron including all dependency packages. The ovs-support-tools meta-package can be installed using the Oracle VM 3 latest RPM channel.
 
To install ovs-support-tools from the Oracle public yum server, create a repo file on the Oracle VM Server in the /etc/yum.repos.d/ directory, i.e. /etc/yum.repos.d/public-yum-ovm3.repo with the following contents.
 
[ovm3_latest]
name=Oracle VM Server 3 Latest ($basearch)
baseurl=http://public-yum.oracle.com/repo/OracleVM/OVM3/latest/x86_64/
gpgkey=http://public-yum.oracle.com/RPM-GPG-KEY-oracle-el5
gpgcheck=1
enabled=1
 
Warning: Patch jobs using the latest RPM channel will update hosts to their respected latest version update with the latest software patches, updates and fixes. A patch job executed on a Oracle VM 3.1.1 host using the latest RPM channel would update the host from 3.1.1 to 3.2.x with the latest software patches, updates and fixes. If the intent is to only install the ovs-support-tools, after the ovs-support-tools installation disable or delete the /etc/yum.repos.d/public-yum-ovm3.repo file. 
 
Next, as root, type "yum install ovs-support-tools -y" to install the sudo, bind-utils, iperf, rsync, sysstat, traceroute, and vixie-cron.
 
# yum install ovs-support-tools -y
Setting up Install Process
Resolving Dependencies
--> Running transaction check
---> Package ovs-support-tools.x86_64 0:3.2.1-1 set to be updated
--> Processing Dependency: rsync for package: ovs-support-tools
--> Processing Dependency: sudo for package: ovs-support-tools
--> Processing Dependency: sysstat for package: ovs-support-tools
--> Processing Dependency: iperf for package: ovs-support-tools
--> Processing Dependency: traceroute for package: ovs-support-tools
--> Processing Dependency: bind-utils for package: ovs-support-tools
--> Running transaction check
---> Package bind-utils.x86_64 30:9.3.6-20.P1.el5_8.4 set to be updated
--> Processing Dependency: bind-libs = 30:9.3.6-20.P1.el5_8.4 for package: bind-utils
--> Processing Dependency: liblwres.so.9()(64bit) for package: bind-utils
--> Processing Dependency: libbind9.so.0()(64bit) for package: bind-utils
--> Processing Dependency: libisccfg.so.1()(64bit) for package: bind-utils
--> Processing Dependency: libisc.so.15()(64bit) for package: bind-utils
--> Processing Dependency: libisccc.so.0()(64bit) for package: bind-utils
--> Processing Dependency: libdns.so.26()(64bit) for package: bind-utils
---> Package iperf.x86_64 0:2.0.5-1.el5 set to be updated
---> Package rsync.x86_64 0:3.0.6-4.el5_7.1 set to be updated
---> Package sudo.x86_64 0:1.7.2p1-14.el5_8 set to be updated
---> Package sysstat.x86_64 0:7.0.2-11.el5 set to be updated
---> Package traceroute.x86_64 3:2.0.1-6.el5 set to be updated
--> Running transaction check
---> Package bind-libs.x86_64 30:9.3.6-20.P1.el5_8.4 set to be updated
--> Finished Dependency Resolution
 
Dependencies Resolved
 
============================================================================================
 Package                 Arch Version                       Repository         Size
============================================================================================
Installing:
 ovs-support-tools       x86_64 3.2.1-1                       ovm3_latest       1.6 k
Installing for dependencies:
 bind-libs               x86_64 30:9.3.6-20.P1.el5_8.4        ovm3_latest       897 k
 bind-utils              x86_64 30:9.3.6-20.P1.el5_8.4        ovm3_latest       180 k
 iperf                   x86_64 2.0.5-1.el5                   ovm3_latest        54 k
 rsync                   x86_64 3.0.6-4.el5_7.1               ovm3_latest       347 k
 sudo                    x86_64 1.7.2p1-14.el5_8              ovm3_latest       358 k
 sysstat                 x86_64 7.0.2-11.el5                  ovm3_latest       187 k
 traceroute              x86_64 3:2.0.1-6.el5                 ovm3_latest        41 k
 
Transaction Summary
============================================================================================
Install       8 Package(s)
Upgrade       0 Package(s)
 
Total size: 2.0 M
Downloading Packages:
warning: rpmts_HdrFromFdno: Header V3 DSA signature: NOKEY, key ID 1e5e0159
ovm3_latest/gpgkey | 2.7 kB     00:00 ...
Importing GPG key 0x1E5E0159 "Oracle OSS group (Open Source Software group) <build@oss.oracle.com>" from http://public-yum.oracle.com/RPM-GPG-KEY-oracle-el5
Running rpm_check_debug
Running Transaction Test
Finished Transaction Test
Transaction Test Succeeded
Running Transaction
  Installing     : sudo 1/8
  Installing     : traceroute 2/8
  Installing     : sysstat 3/8
  Installing     : bind-libs 4/8
  Installing     : bind-utils 5/8
  Installing     : rsync 6/8
  Installing     : iperf 7/8
  Installing     : ovs-support-tools 8/8
 
Installed:
  ovs-support-tools.x86_64 0:3.2.1-1
 
Dependency Installed:
  bind-libs.x86_64 30:9.3.6-20.P1.el5_8.4      bind-utils.x86_64 30:9.3.6-20.P1.el5_8.4
  iperf.x86_64 0:2.0.5-1.el5                   rsync.x86_64 0:3.0.6-4.el5_7.1
  sudo.x86_64 0:1.7.2p1-14.el5_8               sysstat.x86_64 0:7.0.2-11.el5
  traceroute.x86_64 3:2.0.1-6.el5
 
Complete!
 
Next, delete or desable the /etc/yum.repos.d/public-yum-ovm3.repo file. 
 
Disable the .repo file by changing enabled=1 to enabled=0. The next example shows a disabled ovm3_latest .repo file.
 
[ovm3_latest]
name=Oracle VM Server 3 Latest ($basearch)
baseurl=http://public-yum.oracle.com/repo/OracleVM/OVM3/latest/x86_64/
gpgkey=http://public-yum.oracle.com/RPM-GPG-KEY-oracle-el5
gpgcheck=1
enabled=0
 

Uninstall / Remove Oracle VM

There is not an option to “uninstall” Oracle VM, although there are many ways to remove Oracle VM from a system. The method you select to remove Oracle VM from a system depends on your organizations security requirements. For example, if corporate policy states that the data on the hard drive needs to be securely deleted, formatting or re-partitioning the hard drive will not completely remove the data from the disks. To completely wipe Oracle VM from disk, boot the system using data destruction application, like Darik's Boot and Nuke (DBAN), and wipe the disk(s). If the data on the hard drive does not need to be securely deleted, you could a) delete all the files on the disks b) format or re-partition the hard drives c) uninstall the bootloader and d) install another operating system on top of the existing one.
 
List 1 shows several of the options to remove Oracle Linux from a system.

Oracle VM Server Installation Hangs While Loading Xen.gz

The installation of Oracle VM Server 3.0.x hangs while loading xen.gz on servers with Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI) cards or with console redirection enabled in the BIOS.
 
The next example shows a hung boot screen.
COM32 Multiboot loader v0.1. Copyright (C) 2005 Tim Deegan
Kernel: xen.gz
Loading: xen.gz
 
IPMI cards or enabled console redirection change the default Component Object Model (COM) port inside the BIOS from COM A (COM 1) to COM B (COM 2). When the Component Object Model (COM) port becomes COM B (COM 2) the installation program hangs as described above.
 
Resolution
1. Access the system BIOS, open the Advanced menu, and validate the Console Redirection settings. Either DISABLE Console Redirection or change it to COM1.
2. Exit and Save the BIOS changes.
3. Restart the Oracle VM Server installation.
 

Appendix

Oracle VM Default Runlevel Settings for System Services
 

Oracle VM Default Runlevel Settings for System Services

The next example shows the Oracle VM 3.2.2 default runlevel settings for system services.
 
anacron         0:off 1:off 2:on 3:on 4:on 5:on 6:off
crond           0:off 1:off 2:on 3:on 4:on 5:on 6:off
haldaemon       0:off 1:off 2:off 3:on 4:on 5:on 6:off
ip6tables       0:off 1:off 2:off 3:off 4:off 5:off 6:off
ipmievd         0:off 1:off 2:off 3:off 4:off 5:off 6:off
iptables       0:off 1:off 2:off 3:off 4:off 5:off 6:off
irqbalance     0:off 1:off 2:on 3:on 4:on 5:on 6:off
iscsi           0:off 1:off 2:off 3:on 4:on 5:on 6:off
iscsid         0:off 1:off 2:off 3:on 4:on 5:on 6:off
kdump           0:off 1:off 2:off 3:off 4:off 5:off 6:off
lm_sensors     0:off 1:off 2:on 3:on 4:on 5:on 6:off
lvm2-monitor   0:off 1:on 2:on 3:on 4:on 5:on 6:off
mcstrans       0:off 1:off 2:on 3:on 4:on 5:on 6:off
messagebus     0:off 1:off 2:off 3:on 4:on 5:on 6:off
mpp             0:off 1:off 2:off 3:on 4:off 5:on 6:off
multipathd     0:off 1:off 2:on 3:on 4:on 5:on 6:off
netconsole     0:off 1:off 2:off 3:off 4:off 5:off 6:off
netfs           0:off 1:off 2:off 3:on 4:on 5:on 6:off
netplugd       0:off 1:off 2:off 3:off 4:off 5:off 6:off
network         0:off 1:off 2:on 3:on 4:on 5:on 6:off
nfs             0:off 1:off 2:off 3:off 4:off 5:off 6:off
nfslock         0:off 1:off 2:off 3:on 4:on 5:on 6:off
ntpd           0:off 1:off 2:on 3:on 4:on 5:on 6:off
o2cb           0:off 1:off 2:on 3:on 4:on 5:on 6:off
ocfs2           0:off 1:off 2:on 3:on 4:on 5:on 6:off
openvswitch     0:off 1:off 2:off 3:off 4:off 5:off 6:off
ovm-consoled   0:off 1:off 2:off 3:on 4:on 5:on 6:off
ovmwatch       0:off 1:off 2:off 3:on 4:on 5:on 6:off
ovs-agent       0:off 1:off 2:on 3:on 4:on 5:on 6:off
ovs-devmon     0:off 1:off 2:off 3:on 4:on 5:on 6:off
portmap         0:off 1:off 2:off 3:on 4:on 5:on 6:off
rawdevices     0:off 1:off 2:off 3:on 4:on 5:on 6:off
rdisc           0:off 1:off 2:off 3:off 4:off 5:off 6:off
restorecond     0:off 1:off 2:on 3:on 4:on 5:on 6:off
rpcgssd         0:off 1:off 2:off 3:on 4:on 5:on 6:off
rpcidmapd       0:off 1:off 2:off 3:on 4:on 5:on 6:off
rpcsvcgssd     0:off 1:off 2:off 3:off 4:off 5:off 6:off
smartd         0:off 1:off 2:on 3:on 4:on 5:on 6:off
snmpd           0:off 1:off 2:off 3:off 4:off 5:off 6:off
snmptrapd       0:off 1:off 2:off 3:off 4:off 5:off 6:off
sshd           0:off 1:off 2:on 3:on 4:on 5:on 6:off
syslog         0:off 1:off 2:on 3:on 4:on 5:on 6:off
sysstat         0:off 1:off 2:on 3:on 4:off 5:on 6:off
xencommons     0:off 1:off 2:on 3:on 4:on 5:on 6:off
xend           0:off 1:off 2:on 3:on 4:on 5:on 6:off
xendomains     0:off 1:off 2:on 3:on 4:on 5:on 6:off
 

Oracle VM install.log File

The next example shows a Oracle VM 3.2.2 install.log file.
 
Installing libgcc-4.1.2-48.el5.x86_64
warning: libgcc-4.1.2-48.el5: Header V3 DSA signature: NOKEY, key ID 1e5e0159
Installing setup-2.5.58-7.100.4.el5.noarch
Installing filesystem-2.4.0-3.0.1.el5.x86_64
Installing basesystem-8.0-5.1.1.0.1.noarch
Installing tzdata-2010k-1.el5.x86_64
Installing glibc-common-2.5-49.el5_5.4.x86_64
Installing glibc-2.5-49.el5_5.4.x86_64
Installing cracklib-dicts-2.8.9-3.3.x86_64
Installing nash-5.1.19.6-71.100.1.el5_7.5.x86_64
Installing 1:busybox-1.2.0-7.el5.x86_64
Installing kernel-uek-firmware-2.6.39-300.22.2.el5uek.noarch
Installing oraclelinux-release-5-7.100.1.x86_64
Installing enterprise-linux-ovs-5-5.208.x86_64
Installing ql2xxx-firmware-1.01.01-0.1.el5.noarch
Installing 1:termcap-5.5-1.20060701.1.noarch
Installing vbox-img-1.0-6.x86_64
Installing rootfiles-8.1-1.1.1.noarch
Installing glibc-2.5-49.el5_5.4.i686
Installing chkconfig-1.3.30.2-2.el5.x86_64
Installing zlib-1.2.3-3.x86_64
Installing glib2-2.12.3-4.el5_3.1.x86_64
Installing popt-1.10.2.3-20.el5_5.1.x86_64
Installing audit-libs-1.7.17-3.el5.x86_64
Installing 3:mktemp-1.5-23.2.2.x86_64
Installing bzip2-libs-1.0.3-6.el5_5.x86_64
Installing elfutils-libelf-0.137-3.el5.x86_64
Installing expat-1.95.8-8.3.el5_5.3.x86_64
Installing libstdc++-4.1.2-48.el5.x86_64
Installing tcp_wrappers-7.6-40.7.el5.x86_64
Installing libtermcap-2.0.8-46.1.x86_64
Installing bash-3.2-24.el5.x86_64
Installing info-4.8-14.el5.x86_64
Installing ncurses-5.5-24.20060715.x86_64
Installing libsepol-1.15.2-3.el5.x86_64
Installing readline-5.1-3.el5.x86_64
Installing sed-4.1.5-5.fc6.x86_64
Installing nspr-4.8.6-1.el5.x86_64
Installing nss-3.12.7-2.0.1.el5.x86_64
Installing gawk-3.1.5-14.el5.x86_64
Installing sqlite-3.3.6-5.x86_64
Installing libcap-1.10-26.x86_64
Installing iptables-1.4.7-3.100.3.el5.x86_64
Installing db4-4.3.29-10.el5_5.2.x86_64
Installing libaio-0.3.106-5.x86_64
Installing libsysfs-2.0.0-6.x86_64
Installing libattr-2.4.32-1.1.x86_64
Installing libacl-2.2.39-6.el5.x86_64
Installing libidn-0.6.5-1.1.x86_64
Installing diffutils-2.8.1-15.2.3.el5.x86_64
Installing libxml2-2.6.26-2.1.2.8.0.2.x86_64
Installing mailx-8.1.1-44.2.2.x86_64
Installing 1:dmidecode-2.10-3.el5.x86_64
Installing libgpg-error-1.4-2.x86_64
Installing slang-2.0.6-4.el5.x86_64
Installing gdbm-1.8.0-26.2.1.x86_64
Installing 4:perl-5.8.8-38.el5.x86_64
Installing lm_sensors-2.10.7-9.el5.x86_64
Installing libgcrypt-1.4.4-5.el5.x86_64
Installing bridge-utils-1.1-2.x86_64
Installing device-mapper-multipath-libs-0.4.9-46.100.5.el5.x86_64
Installing iproute-2.6.32-10.100.2.el5.x86_64
Installing iptables-ipv6-1.4.7-3.100.3.el5.x86_64
Installing hmaccalc-0.9.6-3.el5.x86_64
Installing procps-3.2.7-16.el5.x86_64
Installing less-436-2.el5.x86_64
Installing gzip-1.3.5-11.0.1.el5_4.1.x86_64
Installing binutils-2.17.50.0.6-14.el5.x86_64
Installing cpio-2.6-23.el5_4.1.x86_64
Installing bzip2-1.0.3-6.el5_5.x86_64
Installing iputils-20020927-46.el5.x86_64
Installing udhcp-0.9.8-3.x86_64
Installing ovs-utils-1.1-1.x86_64
Installing pcre-6.6-2.el5_1.7.x86_64
Installing grep-2.5.1-55.el5.x86_64
Installing libusb-0.1.12-5.1.x86_64
Installing elfutils-libs-0.137-3.el5.x86_64
Installing lsscsi-0.23-3.el5.x86_64
Installing tftp-0.49-2.0.1.x86_64
Installing libevent-1.4.13-1.x86_64
Installing sg3_utils-libs-1.25-4.el5.x86_64
Installing sg3_utils-1.25-4.el5.x86_64
Installing 2:ethtool-2.6.33-0.3.100.1.el5.x86_64
Installing mingetty-1.07-5.2.2.x86_64
Installing keyutils-libs-1.2-1.el5.x86_64
Installing cyrus-sasl-lib-2.1.22-5.el5_4.3.x86_64
Installing libvolume_id-095-14.27.100.1.el5_7.4.x86_64
Installing sgpio-1.2.0_10-2.0.1.el5.x86_64
Installing sysfsutils-2.0.0-6.x86_64
Installing ed-0.2-39.el5_2.x86_64
Installing nc-1.84-10.fc6.x86_64
Installing 1:mcelog-1.0pre3_20101112-0.6.100.1.el5.x86_64
Installing unzip-6.0-3.100.1.el5.x86_64
Installing liblockfile-1.06.1-3.x86_64
Installing file-4.17-15.el5_3.1.x86_64
Installing strace-4.5.18-5.el5_4.1.x86_64
Installing vconfig-1.9-3.x86_64
Installing libdrm-2.0.2-1.1.x86_64
Installing numactl-0.9.8-11.100.1.el5.x86_64
Installing setserial-2.17-19.2.2.x86_64
Installing hdparm-6.6-2.x86_64
Installing reflink-0.1.0-2.x86_64
Installing crontabs-1.10-8.noarch
Installing anacron-2.3-45.0.1.el5.x86_64
Installing grub-0.97-13.5.100.3.x86_64
Installing libselinux-1.33.4-5.5.el5.x86_64
Installing coreutils-5.97-23.100.1.el5_4.7.x86_64
Installing device-mapper-1.02.39-1.el5_5.2.x86_64
Installing e2fsprogs-libs-1.39-23.el5.x86_64
Installing 2:shadow-utils-4.0.17-15.el5.x86_64
Installing krb5-libs-1.6.1-36.el5_5.5.x86_64
Installing openssl-0.9.8e-12.el5_4.6.x86_64
Installing python-2.4.3-27.100.1.el5_5.6.x86_64
Installing xen-tools-4.1.3-25.el5.x86_64
Installing kpartx-0.4.9-46.100.5.el5.x86_64
Installing openldap-2.3.43-12.el5_5.2.x86_64
Installing e2fsprogs-1.39-23.el5.x86_64
Installing 1:findutils-4.2.27-6.el5.x86_64
Installing device-mapper-multipath-0.4.9-46.100.5.el5.x86_64
warning: /etc/multipath.conf saved as /etc/multipath.conf.rpmorig
Installing newt-0.52.2-15.el5.x86_64
Installing 1:net-snmp-libs-5.3.2.2-17.0.1.el5_8.1.x86_64
Installing libgssapi-0.10-2.x86_64
Installing logrotate-3.7.4-9.x86_64
Installing 2:tar-1.15.1-30.el5.x86_64
Installing libselinux-utils-1.33.4-5.5.el5.x86_64
Installing net-tools-1.60-81.el5.x86_64
Installing nfs-utils-lib-1.0.8-7.6.el5.x86_64
Installing kexec-tools-2.0.3-4.0.7.el5.x86_64
Installing python-simplejson-2.0.7-2.el5.x86_64
Installing multiprocessing-2.6.1.1-1.x86_64
Installing ovs-agent-3.2.1-183.x86_64
warning: /etc/ovs-agent/passwdfile created as /etc/ovs-agent/passwdfile.rpmnew
Generating RSA private key, 1024 bit long modulus
...............++++++
.......++++++
e is 65537 (0x10001)
You are about to be asked to enter information that will be incorporated
into your certificate request.
What you are about to enter is what is called a Distinguished Name or a DN.
There are quite a few fields but you can leave some blank
For some fields there will be a default value,
If you enter '.', the field will be left blank.
-----
Country Name (2 letter code) [GB]:State or Province Name (full name) [Berkshire]:Locality Name (eg, city) [Newbury]:Organization Name (eg, company) [My Company Ltd]:Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []:Common Name (eg, your name or your server's hostname) []:Email Address []:
Please enter the following 'extra' attributes
to be sent with your certificate request
A challenge password []:An optional company name []:Signature ok
subject=/CN=localhost.localdomain
Getting Private key
Installing python-crypto-2.0-1.rf.x86_64
Installing python-sqlite-1.1.7-1.2.1.x86_64
Installing python-elementtree-1.2.6-5.x86_64
Installing libxml2-python-2.6.26-2.1.2.8.0.2.x86_64
Installing yum-metadata-parser-1.1.2-3.el5.x86_64
Installing libsemanage-1.9.1-4.4.el5.x86_64
Installing audit-libs-python-1.7.17-3.el5.x86_64
Installing libselinux-python-1.33.4-5.5.el5.x86_64
Installing cracklib-2.8.9-3.3.x86_64
Installing pam-0.99.6.2-6.el5_4.1.x86_64
Installing libuser-0.54.7-2.1.el5_4.1.x86_64
Installing passwd-0.73-1.x86_64
Installing usermode-1.88-3.el5.2.x86_64
Installing SysVinit-2.86-15.el5.x86_64
Installing curl-7.15.5-9.el5.x86_64
Installing python-pycurl-7.15.5.1-4.100.1.el5.x86_64
Installing iscsi-initiator-utils-6.2.0.872-6.100.1.el5.x86_64
Installing socat-1.7.1.3-1.el5.x86_64
Installing MAKEDEV-3.23-1.2.x86_64
Installing udev-095-14.27.100.1.el5_7.4.x86_64
Installing util-linux-2.13-0.52.100.1.el5_4.2.x86_64
Installing which-2.16-7.x86_64
Installing cryptsetup-luks-1.0.3-5.el5.x86_64
Installing device-mapper-event-1.02.39-1.el5_5.2.x86_64
Installing lvm2-2.02.56-8.100.3.el5.x86_64
Installing psmisc-22.2-7.x86_64
Installing initscripts-8.45.30-2.100.27.el5.x86_64
Installing kbd-1.12-21.el5.x86_64
Installing sysklogd-1.4.1-46.100.2.el5.x86_64
Installing 4:vixie-cron-4.1-81.el5.x86_64
Installing 1:smartmontools-5.42-2.100.2.el5.x86_64
Installing portmap-4.0-65.2.2.1.x86_64
Installing mcstrans-0.2.11-3.el5.x86_64
Installing 2:irqbalance-0.55-17.el5.x86_64
Installing 12:dhclient-3.0.5-23.el5_5.2.x86_64
Installing prelink-0.4.0-2.el5.x86_64
Installing authconfig-5.3.21-6.el5.x86_64
Installing ovmwatch-1.0-20.x86_64
Installing devmon-1.0-28.x86_64
Installing system-config-securitylevel-tui-1.6.29.1-5.100.2.el5.x86_64
Installing python-numeric-23.7-2.2.2.x86_64
Installing python-hashlib-20081119-4.el5.x86_64
Installing PyXML-0.8.4-4.el5_4.2.x86_64
Installing pyOpenSSL-0.10-2.el5.x86_64
Installing pygobject2-2.12.1-5.el5.x86_64
Installing wget-1.11.4-2.el5_4.1.x86_64
Installing 14:tcpdump-3.9.4-15.el5.x86_64
Installing OpenIPMI-tools-2.0.16-7.el5.x86_64
Installing parted-1.8.1-27.el5.x86_64
Installing rdac-mpp-tools-1.0.1-5.x86_64
Installing lsof-4.78-3.x86_64
Installing 2:vim-minimal-7.0.109-6.el5.x86_64
Installing osc-plugin-manager-1.2.8-26.el5.noarch
Installing python-urlgrabber-3.9.1-9.100.3.el5.noarch
Installing pykickstart-0.43.8-1.100.12.el5.noarch
Installing redhat-lsb-3.1-12.3.100.1.EL.x86_64
Installing python-iniparse-0.2.3-4.el5.noarch
Installing p2v-util-0.10-8.x86_64
Installing osc-oracle-generic-1.1.0-74.el5.noarch
Installing osc-plugin-manager-devel-1.2.8-26.el5.noarch
Installing xen-4.1.3-25.el5.x86_64
Installing bfa-firmware-3.0.2.2-1.el5.noarch
Installing ovm-consoled-0.1-11.noarch
Installing sos-1.7-9.49.100.1.el5.noarch
Installing python-paramiko-1.7.2-1.0.1.rf.noarch
Installing xen-devel-4.1.3-25.el5.x86_64
Installing pypxeboot-0.0.2-11.noarch
Installing pexpect-2.3-3.el5.noarch
Installing ovs-python-uuid-1.2.6-7.el5.noarch
Installing vmpinfo3-sosreport-1.0.0-6.el5.noarch
Installing xenpvboot-0.1-8.el5.noarch
Installing ntp-4.2.2p1-9.100.1.el5_4.1.x86_64
Installing fipscheck-lib-1.2.0-1.el5.x86_64
Installing rpm-4.4.2.3-20.el5_5.1.x86_64
Installing dbus-libs-1.1.2-14.el5.x86_64
Installing rpm-libs-4.4.2.3-20.el5_5.1.x86_64
Installing openssh-4.3p2-41.el5_5.1.x86_64
Installing dbus-1.1.2-14.el5.x86_64
Installing dmraid-1.0.0.rc13-63.el5.x86_64
Installing 1:net-snmp-5.3.2.2-17.0.1.el5_8.1.x86_64
Installing 1:net-snmp-utils-5.3.2.2-17.0.1.el5_8.1.x86_64
Installing rpm-python-4.4.2.3-20.el5_5.1.x86_64
Installing dbus-glib-0.73-10.el5_5.x86_64
Installing fipscheck-1.2.0-1.el5.x86_64
Installing dmraid-events-1.0.0.rc13-63.el5.x86_64
Installing openssh-clients-4.3p2-41.el5_5.1.x86_64
Installing openssh-server-4.3p2-41.el5_5.1.x86_64
Installing policycoreutils-1.33.12-14.8.el5.x86_64
Installing yum-3.2.22-39.0.2.el5.noarch
Installing mkinitrd-5.1.19.6-71.100.1.el5_7.5.x86_64
Installing module-init-tools-3.3-0.pre3.1.60.el5.x86_64
Installing ocfs2-tools-1.8.2-4.el5.x86_64
Installing kernel-uek-2.6.39-300.22.2.el5uek.x86_64
Installing kmod-openvswitch-uek-1.6.90-2.x86_64
Installing openvswitch-1.6.90-7.x86_64
Installing hwdata-0.213.22-1.el5.noarch
Installing pciutils-3.1.7-5.el5.x86_64
Installing 1:nfs-utils-1.0.9-47.el5_5.x86_64
Installing ovs-release-3.2-5.208.x86_64
Installing osc-oracle-ocfs2-0.1.0-38.el5.noarch
Installing hal-0.5.8.1-59.el5.x86_64
Installing pm-utils-0.99.3-10.el5.x86_64

Oracle VM install.log.syslog File

The next example shows an Oracle VM 3.2.2 install.log.syslog file.
 
<86>Feb  2 16:12:52 groupadd[947]: new group: name=audio, GID=63
<86>Feb  2 16:12:55 groupadd[967]: new group: name=floppy, GID=19
<86>Feb  2 16:12:56 useradd[971]: new group: name=vcsa, GID=69
<86>Feb  2 16:12:56 useradd[971]: new user: name=vcsa, UID=69, GID=69, home=/dev, shell=/sbin/nologin
<86>Feb  2 16:12:59 groupadd[992]: new group: name=utmp, GID=22
<86>Feb  2 16:13:02 groupadd[1030]: new group: name=rpc, GID=32
<86>Feb  2 16:13:04 useradd[1034]: new user: name=rpc, UID=32, GID=32, home=/, shell=/sbin/nologin
<86>Feb  2 16:13:06 groupadd[1059]: new group: name=pcap, GID=77
<86>Feb  2 16:13:09 useradd[1063]: new user: name=pcap, UID=77, GID=77, home=/var/arpwatch, shell=/sbin/nologin
<86>Feb  2 16:13:14 groupadd[1088]: new group: name=ntp, GID=38
<86>Feb  2 16:13:15 useradd[1092]: new user: name=ntp, UID=38, GID=38, home=/etc/ntp, shell=/sbin/nologin
<86>Feb  2 16:13:18 useradd[1105]: new group: name=dbus, GID=81
<86>Feb  2 16:13:18 useradd[1105]: new user: name=dbus, UID=81, GID=81, home=/, shell=/sbin/nologin
<86>Feb  2 16:13:20 useradd[1120]: new group: name=sshd, GID=74
<86>Feb  2 16:13:20 useradd[1120]: new user: name=sshd, UID=74, GID=74, home=/var/empty/sshd, shell=/sbin/nologin
<86>Feb  2 16:13:47 useradd[3248]: new group: name=rpcuser, GID=29
<86>Feb  2 16:13:47 useradd[3248]: new user: name=rpcuser, UID=29, GID=29, home=/var/lib/nfs, shell=/sbin/nologin
<86>Feb  2 16:13:48 useradd[3256]: new group: name=nfsnobody, GID=4294967294
<86>Feb  2 16:13:48 useradd[3256]: new user: name=nfsnobody, UID=4294967294, GID=4294967294, home=/var/lib/nfs, shell=/sbin/nologin
<86>Feb  2 16:13:48 useradd[3274]: new group: name=haldaemon, GID=68
<86>Feb  2 16:13:48 useradd[3274]: new user: name=haldaemon, UID=68, GID=68, home=/, shell=/sbin/nologin
 

Oracle VM anaconda-ks.cfg File

The next example shows an Oracle VM 3.2.2 an anaconda-ks.cfg file.
 
# Kickstart file automatically generated by anaconda.
 
install
eula Accepted
cdrom
lang en_US.UTF-8
keyboard us
network --device eth0 --bootproto static --ip 192.168.30.104 --netmask 255.255.255.0 --gateway 192.168.30.254 --nameserver 192.168.30.10, 192.168.30.11 --hostname myserver
ovsagent --iscrypted xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
ovsmgmntif eth0.3
rootpw --iscrypted xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
firewall --enabled --port=21:tcp --port=22:tcp --port=53:udp --port=53:tcp --port=80:tcp --port=2049:tcp --port=5900-7999:tcp --port=8002:tcp --port=8003:tcp --port=8899:tcp --port=7777:tcp
authconfig --enableshadow --enablemd5
selinux --disabled
timezone --utc America/Los_Angeles
bootloader --location=mbr --dom0_mem=840 --driveorder=sda
# The following is the partition information you requested
# Note that any partitions you deleted are not expressed
# here so unless you clear all partitions first, this is
# not guaranteed to work
#clearpart --all --drives=sda
#part /boot --fstype ext3 --size=100 --ondisk=sda
#part / --fstype ext3 --size=3072 --grow
#part swap --size=1024 --ondisk=sda
 
%packages
@base
@core
@ovs-virtualization

Oracle VM Patch Updates

Show a printer friendly version of this chapter of the Oracle Cloud Cookbook

 

Copyright © 2013 Mokum Solutions, Inc. All rights reserved.
Distribution of the Oracle Cloud Cookbook or derivative of the work in any form for commercial purposes is prohibited unless prior permission is obtained from the copyright holder.
 
This chapter of the Oracle Cloud Cookbook reviews how to apply patch updates to Oracle VM Manager and Oracle VM Server. When updating Oracle VM, Oracle VM Manager must be updated first, followed by the Oracle VM Servers managed by Oracle VM Manager.
 
Change Log
Revision
Change Description
Updated By
Date
1.0
First Release
Roddy Rodstein
10/05/11
1.1Oracle VM 3.0.3 UpdatesRoddy Rodstein01/20/12
1.2Oracle VM 3.1.1 UpdatesRoddy Rodstein05/09/12
1.3Build 3.1.1.365 UpdatesRoddy Rodstein07/12/12
1.4Content RefreshRoddy Rodstein01/19/13
This document applies to Oracle VM 3.x.
 
Table of Contents
Change log
Oracle VM Releases
Oracle VM Upgrade Roadmap
How to Backup Oracle VM Manager
...How to Backup an Oracle VM Manager Configuration File
...How to Backup an Oracle VM Manager Database Repository
…...How to Backup an Oracle VM Manager Standard or Enterprise Edition Database Repository
…...How to Backup an Oracle VM Manager Express Database Repository
How to Download the Oracle VM Upgrade Media from the Oracle Linux and Oracle VM Cloud Portal
How to Mount the Oracle VM Manager Media and Run the runUpgrader.sh Script
Oracle VM Server Upgrade, Updates and Patching with a Yum Server
...Oracle Yum Server Configurtaion Road Map
...Register the Oracle Linux Yum Server with the Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network
...Install and configure Apache on the Oracle Linux Yum Server
...Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network Yum Server Configuration
...Populate and Synchronize the Yum Server with Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network
...Oracle VM Manager Yum Server Configuration
Appendix
1- Patch Update Fails with BUILD FAILED Message
1- Upgrade Build 3.1.1.305
 

Oracle VM Releases

At Oracle OpenWorld 2007, Oracle announced its entry into the x86 server virtualization market with the first release of Oracle VM. The first release of Oracle VM was actually version 2.1 because of Larry Ellison's aversion to using 1.0 for Oracle product releases to help drive early adoption. As of this writing, there has been a total of 12 Oracle VM Releases.
 
A key component of a successful Oracle VM deployment is acquiring and vetting new releases, patches and updates for production systems. New Oracle VM releases, patches and updates must be researched to identify which release, patches and updates are applicable to your environment. Newly released versions, patches and updates should be vetted before being deployed into production. A best practice is to run the latest stable release of Oracle VM. As of this writing, the latest stable Oracle VM release is 3.1.1 with the Oracle VM Manager 3.1.1-625 patch (patch ID 14227416). 
 
Tip: To support the Oracle VM 3.1.1 release, from the Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network, please subscribe your yum server to the Oracle VM 3.1.1 Server Installation Media copy RPM channel and the Oracle VM 3.1.1 Server Patches RPM channels. Patch jobs using the latest RPM channel will update hosts to their respected latest version update with the latest software patches, updates and fixes. A patch job executed on a Oracle VM 3.1.1 host using the latest RPM channel would update the host from 3.1.1 to 3.2.x with the latest software patches, updates and fixes.
 
The relevant parts of Oracle VM releases are:
  • Major release numbers: 2.1, 2.2, 3.0, 3.1 and 3.2
  • Minor release numbers: 2.1.x, 2.2.x and 3.0.x
Oracle VM 3.0.1 Release
  • Oracle VM 3.0.1 was released on August 23rd 2011. Oracle VM 3.0.1 was the first Oracle VM 3.0 release. 
Oracle VM 3.0.2 Release
  • Oracle VM 3.0.2 was released on September 30th 2011. Oracle VM 3.0.2 includes over 140 fixes without any new features.
Oracle VM 3.0.3 Release
  • Oracle VM 3.0.3 was released on Janurary 20th 2012. Oracle VM 3.0.3 includes numerious bug fixes along with several new features.
Oracle VM 3.1.1 Release
  • Oracle VM 3.1.1 was released on May 8th 2012. Oracle VM 3.1.1 includes numerious bug fixes along with several new features.
Oracle VM 3.2.1 Release
  • Oracle VM 3.2.1 was released on Janurary 18th 2013. Oracle VM 3.2.1 includes numerious bug fixes along with several new features.
Oracle VM 3.2.2 Release
  • Oracle VM 3.2.2 was released on March 18th 2013. Oracle VM 3.2.2 includes numerious bug fixes.
Even after a fresh installation of Oracle VM Manager, if a patch update is available, a best practice is to patch Oracle VM Manager before using Oracle VM Manager to avoid previously patched bugs. When updating Oracle VM, Oracle VM Manager must be updated first, followed by the Oracle VM Servers managed by Oracle VM Manager. As of this writing (04-14-2013), there are three Oracle VM Manager patch updates; Oracle VM Manager Release 3.0.3.546, Oracle VM Manager Release 3.1.1.625, and Oracle VM Manager Release 3.2.2.521.
 
Table 1 lists the Oracle VM Manager Patch Updates.
Oracle VM Release
Latest Oracle VM Patch Update
Available From My Oracle Support
Oracle VM Upgrades
Available From eDelivery
Oracle VM 3.0.1  
Oracle VM 3.0.2 
Oracle VM Manager 3.0.2 - Upgrade only
upgrade Oracle VM Manager 3.0.1
Oracle VM 3.0.3Patch 13614645: ORACLE VM MANAGER PATCH 3.0.3-546 RELEASE
Oracle VM Manager 3.0.3 - Upgrade only
Upgrade from Oracle VM Manager 3.0.1 or Oracle VM Manager 3.0.2
Oracle VM 3.1.1Patch 14227416: ORACLE VM MANAGER PATCH 3.1.1-625 RELEASE (Patch)
Oracle VM Manager 3.1.1 - Upgrade only
Upgrade from Oracle VM Manager 3.0.2 or Oracle VM Manager 3.0.3
Oracle VM 3.2.1 
Oracle VM Manager 3.2.1 - Upgrade only
Upgrade from Oracle VM Manager 3.0.3 or Oracle VM Manager 3.1.1
Oracle VM 3.2.2 (Build 520)Patch 16410417: ORACLE VM 3.2.3 MANAGER UPGRADE ISO RELEASE (Patch) (Build 521)
Oracle VM Manager 3.2.2 - Upgrade only
Upgrade from Oracle VM Manager 3.0.3 or Oracle VM Manager 3.1.1
 

Oracle VM Upgrade Roadmap

Step 1 Backup Oracle VM Manager
Step 2 Download the Oracle VM Manager Upgrade or Installation Media and/or the patch update
Step 3 Stage and Mount the Oracle VM Manager Upgrade or Installation ISO File and/or patch update on the Oracle VM Manager host and run the upgrade script
Step 4 Update the Oracle VM Servers using a Local YUM repository
 

How to Backup Oracle VM Manager

Before upgrading Oracle VM Manager, a best practice is to backup the Oracle VM Manager configuration file as well as the Oracle VM Manager Database repository. To be able to restore Oracle VM Manager from backup, a backup of the Oracle VM Manager configuration file and a backup of the Oracle VM Manager Database repository is necessary.
 

How to Backup an Oracle VM Manager Configuration File

The Oracle VM Manager configuration file “.config ” is located on the Oracle VM Manager host in the /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/ directory. The next example shows the syntax of the Oracle VM Manager .config file.

DBHOST=<THE HOSTNAME OF THE DATABASE SERVER>
SID=<ORACLE DATABASE SID>
LSNR=<THE LISTENER PORT FOR THE DATABASE>
APEX=<THE APPLICATION EXPRESS PORT>
OVSSCHEMA=<THE DEFAULT ORACLE VM MANAGER DATABASE SCHEMA NAME>
WLSADMIN=<THE DEFAULT WEBLOGIC SERVER ADMIN NAME>
OVSADMIN=<THE DEFAULT ORACLE VM MANAGER ADMIN NAME>
COREPORT=<THE DEFAULT ORACLE VM MANAGER CORE PORT>
UUID=<THE ORACLE VM MANAGER UUID>

The next example shows a .config file from a production Oracle VM Manager host.

# cat /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/.config
DBHOST=localhost
SID=orcl
LSNR=1521
APEX=None
OVSSCHEMA=ovs
WLSADMIN=weblogic
OVSADMIN=admin
COREPORT=54321
UUID=0004fb00000100009edfaa0f93184f44
BUILDID=3.1.1.305
FROMVERSION=3.0.3
TOVERSION=3.1.1


Before backing up the .config file, Oracle VM Manager must be shut down. To shut down Oracle VM Manager, access the Oracle VM Manager host as the root user, and type “service ovmm stop”, as shown in the next example.

# service ovmm stop
Stopping Oracle VM Manager                                 [  OK  ]

Once Oracle VM Manager is stopped, backup the /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/.config. The next example shows how to backup the .config file in the root users home directly with a descriptive name “ovm-back-” and the current date.

# zip -9r ovm-back-`hostname -s`-`date +%F`.zip /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/.config

Once the .config file is backed up, start Oracle VM Manager by typing “service ovmm start” as shown in the following example.

# service ovmm start
Starting Oracle VM Manager                                 [  OK  ]

How to Backup an Oracle VM Manager Database Repository

Once the Oracle VM Manager configuration file is backed up, and Oracle VM Manager is running, the Oracle VM Manager repository should be backed up. Oracle recommends a full database repository backup. If you're brave, “only” backup the ovs schema.

The next example shows how to do a full Oracle VM Manager 11g Standard or Enterprise Edition Database repository backup using the exp utility.

Note: The exp utility is one of many applications that can be used to do a full Oracle VM Manager Database repository backup.

The exp utility can be run in one of three modes: interactive dialogue, controlled through bypassed parameters and parameter file controlled. For the sake of brevity, we will use the interactive dialogue mode to do a full Oracle VM Manager 11g Standard or Enterprise Edition Database repository backup.

 

How to Backup an Oracle VM Manager Standard or Enterprise Edition Database Repository

The following example shows how to do a full Oracle VM Manager 3.0 11g Standard or Enterprise Edition Database repository backup using the exp utility.

Log into the Oracle VM Manager Database repository system as the oracle user, or as root and type “su - oracle” to change to the oracle user.

Tip: The exp utility help files are available by typing “exp help=yes”

# su - oracle
$ exp

Export: Release 11.1.0.6.0 - Production on Tue Oct 4 14:03:33 2011

Copyright (c) 1982, 2007, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

Username: <USER NAME>
Password: <PASSWORD>

Connected to: Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.1.0.6.0 - 64bit Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options
Enter array fetch buffer size: 4096 >

Export file: expdat.dmp >

(1)E(ntire database), (2)U(sers), or (3)T(ables): (2)U > 1

Export grants (yes/no): yes >

Export table data (yes/no): yes >

Compress extents (yes/no): yes >

/

Export terminated successfully with warnings.

The above example creates a back up of the Database repository named expdat.dmp in the working directory.

The next example shows how to backup “only” the Oracle VM Manager 11g Standard or Enterprise Edition Database repository ovs schema. Change the user name and password for your environment.

$ exp USERID=<USER NAME>/<PASSWORD> OWNER=ovs FILE=exp_ovs.dmp

Export: Release 11.1.0.6.0 - Production on Mon Oct 3 16:24:09 2011

Copyright (c) 1982, 2007, Oracle.  All rights reserved.
 
Connected to: Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.1.0.6.0 - 64bit Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options
Export done in US7ASCII character set and AL16UTF16 NCHAR character set
server uses WE8MSWIN1252 character set (possible charset conversion)

/

Export terminated successfully with warnings.
 

How to Backup an Oracle VM Manager Express Database Repository

The next example shows how to backup an Oracle VM Manager 11g Express Database repository using the exp utility.  

Log into the Oracle VM Manager host as the oracle user, or as root and type “su - oracle” to change to the oracle user. As the oracle user type the following commands to backup the  Oracle VM Manager 11g XE Database repository.

Note: Replace <PASSWORD> with the ovs database schema password that was selected during the Oracle VM Manager installation. In the below example a file named “ovsbackup.dmp” is created in the /tmp directory. Any name or directory can be used with the “file=” argument.

export ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/xe
export PATH=$ORACLE_HOME/bin:$PATH
export ORACLE_SID=XE
exp ovs/<PASSWORD> grants=y compress=y file=/tmp/ovsbackup.dmp
 

How to Download the Oracle VM Upgrade Media from the Oracle Linux and Oracle VM Cloud Portal

In order to upgrade Oracle VM Manager, the installation or upgrade media must be downloaded and made available to the Oracle VM Manager host. Oracle VM Server can also be upgraded using the installation media or with a local YUM repository. The Oracle VM Manager installation and upgrade media can be burned to DVD and applied using a CD-ROM, or the ISO file can be copied to Oracle VM Manager host and mounted locally to start the upgrade program.
 
Tip: This chapter of the Oracle Cloud Cookbook covers how to upgrade Oracle VM Server using a local YUM repository. 
 
The Oracle VM installation and upgrade media is available at the Oracle Linux and Oracle VM Cloud Portal. Access to the Oracle Linux and Oracle VM Cloud Portal requires an Oracle.com user account and password to authenticate into the Oracle Linux and Oracle VM Cloud Portal. If you do not already have an Oracle.com user account, visit the Oracle Linux and Oracle VM Cloud Portal, click the Sign In / Register link or button to create an Oracle.com account.
 
Figure 1 shows the Oracle Linux and Oracle VM Cloud Portal.
Oracle Software Delivery Cloud Oracle VM
 
From the Sign In page, enter your Oracle.com user name and password, then click the Sign In button.
 
Figure 2 shows the Oracle Linux and Oracle VM Cloud Portal Sign In page.
Oracle.com SSO Sign In
 
Once authenticated, accept the registration/export regulations to access to the Oracle VM and Oracle Linux Media.
 
Figure 3 shows the registration/export regulations form.
Oracle Software Delivery Cloud Terms & Restrictions
 
 
After completing the registration/export regulation form, you will be redirected to the Media Pack Search page. From the Media Pack Search page, select Oracle VM from the Select a Product Pack dropdown menu. Next, select x86 64-bit from the Platform dropdown menu, then click the Go button to be taken to the Oracle VM Media Pack download page.
 
Tip: If you do not see Oracle VM from the Select a Product Pack dropdown menu, you are not in the Oracle Linux and Oracle VM section of the Cloud Portal. Click the Cloud Portal link in the page header, then click the Oracle Linux/VM drop down menu to be redirected to the Oracle Linux and Oracle VM section of the Cloud Portal.
 
Figure 4 shows the Media Pack Search page.
Download Oracle VM
 
From the Oracle VM Media Pack page, click the desired Oracle VM Media Pack radio button, then the Continue button, or click the desired Oracle VM Media Pack hyperlink to go to the download page.
 
From the Oracle VM Media Pack download page, click the desired Oracle VM Manager and Server Download button to download the Oracle VM Media Pack. As of this writingthe latest installation media for Oracle VM Manager is Oracle VM Manager 3.1.1, and the latest upgrade media is Oracle VM Manager 3.1.1 - Upgrade only. Oracle VM Manager can be upgraded using the installation media and/or with the upgrade only media. The upgrade only media is a much smaller and faster to download. The latest installation media for Oracle VM Servers is Oracle VM Server 3.1.1 for x86_64 (64 bit).
 
The Oracle VM media is delivered as a zip file. The zip file name corresponds to the Part Number listed on the download page. The Oracle VM Manager and/or Server zip file contains an ISO file.
 
Once the zip file(s) is downloaded, use your favorite zip utility to unzip the Oracle VM Manager media. Next, burn the ISO file to DVD to be able to install and or upgrade Oracle VM with a CD-ROM drive, or copy the ISO file to the Oracle VM Manager host, mount the ISO file and then perform the upgrade.
 

How to Mount the Oracle VM Manager Media and Run the runUpgrader.sh Script

In order to run the Oracle VM Manager runUpgrader.sh script, the upgrade or installation media (ISO file) must be made available to the Oracle VM Manager host. The Oracle VM Manager upgrade or installation media can be burned to DVD and applied using a CD-ROM, or the ISO file can be copied to Oracle VM Manager host and mounted locally to start the upgrade program. 
 
Note: The workflow to apply a patch update or an upgrade is virtually identical. Some of the upgrade and update code may ask you to stop Oracle VM Manager to proceed, i.e. "service ovmm stop".
 
List 2 walks through the steps to download, mount and start an Oracle VM Manager patch update or an upgrade.
  1. Download the desired Oracle VM Manager media from the Oracle Linux and Oracle VM Cloud Portal or My Oracle Support.
  2. Use your favorite zip utility to unzip the Oracle VM Manager zip file.
  3. Copy the ISO file to a directory on the Oracle VM Manager host, i.e. to the /media directory.
    1. Note: The directory where the ISO file will be mounted must be writable by the oracle user account.
  4. Log in to the Oracle VM Manager host as root.
  5. Mount the ISO file by typing “mount -o loop OracleVM-Manager-<VERSION>.iso /media”
  6. Change to the directory where the ISO file is mounted, i.e. “cd /media.
  7. Run the installer script as root, by typing “./runUpgrader.sh”, as shown in the following example.
The following two examples shows how to install patch ID 14227416 (3.1.1.365), then patch ID 16410417 (3.2.3.521)Patch ID 14227416 can be applied to Oracle VM Manager 3.0.3 and 3.1.1.. Patch ID 16410417 can be applied to Oracle VM Manager 3.0.3, 3.1.1, 3.2.1, and 3.2.2..
 
The next example shows how to apply Patch ID 14227416 to Oracle VM Manager 3.0.3 and 3.1.1..
 
# ./runUpgrader.sh
Stating OVM Manager upgrade on Thu Jul 12 05:23:21 PDT 2012

Oracle VM Manager 3.1.1.365 upgrade utility
Upgrade logfile : /tmp/upgrade-2012-07-12-23.log

It is highly recommended to do a full database repository backup prior to upgrading Oracle VM Manager ...

Press any key to continue ...

Oracle VM Manager is running ...
Verifying installation status ...
Read Oracle VM Manager config file ...
Skipping database upgrade for the same product version (3.1.1 to 3.1.1)
Found Oracle VM Manager install files ...
Found Oracle VM Manager upgrader ...
Found Oracle WebLogic Server ...
Found Java ...
Using the following information :
  Database Host          : localhost
  Database SID           : orcl
  Database LSNR          : 1521
  Oracle VM Schema       : ovs
  Oracle VM Manager UUID : 0004fb00000100004aa039092e1841f3
  Current Build ID       : 3.1.1.305
  Upgrade from version   : 3.1.1
  Upgrade to version     : 3.1.1
Using /tmp/workdir.8tJUbAKhqE for backup and export location.
Using /tmp/patchdir.XZoV9DSQR for patching.
Undeploying previous version of Oracle VM Manager application ...
Undeploying Oracle VM Manager help ...
Undeploying Oracle VM Manager console ...
Undeploying Oracle VM Manager core ...
Waiting for Oracle VM Manager core to fully undeploy...
Waiting...
Finished undeploying previous version ...
Upgrading Oracle VM Manager ...
Backing up old files to /tmp/ovm-manager-3-backup-2012-07-12-052505...
Removing old files ...
Unpacking Oracle VM Manager 3.1.1.365
Refresh system-jazn-data.xml file ...
Redeploying Oracle VM Manager core container ...
Redeploying Oracle VM Manager console ...
Redeploying Oracle VM Manager help ...
Unpacking Oracle VM Manager OVM CLI Tool
Completed upgrade to 3.1.1.365 ...
Writing updated config in /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/.config
Restart WebLogic ...
Stopping Oracle VM Manager                                 [  OK  ]
Starting Oracle VM Managernohup: ignoring input and redirecting stderr to stdout
                                                           [  OK  ]

OVM Manager upgrade finished on Thu Jul 12 05:27:04 PDT 2012
#
Oracle VM Manager has just been successfully updated.

The new Oracle VM Manager version number can be validated by viewing the release number listed on the BUILDID line in the .config file. The next example shows the .config file before the upgrade.

# cat /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/.config
DBHOST=localhost
SID=orcl
LSNR=1521
APEX=None
OVSSCHEMA=ovs
WLSADMIN=weblogic
OVSADMIN=admin
COREPORT=54321
UUID=0004fb00000100004aa039092e1841f3
BUILDID=3.1.1.365
FROMVERSION=3.1.1
TOVERSION=3.1.1
 
The next examples shows how to install patch ID 16410417Patch ID 16410417 can be applied to Oracle VM Manager 3.0.3, 3.1.1, 3.2.1, and 3.2.2.
 
# ./runUpgrader.sh 
Upgrade logfile : /tmp/ovm-manager-3-upgrade-2013-05-01-01.log
2013-05-01 19:01:25
2013-05-01 19:01:25 Starting Oracle VM Manager upgrade...
2013-05-01 19:01:25
2013-05-01 19:01:25 Oracle VM Manager 3.2.3.521 upgrade utility
2013-05-01 19:01:25
2013-05-01 19:01:25
2013-05-01 19:01:25 It is highly recommended to do a full database repository backup prior to upgrading Oracle VM Manager ...
2013-05-01 19:01:25
2013-05-01 19:01:25 Press [Enter] key to continue ...
 
2013-05-01 19:01:27
2013-05-01 19:01:27 Oracle VM Manager is running ...
2013-05-01 19:01:47 Verifying installation status ...
2013-05-01 19:01:47 Read Oracle VM Manager config file ...
2013-05-01 19:01:47 Skipping database upgrade for the same product version (3.2.2 to 3.2.3)
2013-05-01 19:01:47 Found Oracle VM Manager install files ...
2013-05-01 19:01:47 Found Oracle VM Manager upgrader ...
2013-05-01 19:01:47 Found Oracle WebLogic Server ...
2013-05-01 19:01:47 Found Java ...
2013-05-01 19:01:47 Using the following information :
2013-05-01 19:01:47 Database type : OracleDB
2013-05-01 19:01:47 Database Host : localhost
2013-05-01 19:01:47 Database SID : ORCL
2013-05-01 19:01:47 Database LSNR : 1521
2013-05-01 19:01:47 Oracle VM Schema : ovs
2013-05-01 19:01:47 Oracle VM Manager UUID : 0004fb00000100004533d12e31e78b07
2013-05-01 19:01:47 Current Build ID : 3.2.2.520
2013-05-01 19:01:47 Upgrade from version : 3.2.2
2013-05-01 19:01:47 Upgrade to version : 3.2.3
2013-05-01 19:01:47 Using /tmp/workdir.RYQBhNQfJ0 for backup and export location.
2013-05-01 19:01:47 Using /tmp/patchdir.HSixnCRfr for patching.
2013-05-01 19:01:47 Undeploying previous version of Oracle VM Manager application ...
2013-05-01 19:01:47 Undeploying Oracle VM Manager help ...
2013-05-01 19:02:00 Undeploying Oracle VM Manager console ...
2013-05-01 19:02:10 Undeploying Oracle VM Manager core ...
2013-05-01 19:02:45 Waiting for Oracle VM Manager core to fully undeploy...
Waiting...
 
2013-05-01 19:03:05 Finished undeploying previous version ...
2013-05-01 19:03:05 Upgrading Oracle VM Manager ...
2013-05-01 19:03:05 Backing up old files to /tmp/ovm-manager-3-backup-2013-05-01-190305...
2013-05-01 19:03:05 Removing old files ...
2013-05-01 19:03:05 Unpacking Oracle VM Manager 3.2.3.521
2013-05-01 19:03:06 Refresh system-jazn-data.xml file ...
2013-05-01 19:03:06 Redeploying Oracle VM Manager core container ...
2013-05-01 19:03:27 Redeploying Oracle VM Manager console ...
2013-05-01 19:04:35 Redeploying Oracle VM Manager help ...
2013-05-01 19:04:47 Unpacking Oracle VM Manager CLI Tool
iptables: Saving firewall rules to /etc/sysconfig/iptables:[  OK  ]
2013-05-01 19:04:47 Disabling HTTP and enabling HTTPS
2013-05-01 19:04:58 Completed upgrade to 3.2.3.521 ...
2013-05-01 19:04:58 Writing updated config in /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/.config
2013-05-01 19:04:59 Restart WebLogic ...
Stopping Oracle VM Manager                                 [  OK  ]
Starting Oracle VM Manager                                 [  OK  ]
2013-05-01 19:06:23
2013-05-01 19:06:23 Oracle VM Manager upgrade finished
 
Next, as root type the following commands to allow https connection with Microsoft Internet Explorer  7, 8, or 9. 
 
# cd /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/weblogic
# sh configureIdentityTrust.sh
# service ovmm stop
# service ovmm start
 

Oracle VM Server Upgrade, Updates and Patching with a Yum Server

When upgrading Oracle VM, Oracle VM Manager must be upgraded first, followed by the Oracle VM Servers managed by Oracle VM Manager. Oracle VM Servers are updated and patched using a local yum repository. A local yum repository can be configured on any Internet accessible Oracle Linux or Red Hat Enterprise Linux web server that has been registered with the Unbreakable Linux Network. A valid customer service identifier (CSI) for Oracle Linux and/or Oracle VM is required to configure a yum server at the Unbreakable Linux Network.
 

Oracle Yum Server Configurtaion Road Map

List 3 shows the steps to configure, update and patch an Oracle VM Server.
1- Register an Oracle Linux or Red Hat Enterprise Linux host with the Unbreakable Linux Network.
2- Install and configure Apache on the Linux host.
3- Login to the Unbreakable Linux Network, edit the properties of the Linux host, select the yum server check box, and select and save the desired RPM channels, i.e. Oracle VM 3 latest.
4- Use Oracle' 167283.sh script to populate the RPM channels from the Unbreakable Linux Network.
5- Login to Oracle VM Manager and enter the URL of the Oracle VM 3 latest RPM repository in the Server Update Management (YUM) dialog box.
6- Update and/or patch the Oracle VM Servers using Oracle VM Manager.
 

Register the Oracle Linux Yum Server with the Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network

Before an Oracle Linux or Red Hat Enterprise Linux host can connect to the Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network, Oracle’s GPG key must be imported using the rpm command. To import the Oracle’s GPG key, as root type “rpm --import /etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY”, as shown in the next example.
 
# rpm --import /etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY
 
Once the GPG key has been imported, the Linux host can be registered at the Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network from the command line or using an X Windows application. Linux 4 and 5 systems use the up2date command as root to access the registration screen by typing “up2date --register” for X Windows or "up2date --nox --register" for text mode. Linux 6 systems use the "uln_register" command as root to access the registration screen. The registration process requires you to enter your Unbreakable Linux Network associated Oracle Single Sign-on user name and password and a valid Oracle Linux Support Identifier number (CSI).
 
If a proxy server is in the mix, for Oracle Linux 4 and 5 systems, as root type “up2date --configure” to list and edit the up2date program defaults. There are five proxy configurations that can be edited to allow access from your Linux host to the internet. The next example shows the up2date proxy configuration items with their default settings and item numbers.
  • 3. enableProxy        No
  • 4. enableProxyAuth    No
  • 11. httpProxy
  • 21. proxyPassword
  • 22. proxyUser
To edit an up2date program item, type the item number, i.e. enter 3 or 4, etc.... then type C to clear the default value or type q to quit without saving. Next, type the new value and press Enter to save the new value and to exit. If you need to enter multiple values, separate them with semicolons (;).
 
Oracle Linux 6 systems use the “--proxy” option to specify an http proxy, i.e. “# uln_register –proxy=<HOST NAME>:<PORT NUMBER> “. If your proxy server requires authentication, use the “--proxyUser” and “--proxyPassword” to add a username and password, i.e “# uln_register –proxy=<HOST NAME>:<PORT NUMBER> --proxyUser=<USER NAME> --proxyPassword=<PASSWORD>”
 
List 4 shows the six steps to register a Linux host with the Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network:
1.      Review the Unbreakable Linux Privacy Statement
2.      Register a User Account
3.      Register a System Profile—Hardware
4.      Register a System Profile—Packages
5.      Send Profile Information to the Unbreakable Linux Network
6.      Finished Registration
 
The following examples walk through the six steps to register a Linux host with the Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network.
 
Step 1. Review the Unbreakable Linux Privacy Statement
From the Review the Unbreakable Linux Privacy Statement screen use the Alt key to select the Next tab, once the Next tab is selected press the Enter key to proceed.  
 
Figure 5 shows the Review the Unbreakable Linux Privacy Statement screen.
Unbreakable Linux Privacy Statement

Step 2. Register a User Account
On the Register a User Account screen, enter your  your Unbreakable Linux Network associated Oracle Single Sign-on User namePassword, Password confirmation and a valid Oracle VM CSI number. Use the Alt key to select the Next tab, and then press the Enter key to proceed.
 
Figure 6 shows the Register a User Account screen.
Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network Register a User Account
 
Step 3. Register a System Profile—Hardware
On the Register a System Profile—Hardware screen, accept the defaults and use the Alt key to select the Next tab. Once the Next tab is selected, press the Enter key to proceed.
 
Note: The information gathered from the system profile step is saved in your user profile at the Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network. 
 
Figure 7 shows the Register a System Profile—Hardware screen.
Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network Register a System Profile
 
Step 4. Register a System Profile— Packages
On the Register a System Profile—Packages screen, accept the defaults and use the Alt key to select the Next tab. Once the Next tab is selected, press the Enter key to proceed.
 
Figure 8 shows the Register a System Profile—Packages screen.
Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network Register a System Profile
 
Step 5. Send Profile Information to the Unbreakable Linux Network
From the Send Profile Information to the Unbreakable Linux Network screen, accept the defaults and use the Alt key to select the Next tab. Once the Next tab is selected, press the Enter key to proceed.
 
Figure 9 shows the Send Profile Information to the Unbreakable Linux Network screen.
Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network Send Profile Information
 
Step 6 Finished Registration
On the Finished Registration screen, accept the defaults and use the Alt key to select the Next tab. Once the Next tab is selected, press the Enter key to proceed.
 
Figure 10 shows the Finished Registration screen.
Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network Registration Finnshed
 
The Oracle Linux host has been successfully registered.
 

Install and configure Apache on the Oracle Linux Yum Server

Installing Apache from an Unbreakable Linux Network registered Oracle Linux host is accomplished by typing “up2date -i httpd” and /or "yum install httpd" while logged in as root. Once Apache is installed, configure Apache to automatically start by typing “chkconfig httpd on”. Next, start Apache by typing “service httpd start”. The next example shows how to install, configure and start Apache.
 
Using up2date, as root type:
# up2date -i httpd
# chkconfig httpd on && service httpd start
 
Using yum, as root type:
# yum install httpd
# chkconfig httpd on && service httpd start
 
Once the “up2date -i httpd”, “chkconfig httpd on” and “service httpd start” commands have completed, test Apache by pointing a web browser to the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) or the IP address of the Apache server. You will see the default Apache test page as shown in Figure 11.
 
Oracle Linux Apache Web Server
 
Tip: If you don’t see the default Apache test page, check if iptables is blocking http traffic on the Apache host. Consider disabling iptables to test Apache by typing “sudo /sbin/service iptables stop”.
 
Next, create a the yum repository base directory in /var/www/html by typing "mkdir -p /var/www/html/yum".

Table 2 shows the approximate disk space requirements for each Oracle VM RPM channel:

Channel
Binaries
ovm*_latest
147M
ovm*_base
400M
ovm*_patch
100M
Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network Yum Server Configuration
Once your yum server has been registered, and apache has been installed and configured, access the Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network dashboard and click the Systems tab. From the Systems tab click on the yum server to access its System Details page.
 
Figure 12 shows the Systems tab and the YUM server.
Oracle Unbrekable Linux Network Systems
 
From the YUM servers Systems Details page click the Edit button, as shown in Figure 13.
Oracle Linux YUM Server Configuration Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network
From the Edit Systems Properties page, select the Yum Server check box, enter a valid CSI number, then click the Apply Changes button, as shown in Figure 14.
Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network YUM Server
Next, click the Manage Subscriptions button, as shown in in Figure 15.
Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network System Details
 
From the System summary page select the Oracle VM 3 latest channel. Next, click the Save Subscriptions button to save the changes, as shown in Figure 16.
Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network System Summary
 
The yum server has been successfully configured using the the Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network dashboard.  The next step is to populated and synchronize the local yum repository with the Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network using the 167283.sh script.
 

Populate and Synchronize the Yum Server with Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network

Local yum repositories are populated and synchronized to the Unbreakable Linux Network using a script (167283.sh) and a cron job, or with Oracle Enterprise Manager. To populate the yum repository using the 167283.sh script, as root type “cd”, then “wget http://www.oracle.com/ocom/groups/public/@otn/documents/webcontent/167283.sh to download the 167283.sh script. Next, type “chmod 755 167283.sh” to make the script executable. Then type “nohup sh 167283.sh &” to run the script. Once the 167283.sh script completes, the yum RPM repository will be populated and ready to update or patch Oracle VM Servers.
 
To automatically synchronize your local yum RPM repository to the Unbreakable Linux Network, use a cron job with the 167283.sh script. As root or any other user with access to the 167283.sh script, type "chrontab -e" to edit your crontab file, or create a new crontab file if one does not already exist. The next example shows how to create a crontab file as root that will run the 167283.sh script at midnight every weekday.
 
# crontab -e
0 0 * * 1-5 /root/167283.sh
:wq!

To view the current cronjob on a Oracle Linux host, type "crontab -l". To edit the cronjob type "crontab -e".

Crontab Syntax:
1 2 3 4 5 /path/to/command arg1 arg2
1: Minute (0-59)
   2: Hours (0-23)
       3: Day (0-31)
          4: Month (0-12 [12 == December])
              5: Day of the week(0-7 [7 or 0 == sunday])
                 /path/to/command - Command name or script to schedule
 

Oracle VM Manager Yum Server Configuration

To patch Oracle VM Servers using Oracle VM Manager, a YUM server should be added to Oracle VM Manager' Server Update Management (YUM) menu.
 
Tip: Oracle VM Servers that are patched and rebooted by Oracle VM Manager restart in Maintenance Mode. Oracle VM Servers in Maintenance Mode cannot run virtual machine or be edited. For example, if you patch a host before adding it to a server pool, and it reboots in Maintenance Mode, the host cannot be edited or added to the pool until Maintenance Mode is disabled.
 
To add a Yum repository to Oracle VM Manager, select the Tools and Resources tab, and then click the Server Update Management (YUM) link to add the base URL and GPG key details. 
 
Figure 17 shows the Server Update Management (YUM) page.
Oracle VM Manager Server Update Management YUM
 
Enter the following information in the Server Update Management (YUM) page to add a YUM repository:
  • YUM Base URL: Enter the URL from the Oracle VM latest channel, i.e.:
    • http://<YUM SERVER IP OR FQDN>/yum/OracleVM/OVM3/latest/x86_64/
  • Enable GPG Key: GPG keys are used to validate the identity of a Yum server and its RPM packages (RPMs).  Select the Enable GPG Key checkbox to be able to enter the YUM GPG Key.
    • Note: If you elect"not" to configure the GPG key, it is necessary to type "rpm --import /etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-oracle" as root on each Oracle VM Server that uses the configured yum reporitory.
  • YUM GPG Key: An Oracle-signed GPG key for ULN is pre-installed on Oracle Linux hosts at /etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-oracle. To to use the pre-installed Oracle GPG key, enter “file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-oracle” in the YUM GPG Key text box.
  • Note: The GPG key field is only enabled when you select Enable GPG Key.
    • It is also possible to copy the GPG key from the web server OS to the Yum repository, i.e. as root type “cp /etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-oracle /var/www/html/yum/ && chown apache:apache /var/www/html/yum/RPM-GPG-KEY-oracle”, next enter the URL "http://<YUM SERVER IP OR FQDN>/yum/ RPM-GPG-KEY-oracle" in the YUM GPG Key text box.
    • To validate the path/location of the RPM-GPG-KEY-oracle file, as root, type "find / -name RPM-GPG-KEY-oracle -print" to print the path. If necessary substitute the bold text with the correct path: rpm --import /etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-oracle.
    • To confirm if the RPM-GPG-KEY-oracle key has already been installed, as root type "rpm -q gpg-pubkey-1e5e0159-464d0428"
    • The Oracle GPG key is also available from "https://oss.oracle.com/el5/RPM-GPG-KEY-oracle"
  • Click Apply to save the setting.
 
Once the YUM repository is added, Oracle VM Manager will automatically query all the managed Oracle VM Servers and update the Update Required status to Yes or No. 
 
Figure 18 shows the Update Required status.
Oracle VM Manager Update Required
 
Select the Update Server option from Oracle VM Manager to upgrade one or more hosts. Upgrading a server automatically puts the server into maintenance mode and if possible Live Migrates any running VMs to an available node.
 
Firgure 19 shows the Update Server menu.
Oracle VM Manager Update Server Menu
 
Once the Yum repository has been configured, each Oracle VM Server will have a new files named ovm.repo in the /etc/yum.repos.d directory.
 
The next example shows the contents of the ovm.repo file.
# cat /etc/yum.repos.d /ovm.repo
[ovm_repo]
gpgkey = http://<YUM SERVER IP OR FQDN>/yum/RPM-GPG-KEY-oracle
gpgcheck = 1
baseurl = http://<YUM SERVER IP OR FQDN>/yum/OracleVM/OVM3/latest/x86_64/
 
TIP. Oracle VM Servers that are patched and rebooted by Oracle VM Manager restart in Maintenance Mode. Oracle VM Servers in Maintenance Mode cannot run virtual machine or be edited.
 
Appendix
1- Patch Update Fails with BUILD FAILED Message
If an upgrade fails with "Failed undeploying application" and/or "BUILD FAILED" messages below, the solution is to access the WebLogic Server Administration Console at https://<ORACLE VM MANAGER 3.0 HOST>:7001/console/login/LoginForm.jsp. Login to the the WebLogic Server Administration Console with the user name and password you seleted during the Oracle VM Manager installation. Once authenticated, locate the "Change Center" section, then click the "Release Configuration" button. Once the "Release Configuration" button has been pressed, the Oracle VM Manager upgrade will run without errors.
 
The following meesage is displayed on the Oracle VM Manager host's console during the upgrade:
Undeploying Oracle VM Manager core ...
Waiting for Oracle VM Manager core to fully undeploy...
Waiting.................................
Failed undeploying application ... Exiting upgrade process.
 
The following message is displayed on the Oracle VM Manager host in the /tmp/upgrade log file.
BUILD FAILED
weblogic.management.ManagementException: [Deployer:149163]The domain edit lock is owned by another session in non-exclusive mode - this deployment operation requires exclusive access to the edit lock and hence cannot proceed. If you are using " Automatically Aquire Lock and Activate Changes" in the console, then the lock will expire shortly so retry this operation.

2- Upgrade Build 3.1.1.305
# ./runUpgrader.sh
Stating OVM Manager upgrade on Wed May  9 09:38:49 PDT 2012
Oracle VM Manager 3.1.1.305 upgrade utility
Upgrade logfile : /tmp/upgrade-2012-05-09-38.log
It is highly recommended to do a full database repository backup prior to upgrading Oracle VM Manager ...
Press any key to continue ...
Oracle VM Manager is running ...
Verifying installation status ...
Read Oracle VM Manager config file ...
Found Oracle VM Manager install files ...
Found Oracle VM Manager upgrader ...
Found Oracle WebLogic Server ...
Found Java ...
Using the following information :
  Database Host          : localhost
  Database SID           : orcl
  Database LSNR          : 1521
  Oracle VM Schema       : ovs
  Oracle VM Manager UUID : 0004fb00000100009edfaa0f93184f44
  Current Build ID       : 3.0.3.126
  Upgrade from version   : 3.0.3
  Upgrade to version     : 3.1.1
Using /tmp/workdir.mScEt29478 for backup and export location.
Using /tmp/patchdir.xuEM29479 for patching.
Enter password for user ovs :
Undeploying previous version of Oracle VM Manager application ...
Undeploying Oracle VM Manager help ...
Undeploying Oracle VM Manager console ...
Undeploying Oracle VM Manager core ...
Waiting for Oracle VM Manager core to fully undeploy...
Waiting...
Finished undeploying previous version ...
Exporting Oracle VM Manager repository ...
Please wait as this can take a long time ...
Oracle VM Manager repository export completed ...
Creating backup file ...
Oracle VM Manager repository backup in /tmp/ovm-manager-3-backup-2012-05-09.zip
Upgrading Oracle VM Manager ...
Backing up old files to /tmp/ovm-manager-3-backup-2012-05-09-094359...
Removing old files ...
Unpacking Oracle VM Manager 3.1.1.305
`transform_003001001000_010.xsl' -> `/tmp/patchdir.xuEM29479/transform_003001001000_010.xsl'
`transform_003001001000_020.xsl' -> `/tmp/patchdir.xuEM29479/transform_003001001000_020.xsl'
`deletedClasses.xml' -> `/tmp/patchdir.xuEM29479/deletedClasses.xml'
Filtering full repository export to the selective export subset at /tmp/workdir_sel.rDZob29899 ...
cp: omitting directory `/tmp/workdir.mScEt29478/jrnl'
cp: omitting directory `/tmp/workdir.mScEt29478/objs'
  adding: objs/81/818.cl.xml (deflated 73%)
  adding: objs/64/6470.cl.xml (deflated 82%)
  adding: objs/23/2369.cl.xml (deflated 74%)
  adding: objs/50/506.cl.xml (deflated 73%)
  adding: objs/9.cl.xml (deflated 93%)
  adding: objs/88/883.cl.xml (deflated 81%)
  adding: objs/44/445.cl.xml (deflated 87%)
  adding: objs/62/628.cl.xml (deflated 72%)
  adding: objs/74/748.cl.xml (deflated 87%)
  adding: objs/52/5279.cl.xml (deflated 83%)
  adding: objs/16/161.cl.xml (deflated 67%)
  adding: objs/89/899.cl.xml (deflated 72%)
  adding: objs/89/892.cl.xml (deflated 81%)
  adding: objs/36/3695.cl.xml (deflated 73%)
  adding: objs/36/3610.cl.xml (deflated 73%)
  adding: objs/61/615.cl.xml (deflated 81%)
  adding: objs/60/607.cl.xml (deflated 81%)
  adding: objs/13/1354.cl.xml (deflated 77%)
  adding: objs/13/1326.cl.xml (deflated 77%)
  adding: objs/13/1381.cl.xml (deflated 76%)
  adding: objs/49/4988.cl.xml (deflated 83%)
  adding: objs/45/459.cl.xml (deflated 69%)
  adding: objs/29/2920.cl.xml (deflated 71%)
  adding: objs/19/193.cl.xml (deflated 70%)
  adding: objs/14/1408.cl.xml (deflated 76%)
  adding: objs/14/1435.cl.xml (deflated 77%)
  adding: objs/32/3224.cl.xml (deflated 77%)
  adding: objs/12/1241.cl.xml (deflated 76%)
  adding: objs/12/1297.cl.xml (deflated 77%)
  adding: objs/76/764.cl.xml (deflated 68%)
  adding: objs/27/2766.cl.xml (deflated 71%)
Selective export is at /tmp/workdir_sel.rDZob29899
 31 objects selected (out of 4725) to be upgraded
Transform XSL files used:
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 56678 May  9 09:44 /tmp/patchdir.xuEM29479/transform_003001001000_010.xsl
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 10079 May  9 09:44 /tmp/patchdir.xuEM29479/transform_003001001000_020.xsl
Changed classes encountered in selective export set:
    com.oracle.ovm.mgr.api.manager.BusinessManagerDbImpl
    com.oracle.ovm.mgr.api.manager.ModelManagerDbImpl
    com.oracle.ovm.mgr.api.manager.RasManagerDbImpl
    com.oracle.ovm.mgr.api.physical.network.BondPortDbImpl
    com.oracle.ovm.mgr.api.physical.network.EthernetPortDbImpl
    com.oracle.ovm.mgr.api.physical.network.InternalPortDbImpl
    com.oracle.ovm.mgr.api.physical.ServerDbImpl
    com.oracle.ovm.mgr.api.virtual.VirtualMachineDbImpl
    com.oracle.ovm.mgr.api.virtual.VirtualMachineTemplateDbImpl
    com.oracle.ovm.mgr.api.virtual.XenHypervisorDbImpl
Upgrading Oracle VM Manager repository ...
Please wait as this can take a long time ...
Oracle VM Manager repository upgrade completed ...
Validating Oracle VM Manager repository ...
Oracle VM Manager repository validation completed ...
Refresh system-jazn-data.xml file ...
Redeploying Oracle VM Manager core container ...
Redeploying Oracle VM Manager console ...
Redeploying Oracle VM Manager help ...
Install ADF Patch ...
Completed upgrade to 3.1.1.305 ...
Writing updated config in /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/.config
Restart WebLogic ...
Stopping Oracle VM Manager                                 [  OK  ]
Starting Oracle VM ManagerTime out...
OVM Manager upgrade finished on Wed May  9 10:18:27 PDT 2012
#

Oracle Linux Installation with Oracle VM Manager

Show a printer friendly version of this chapter of the Oracle Cloud Cookbook

 

Copyright © 2013 Mokum Solutions, Inc. All rights reserved.
Distribution of the Oracle Cloud Cookbook or derivative of the work in any form for commercial purposes is prohibited unless prior permission is obtained from the copyright holder.
 
Change Log
Revision
Change Description
Updated By
Date
1.0
First Release
Roddy Rodstein
10/10/11
1.1
Linux Patch Management with Free Updates and Errata from Oracle
Roddy Rodstein
04/29/12
1.2HVM & PVM Installation UpdatesRoddy Rodstein10/13/12
1.3Content RefreshRoddy Rodstein01/19/13
 
Table of Contents
Change Log
Oracle Linux Installation Options with Oracle VM Manager
Oracle Linux HVM and PVM Installation Prerequisites
How to Download the Oracle Linux Installation Media
Virtual Machine Installation Prerequisite - Virtual NICs
Oracle Linux HVM Installation Prerequisite - Import the Oracle Linux DVD ISO File
Oracle Linux PVM Installation Prerequisite - Stage the Install Tree on a Web Server
...Install and configure Apache using the Oracle Public Repository
...Install and configure Apache using the Unbreakable Linux Network
...Stage the Oracle Linux Install Tree on Apache
Create a PVM Oracle Linux Virtual Machine
Oracle Linux 6 HVM Installation using Graphical (GUI) Mode
Oracle Linux 6 HVM Installation using Text Mode
Linux Patch Management with Free Updates and Errata from Oracle
 
Oracle Linux Installation Options with Oracle VM Manager
There are two unique installation options for Oracle Linux and Red Hat Enterprise Linux with Oracle VM Manager. Linux can be installed using paravirtualization mode (Xen PVM) and /or hardware virtualization mode (Xen HVM). Xen PVM and Xen HVM installations have slightly different prerequisites and installation options. For example, Xen PVM installations cannot boot from a DVD or from an ISO image, the installation tree must be available on a Web server to boot a Xen PVM installation. Xen HVM installations can boot from an ISO image, as long as the ISO image has been imported using Oracle VM Manager. Both Xen PVM and Xen HVM can boot from the network.
 
Xen PVM and Xen HVM use very different techniques to provide resources to virtual machines. For example, Xen HVM uses Intel or AMD virtualization technologies for memory management and to emulate the boot environment. Xen HVM also uses QEMU in dom0 for device emulation. Xen PVM leverages the guest operating system's Xen kernel for the boot process using the pygrub bootloader, Xen for memory management, and dom0 for device support, without emulation. Xen PVM virtual machines are hypervisor aware and run without the overhead of hardware emulation. Xen HVM virtual machines think they are running on native hardware, when in fact they are running on emulated hardware. Xen PVM requires much less overhead for timers, interrupts, I/O traffic, and context switches, allowing superior scalability under heavy loads when compared to Xen HVM.
 
Oracle VM Servers can support both Xen PVM and Xen HVM virtual machines simultaneously on a single x86_64 server that has either Intel or AMD virtualization technologies. Intel or AMD virtualization are a requirement only for Xen HVM virtual machines, not for Xen PVM virtual machines. Intel and AMD virtualization technologies are enabled, managed and tuned using the system BIOS.
 
The only way to determine which virtualization mode will provide the best performance for your environment is to benchmark the same workload using a Xen PVM and a Xen HVM virtual machine. If you do not have the time or expertise to conduct the benchmarks, consider only using Xen PVM for your virtual machines. Over the years I have seen Xen PVM outperform Xen HVM in every benchmark.
 
Note: Starting with the 2.6.32 Linux kernel (Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel and Red Hat compatable Kernel), Linux can boot on bare metal, in Xen HVM mode, and in Xen PVM mode using paravirt_ops with the same Linux kernel. In contrast to the 2.6.32 Linux kernel (OL 5U4-), the 2.6.18 Linux kernel can boot on bare metal and in Xen HVM mode, and must use a Xen paravirtualized kernel for Xen PVM mode.
 
The graphical and text installation programs and the installation steps are similar for all of the Oracle Linux releases. The Oracle Linux installation media is freely available from the Oracle eDelivery Linux portal as a single DVD (single download) for Oracle Linux 4, 5 and 6.
 
Note:The GUI installation of an Oracle Linux 6 VM requires a minimum of 1gb RAM. Use the GUI installer for the greatest set of installation options. The text-based installer will do a Minimum Install only.
 
List 1 reviews the Oracle Linux installation considerations.
Oracle recommends installing Oracle Linux and Red Hat Enterprise using the default software package selection without any customization. Using the default software packages without customization includes most of the prerequisite packages for Oracle technology products and helps limit the number of manual prerequisite checks. After an Oracle Linux and/or Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation, Oracle recommends to install the Legacy Software Development packages by typing:
 
# yum groupinstall @ Legacy Software Development
 
Installing the Legacy Software Development packages will meet most of the Oracle technology product prerequisite packages.
 
Oracle Linux HVM and PVM Installation Prerequisites
Xen HVM installs require the use of ISO images that will be mounted on a virtual CDROM drive during the install process. Oracle Linux ISOs can be downloaded from the Oracle Linux and Oracle VM Cloud Portal. Access to the Oracle Linux and Oracle VM Cloud Portal requires an Oracle.com user account and password.
 
You may be inclined to wonder why Xen HVM installs can be done with an ISO file imported directly into Oracle VM Manager while Xen PVM installs require the ISO file be mounted (mount -o loop) and made available via HTTP. That's because paravirtualized guests don't have a BIOS from which a DVD device can be boot-strapped and the installer DVD doesn't contain a Xen paravirtualized domU kernel so its not possible to boot from an ISO image. You just have to think Xen.
 
The first step for a Xen HVM or PVM installaion is to get the desired Oracle Linux ISO file and stage the file on a Web server. For a Xen HVM installaion, Oracle VM Manager is used to import the ISO file. After which, it will be possible to continue on with a Xen HVM install. For a Xen PVM installaion, the ISO file is used to stage the install tree on a web server. After which, it will be possible to continue on with a Xen PVM install.
 
How to Download the Oracle Linux Installation Media
The Oracle Linux Installation ISO files and DVDs are freely available at the Software Delivery Cloud - Oracle Linux and Oracle VM portal. Access to the Software Delivery Cloud - Oracle Linux and Oracle VM portal requires an Oracle.com user account and password to authenticate into the Oracle Linux and Oracle VM Cloud Portal. If you do not already have an Oracle.com user account, visit the Oracle Linux and Oracle VM Cloud Portal, click the Sign In / Register link or button to create an Oracle.com account.
 
Figure 1 shows the Software Delivery Cloud - Oracle Linux and Oracle VM portal.
Oracle Linux Download
 
From the Sign In page, enter your Oracle.com user name and password, then click the Sign In button.
 
Figure 2 shows the Oracle.com Sign In page.
Oracle Linux Download Sign In
 
Once authenticated, accept the registration/export regulations to access to the Oracle VM and Oracle Linux Media.
 
Figure 3 shows the registration/export regulations form.
Oracle Linux Terms & Restrictions
 
After completing the registration/export regulation form, you will be redirected to the Media Pack Search page. From the Media Pack Search page, select Oracle Linux from the Select a Product Pack dropdown menu. Next, select x86 64-bit or x86 32-bit from the Platform dropdown menu, then click the Go button to be taken to the Oracle Linux Media Pack download page.
 
Tip: If you do not see Oracle Linux or Oracle VM from the Select a Product Pack dropdown menu, you are not in the Oracle Linux and Oracle VM section of the Software Delivery Cloud. Click the Software Delivery Cloud link in the page header, then click the Oracle Linux/VM drop down menu to be redirected to the Oracle Linux and Oracle VM section of the Software Delivery Cloud .
 
Figure 4 shows the Media Pack Search page.
Oracle Linux Media Pack Search
 
 
From the Oracle Linux Media Pack page, click the desired Oracle Linux Media Pack hyperlink, or select the radio button and click the Continue button to go to the download page.
 
Tip: Do not download the source DVD for an operating system installation. Oracle Linux is distributed as Open Source software, therefore the source DVD is also available along with the DVD ISO images. The source DVDs are required by the GNU GPL license.
 
Figure 5 shows the Oracle Linux x86 64 bit Media Pack page highlighting the Oracle Linux Release 6 Update 3 for x86_64 (64 Bit) ISO file download.
Oracle Linux ISO Media Pack
 
From the Oracle Linux Media Pack download page, click the Download button for the ISO file or DVD.
 
Figure 6 shows the Oracle Linux Release 6 Update 3 Media Pack for x86_64 (64 bit) download page.
Oracle Linux Download
 
The Oracle Linux media is delivered as ISO files for OL6 and as DVD images for OL5 and 4.
 
Virtual Machine Installation Prerequisite - Virtual NICs
Before you can continue on with creating a virtual machine you must first confirm and/or create a pool of virtual NICs to be made available to the VMs during the Virtual Machine creation phase.
 
From the Oracle VM Manager, click Networking => Virtual NICs to access the Virtual NICs page. If there are no available Virtual NICs, click (Auto Fill) => Create and enter a number => Create to create Virtual NICs.
 
Figure 7 shows the Virtual NICs page with 10 assigend Virtual NICs and numerious available Virtual NICs.
Oracle VM Manager Virtual NICs
 
Oracle Linux HVM Installation Prerequisite - Import the Oracle Linux DVD ISO File
Xen HVM installs require the use of ISO images that will be mounted on a virtual CDROM drive during the install process. A web server is used to host the ISO file and Oracle VM Manager is used to import the ISO file. After which, it will be possible to continue on with a Xen HVM install.
 
The next example assumes that an Oracle Linux ISO file has been staged on a web server.
 
First, click the Repositories tab => select the desired repository in the Show My or All Repositories window => highlight the ISOs node => click the Import icon => Enter the URL to the ISO file => Click OK to submit the Import ISO job.
 
Figure 8
 Import ISO File Oracle VM Manager
 
Once the Import ISO job completes, a Refresh Repository job runs and the ISO file is made available for installations in the ISOs node.
 
Figure 9 shows the imported ISO file in the ISO node.
ISO File Oracle VM Manager
 
After you have imported the ISO into your VM Manager you are ready to install your new Xen HVM Linux VM.
 
Oracle Linux PVM Installation Prerequisite - Stage the Install Tree on a Web Server
For a Xen PVM installaion, the ISO file is used to stage the install tree on a web server. After which, it will be possible to continue on with a Xen PVM install.
 
Install and configure Apache using the Oracle Public Repository
Installing Apache from the Oracle public yum repository is accomplished by typing "cd /etc/yum.repos.d/", then “wget http://public-yum.oracle.com/public-yum-el5.repo” for Oracle Linux 5.x hosts or “wget http://public-yum.oracle.com/public-yum-ol6.repo” for Oracle Linux 6.x hosts followed by "yum install httpd".
 
Once Apache is installed, type “chkconfig httpd on” to setup Apache to automatically start. Next, start Apache by typing “service httpd start”. The next example shows how to install, configure, and start Apache.
 
Using yum, as root type (Public 5.x):
# cd /etc/yum.repos.d/
# wget http://public-yum.oracle.com/public-yum-el5.repo
# yum install httpd
# chkconfig httpd on && service httpd start
 
Using yum, as root type (Public 6.x):
# cd /etc/yum.repos.d/
# wget http://public-yum.oracle.com/public-yum-ol6.repo
# yum install httpd
# chkconfig httpd on && service httpd start
 
Once the "yum install httpd", “chkconfig httpd on” and “service httpd start” commands have ran, test Apache by pointing a web browser to the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) or the IP address of the Apache server.
 
Tip: If you don’t see the default Apache test page, check if iptables is blocking http traffic on the Apache host. Consider disabling iptables to test Apache by typing “sudo /sbin/service iptables stop”.
 
Install and configure Apache using the Unbreakable Linux Network
Installing Apache from an Unbreakable Linux Network registered Oracle Linux host is accomplished by typing “up2date -i httpd” for 5.x hosts or "yum install httpd" for 6.x hosts while logged in as root.
 
Once Apache is installed, configure Apache to automatically start by typing “chkconfig httpd on”. Next, start Apache by typing “service httpd start”. The next example shows how to install, configure and start Apache.
 
Using up2date, as root type (ULN 5.x):
# up2date -i httpd
# chkconfig httpd on && service httpd start
 
Using yum, as root type (ULN 6.x):
# yum install httpd
# chkconfig httpd on && service httpd start
 
Once the “up2date -i httpd”, or "yum install httpd", “chkconfig httpd on” and “service httpd start” commands have completed, test Apache by pointing a web browser to the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) or the IP address of the Apache server.
 
Tip: If you don’t see the default Apache test page, check if iptables is blocking http traffic on the Apache host. Consider disabling iptables to test Apache by typing “sudo /sbin/service iptables stop”.
 
Stage the Oracle Linux Install Tree on Apache
Here is two methods for staging the install tree on a web server. Both examples assumes the ISO file is on the Apache web server, iptables is not blocking http traffic, the ISO file is mounted as the root user in a directory in the web root, i.e. /var/www/html<Directory Name>.
 
The fist example mounts the ISO file in the /media directory, creates a directory on the web server, copies the ISO file contents to the directory on the web server, then umounts the ISo file.
# mount -o loop <Oracle Linux>.iso /media
# mkdir -p /var/www/html/repo/ol/6.3/iso/
# cp -avr /media/* /var/www/html/repo/ol/6.3/iso/
# umount /media

The contents of the ISO file are now staged on the Web server and ready to use for your Xen PVM install.
 
The second example creates a directory on the web server and mounts the ISO file in directory.
# mkdir -p /var/www/html/repo/ol/6.3/iso/
# mount -o loop <Oracle Linux>.iso var/www/html/repo/ol/6.3/iso/

The contents of the ISO file are now staged on the Web server and ready to use for your Xen PVM install.
 
Create a PVM Oracle Linux Virtual Machine
This section of the Oracle Cloud Cookbook describes how to create a PVM Linux virtual machines. From Oracle VM Manager, click the Servers and VMs tab, then click the Create a Virtual Machine icon to access the Create a Virtual Machine window.
 
Figure 10 highlights the Servers and VMs tab and the Create a Virtual Machine icon.
Virtual Machine Install Oracle VM Manager
 
From the Create Virtual Machine How do you want to create your Virtual Machine window select the Create a new VM (Click 'Next' to continue) radio button. Click Next to proceed.
 
Figure 11
Createa newVM Oracle VM Manager
 
From the Create Virtual Machine page select the Server Pool, the *Server that will create the VM, enter the Name of the VM, select the Repository, select the Enable High Availability check box, select the Operating System, accept the default Keymap, select Xen PVM in the Domain Type drop down menu, enter the desired RAM allocation number in MB in the Max. Memory (MB) and Memory (MB) text box, enter the same CPU allocation in the Max Processor and Processor text box. Accept the default Priority and Processor Cap % settings. Click Next to proceed.
 
Figure 12
Create Virtual Machine Oracle VM Manager
 
Tip: In the Server drop down menu select an Oracle VM Server that’s not running mission critical VMs to minimize the performance impact to the running VMs of creating the virtual disks (an I/O and CPU intensive operation).
 
From the Set up Networks window accept the default  Unassigned VNICs selection, select the network from the Network drop down menu, then click the Add VNIC button, Click Next to proceed.
 
Figure 13
Set up Networks Oracle VM Manager
 
From the Arrange Disks window create the disks, i.e. one 20G disk for the OS, and one 50G disk for /u01. Select the + icon to open the Create a Virtual Disk window. From the Create Virtual Disk windows select the desired storage Repository in the drop down menu, enter a name for the OS disk in the Virtual Disk Name text box, enter the Size (GiB) in the text box, optionally enter a Description, and select the desired Allocation Type for the disk. Click OK to proceed.
 
Figure 14
Set up Networks Oracle VM Manager
 
Tip: Define a Virtual Disk Naming convention for your environment so that you can easily recall Virtual Disk information in the future. In this example, we have decided on the convention (vm_name-disk0) for the system disk. If you add a second disk, you would name it (vm_name-disk1), and so on. Define your naming convention from the beginning and stick with it.
 
From the Boot Options window confirm the Network boot option is in the right side window. Enter the Network Boot Path in the Network Boot Path text box. Click Finish to summit the Create Virtual Machine job.
 
Tip: If the Network Boot Path option is not visible, go back to the Create Virtual Machine window and select the Domain Type Xen PVM.
 
Figure 15
Boot Options Oracle VM Manager
 

The virtual machine is created and ready to Start, access the VNC console and install the Oracle Linux operating system.

 
Oracle Linux 6 HVM Installation using Graphical (GUI) Mode
This section reviews how to install Oracle Linux 6 with the graphical (GUI) mode using the Oracle VM Manager VNC console.
 
1- Start the VM and access its VNC console.  At the boot prompt, press the Enter key to start the Oracle Linux installation in graphical mode.
 
Figure 16
Oracle Linux Boot Prompt
 
2- On the CD Found window, you can perform a media test to validate the integrity of the installation media. The media test is optional and time consuming. In this example, we will not perform a media test.
 
Press the tab key to select the Skip key. Once the Skip key is selected, press the Enter key to proceed.
 
Figure 17
Oracle Linux Disk Found
 
3- On the Welcome screen, click the Next button or Alt+N to proceed.
 
Figure 18
Oracle Linux Welcome Screen

4- On the Language Selection screen, select the preferred language that will be used during the installation process. In this example, select the default language, English (English).
 
Accept the default English (English) language selection, then click the Next button or press Alt+N to proceed.
 
Figure 19
Oracle Linux Language Selection
 
5- On the Keyboard Selection screen, select the desired keyboard setting for the system. In this example, select the default keyboard selection, US English.
 
Accept the default US English keyboard selection, then click the Next button or press Alt+N to proceed.
 
Figure 20
Oracle Linux Keyboard Selection
 
 
6- On the Storage Device screen, you can select the Basic Storage Devices or the Specialized Storage Devices options. 
 
In this example, accept the default Basic Storage Devices option, click the Next button or press Alt+N to proceed.
 
Figure 21
Oracle Linux Select Storage
 
7- A disk initialization Warning dialogue box will appear after you make your Storage Device selection. Click the Re-initialize button or press Alt+R to proceed with the installation.
 
Figure 22
Oracle Linux Reinitializing
 
8- On the Networking configuration screen, you can accept the default DHCP setting or configure the networking manually. To use DHCP, accept the defaults, and click the Next button or press Alt+N to proceed.
 
Click the Configure Network button to review the network configurations.
 
Figure 23
Oracle Linux Hostname Selection
 
9- From the Network Connections screen, select the desired connection, i.e. eth0 and click the Edit button.
 
Figure 24
Oracle Linux Network Connections
 
10- On the Editing System screen select the Connect automatically checkbox to enable the interface to automatically start at boot time. To configure the networking manually, click the desired tab to configure the selected interface. Click the Apply button to save the networking setting and to return to the Network Connections screen.
 
Figure 25
Oracle Linux Edit Network Settings
 
11- On the Networking Connections screen, click the Close button or press Alt+C, next  click the Next button or Alt+N to proceed.
 
Figure 26
Oracle Linux Network Options
 
12- On the Time Zone screen, select the time zone for your area by clicking your region on the map. Accept the default System clock uses UTC setting, and click the Next button or press Alt+N to proceed.
 
Figure 27
Oracle Linux Time Zone
 
13- On the Root Password screen enter a root password for the server, then click the Next button or press Alt+N to proceed.
 
Figure 28
Oracle Linux Root Password
 
14- On the Installation Type screen, you can select the desired partitioning layout or create your own partitioning layout. 
 
In this example, accept the default Replace Existing Linux System(s), click the Next button or press Alt+N to proceed.
 
Note: To edit the default partitioning layout, select Review and modify partitioning layout  option and click Next or Alt+N.
 
Figure 29
Oracle Linux Partitioning Options
 
15- A partition table Warning dialogue box will now appear. Click the Write changes to disk or press Alt+W to proceed.
 
Figure 30
Oracle Linux Write Storage Configurations
 
16- On the Software Selection screen, you can accept the default selections or select one or more roles for the server and/or customize the entire software selection by selecting the Customize now.
 
Oracle recommends installing Linux using the default software package selection without any customization. The default software packages have most of the prerequisite packages for Oracle technologies and helps limit the number of manual checks.
 
Select the Desktop option without any customization, then click the Next button or press Alt+N to proceed.
 
Figure 31
Oracle Linux Select Desktop Option
 
17- On the Installation Progress screen, you will see a dialogue box about the installation starting. Once the Starting Installation process screen is gone, the installation begins and you see the progress indicators. The installation will take a few minutes.
 
Figure 32
Oracle Linux Installation Progress
 
18- The Congratulations screen informs you that the installation is complete and to remove your DVD media from the system and to reboot the system. Remove the CD/DVD media from the system
 
Figure 33
 
Oracle Linux Congratulations
 
At this point you would be advised to shutdown the VM using the VM Manager GUI because the DVD is still listed first in the boot order for this VM. Go to the VM Manager and right-click on our newly created Oracle Linux 6 VM and then left-click Stop. Wait for the VM Manager to indicate that the VM is shutdown completely as indicated by a removal of the lock icon and the VM icon now appearing in the color red. Right-click on the VM and then left-click Edit. Click Next until you get to the Boot Order screen and remove the DVD from the Boot Order. Click Next, then click Finish. You can now start the VM by again right-clicking on the VM from the VM Manager GUI and selecting Start.
 
19- After the system reboots, you will be presented with the Welcome screen. Click the Forward button or press Alt+F to proceed.
 
Figure 34
 
Oracle Linux Welcome Screen
 
20- On the License Agreement screen, accept the license agreement and click the Forward button or press Alt+F to proceed.
 
Figure 35
 
Oracle Linux License Agreement
 
21- On the Set Up Software Updates screen, select the desired Unbrekable Linux Network registration option, then click the Forward button or press ALT+F to proceed.
 
Figure 36
 
Oracle Linux Set Up Software Updates
 
22- If you selected No from the previous screen, click the No thanks, I'll connect later. button to proceed.
 
Figure 37
 
Oracle Linux Security and Updates
 
23- On the Finish Update Setup screen click the Forward button or press ALT+F to proceed.
 
Figure 38
 
Oracle Linux Finish Updates
 
24- On the Create User screen, you can create new system users. Click the Forward button or press Alt+F to proceed.
 
Figure 39
 
Oracle Linux Create User
 
25- On the Date and Time screen you can configure the Date and Time and Network Time Protocol (NTP) settings. Configure the Date and Time and Network Time Protocol settings, then click the Forward button or press Alt+F to proceed.
 
Figure 40
 
Oracle Linux Date and Time
 
26- On the Kdump screen, accept the default setting and click the Forward button or press Alt+F to proceed.
 
Figure 41
 
Oracle Linux Kdump
 
27- On the Login screen, click on the desired user name and enter the password to access the desktop.
 
Figure 42
 
Oracle Linux Login
 
28- Once you have successfully authenticated, you have a fully functional GNOME desktop environment.
 
Figure 43
 
Oracle Linux GNOME
 
Oracle Linux 6 HVM Installation using Text Mode
After creating your Linux VM using the VM Manager GUI you are now ready to begin installation. If your VM has less than 1024MB of RAM then the installer will default to text-mode. This section will guide you through the text-based installer for Oracle Linux 6.1.
 
From the Oracle VM Manager, right-click on your newly created VM and select “Start”. After the VM has started, right-click again on the VM and select Start Console.
 
For a text mode installation, at the boot prompt below press tab and enter text after the boot line.
 
Figure 44
 
Oracle Linux Installation Text Mode
 
Press <Enter> to begin the Installation process.
 
We do not need to test the installation media, so select “Skip” and then press <Enter>.
 
Figure 45
Oracle Linux Disk Found
 
This takes us to the Welcome screen. Press <Enter> to continue.
 
 
Figure 46
 
Welcome to Oracle Linux server
 
Choose your language, press <Tab> to highlight the OK button then press <Enter>.
 
Figure 47
 
Oracle Linux Language Selection
 
Select the model of your keyboard, press <Tab> to highlight the OK button, then press <Enter>.
 
Figure 48
 
Oracle Linux Keyboard Selections
 
Press <Tab> to highlight the Re-initialize button then press <Enter> to continue.
 
Figure 49
 
Oracle Linux Re-initialize Disk
 
Use the default UTC (Coordinated Universal Time) if appropriate for your environment.
Select your Time Zone then press <Tab> to highlight the OK button then press <Enter>.
 
Figure 50
 
Oracle Linux Time Zone
 
Define the root password for your new VM. Press <Tab> to highlight the OK button then press <Enter>.
 
Figure 51
 
Oracle Linux Root Password Selection
 
Partition using the entire drive, select the appropriate drive then press <Tab> to highlight the OK button then press <Enter>.
 
Figure 52
 
Oracle Linux Partitioning Type
 
Press <Tab> to highlight the Write changes to disk button then press <Enter>.
 
Figure 53
 
Oracle Linux Writing Storage Configuration to Disk
 
The installer now creates and formats the volume group and filesystems.
 
Figure 54
 
Oracle Linux Formatting
 
At this point, installation of your new Oracle Linux 6 VM will begin.
 
Figure 55
 
Oracle Linux Installation Starting
 
This is a Minimal Install so only the base 226 packages are now installed.
 
Figure 56
 
Oracle Linux Package Installation
 
When you get to this screen, do not reboot.
 
Figure 57
 
Oracle Linux Installation Complete
 
Instead switch back to the VM Manager GUI and shutdown the Virtual Machine.
 
Figure 58
 
After the shutdown operation completes, you can right-click on the VM, select Edit, click next until you get to the Storage Options. You can now uncheck the ISO image. You no longer need it.
 
Figure 59
 
Under storage options you see that our Virtual disk is in the disk order.
 
Figure 60
 
Now, remove CDROM from the boot order. In its place add Disk. Click Finish. You are now ready to start your newly installed VM for the first time by launching the console from the VM Manager GUI.
 
To register your new VM to receive patches and updates from the Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network for OL5 run the up2date --register command and for OL 6 run the uln_register command.
 
# up2date (OL 5)
# uln_register (OL6)
 
If your behind a proxy server, use the “--proxy” option to specify an http proxy, i.e. as root type “uln_register -proxy=<HOST NAME>:<PORT NUMBER> “
 
If your proxy server requires authentication, use the “--proxyUser” and “--proxyPassword” to add a username and password, i.e “# uln_register –proxy=<HOST NAME>:<PORT NUMBER> --proxyUser=<USER NAME> --proxyPassword=<PASSWORD>”
 
How to Add a Virtual Disk
 
UNDER DEVELOPEMENT
 
From the VM Manager GUI, select Home, then Server Pools, then Repositories and choose the appropriate repository.
 
Figure 61
 
Next, select Virtual Disks. Click the Create Virtual Disk icon.
 
Figure 62
 
From the Create Virtual Disk screen give the virtual disk a name using your organization's standardized naming convention and size the virtual disk. Click OK and wait for the Job to complete.
 
Figure 63
 
Now right-click on the VM for which you wish to add an additional virtual disk and select EditNote: you cannot complete this action on a running VM so make sure the VM has been powered down first. Click Next until you get to the Storage Options and select the newly created virtual disk. Click Next and then Finish.
 
Figure 64
 
When this Job completes you may start the VM, login via the VNC console or SSH and take the appropriate steps to create a filesystem and mount the filesystem. Use the case below as a starting point.
 
# fdisk -l
 
Disk /dev/xvda: 16.0 GB, 16000000000 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 1945 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x000ccd59
 
Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
/dev/xvda1 * 1 64 512000 83 Linux
Partition 1 does not end on cylinder boundary.
/dev/xvda2 64 1946 15111168 8e Linux LVM
 
Disk /dev/xvdb: 50.0 GB, 50000000000 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 6078 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x000b3029
 
Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
 
Disk /dev/mapper/VolGroup-lv_root: 13.4 GB, 13358858240 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 1624 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000
 
Disk /dev/mapper/VolGroup-lv_root doesn't contain a valid partition table
 
Disk /dev/mapper/VolGroup-lv_swap: 2113 MB, 2113929216 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 257 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000
 
Disk /dev/mapper/VolGroup-lv_swap doesn't contain a valid partition table
 
Here we see our newly created virtual disk /dev/xvdb, size 50GB.
 
# fdisk /dev/xvdb
Device contains neither a valid DOS partition table, nor Sun, SGI or OSF disklabel
Building a new DOS disklabel with disk identifier 0x51b17688.
Changes will remain in memory only, until you decide to write them.
After that, of course, the previous content won't be recoverable.
 
Warning: invalid flag 0x0000 of partition table 4 will be corrected by w(rite)
 
WARNING: DOS-compatible mode is deprecated. It's strongly recommended to
switch off the mode (command 'c') and change display units to
sectors (command 'u').
 
Command (m for help): p
 
Disk /dev/xvdb: 50.0 GB, 50000000000 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 6078 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x51b17688
 
Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
 
Command (m for help): n
Command action
e extended
p primary partition (1-4)
p
Partition number (1-4): 1
First cylinder (1-6078, default 1):
Using default value 1
Last cylinder, +cylinders or +size{K,M,G} (1-6078, default 6078):
Using default value 6078
 
Command (m for help): w
The partition table has been altered!
 
Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.
Syncing disks.
 
Create a partition using the fdisk tool. In this case we choose to use all of partition 1.
 
# pvcreate /dev/xvdb1
Physical volume "/dev/xvdb1" successfully created
# vgcreate vg0 /dev/xvdb1
Volume group "vg0" successfully created
# lvcreate -n lvol0 -l 100%FREE vg0
Logical volume "lvol0" created
# mkfs.ext4 /dev/vg0/lvol0
mke2fs 1.41.12 (17-May-2010)
Filesystem label=
OS type: Linux
Block size=4096 (log=2)
Fragment size=4096 (log=2)
Stride=0 blocks, Stripe width=0 blocks
3055616 inodes, 12205056 blocks
610252 blocks (5.00%) reserved for the super user
First data block=0
Maximum filesystem blocks=4294967296
373 block groups
32768 blocks per group, 32768 fragments per group
8192 inodes per group
Superblock backups stored on blocks:
32768, 98304, 163840, 229376, 294912, 819200, 884736, 1605632, 2654208,
4096000, 7962624, 11239424
 
Writing inode tables: done
Creating journal (32768 blocks): done
Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done
 
This filesystem will be automatically checked every 33 mounts or
180 days, whichever comes first. Use tune2fs -c or -i to override.
# mkdir /u01
# echo "/dev/vg0/lvol0 /u01 ext4 defaults 0 0" >> /etc/fstab
# mount /u01
# mount
/dev/mapper/VolGroup-lv_root on / type ext4 (rw)
proc on /proc type proc (rw)
sysfs on /sys type sysfs (rw)
devpts on /dev/pts type devpts (rw,gid=5,mode=620)
tmpfs on /dev/shm type tmpfs (rw,rootcontext="system_u:object_r:tmpfs_t:s0")
/dev/xvda1 on /boot type ext4 (rw)
none on /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc type binfmt_misc (rw)
/dev/mapper/vg0-lvol0 on /u01 type ext4 (rw)
# df -h
Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/mapper/VolGroup-lv_root
13G 764M 11G 7% /
tmpfs 495M 0 495M 0% /dev/shm
/dev/xvda1 485M 48M 412M 11% /boot
/dev/mapper/vg0-lvol0
46G 180M 44G 1% /u01
 
Create the Physical Volume, Volume Group and Logical Volume. Make an ext4 filesystem on the logical volume. Add the filesystem to your /etc/fstab file so the newly created filesystem is mounted automatically on reboot. Create the mount point and finally, mount your new filesystem. Congratulations.
 
How to Add a Virtual Network Interface
 
From the VM Manager GUI, right-click on your VM and select Edit. Note: you cannot make changes to a running VM so shut it down before you begin this process.
 
From the Edit Virtual Machine screen, click next to access the Network Options screen. Select a free VNIC and click the Add button to move it to the Selected Value(s) window. Click Finish.
 
Figure 65
 
Now start your VM and then Console or SSH into it.
 
# cd /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts
# cp ifcfg-eth0 ifcfg-eth1
# vi ifcfg-eth1
# ifup eth1
 
Determining IP information for eth1... done.
# ifconfig
eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:21:F6:00:00:0F
inet addr:192.168.4.127 Bcast:192.168.4.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
inet6 addr: fe80::221:f6ff:fe00:f/64 Scope:Link
UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:1906 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:1017 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000
RX bytes:138940 (135.6 KiB) TX bytes:639453 (624.4 KiB)
Interrupt:243
 
eth1 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:21:F6:00:00:0A
inet addr:192.168.4.126 Bcast:192.168.4.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
inet6 addr: fe80::221:f6ff:fe00:a/64 Scope:Link
UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:50 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:10 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000
RX bytes:3349 (3.2 KiB) TX bytes:1280 (1.2 KiB)
Interrupt:242
 
lo Link encap:Local Loopback
inet addr:127.0.0.1 Mask:255.0.0.0
inet6 addr: ::1/128 Scope:Host
UP LOOPBACK RUNNING MTU:16436 Metric:1
RX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:0
RX bytes:0 (0.0 b) TX bytes:0 (0.0 b)
 
When you edit the ifcfg-eth1 file make sure to update the MAC Address to reflect the new device, ie HWADDR="00:21:F6:00:00:0A", in this example.
 
Linux Patch Management with Free Updates and Errata from Oracle
In March 2012, Oracle announced that Oracle Linux 4, 5 and 6 latest RPM patches, updates and erratas are available at no cost from separate yum repositories on http://public-yum.oracle.com. To keep Oracle Linux and Red Hat Enterprise Linux system up to date to the latest update version, subscribe hosts to their respective "_latest" repository. The free Oracle Linux 4, 5 and 6 RPM patches, updates and erratas do not include  Oracle support or any of the benefits of the Oracle Linux Support program.

The Oracle Linux Support program offers the following benefits over and above the free Oracle Linux RPM patches, updates and erratas:
Full indemnification against intellectual property claims.  Remember the SCO lawsuits?
Use of the Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Systems Management Plug-in for Linux for provisioning, patching, management and monitoring.  The Systems Management Plug-in for Linux has feature parity with Red Hat Satellite Server.
Access to additional Oracle software channels on the Unbreakable Linux Network (ULN).
The ability to create Support Requests with Oracle' World Class support organization.

The Oracle public yum server latest RPM channels include the base OS version installation RPM packages along with the latest software patches, updates and fixes. Patch jobs using the latest RPM channel update hosts to their respected latest version update with the latest software patches, updates and fixes. A patch job executed on a Oracle Linux 6 host would update the host from 6 to 6U2 with the latest latest software patches, updates and fixes. To keep a host at its respected update level, access to the Unbreakable Linux Network Rpm channels is required where it is possible to remove the default “el*/ol*_latest” RPM channel and select the el*/ol*_base along with the el*/ol*_patch RPM channel. When hosts are patched using the el*/ol*_base and el*/ol*_patch RPM channels, the hosts are patched with the latest software patches, updates and fixes from their respected update channel, i.e. 6, 6U1, 6U2.

To configure an Oracle Linux, Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 host to use Oracle's public yum repository, as root, change to the /etc/yum.repos.d/ directory and type “wget http://public-yum.oracle.com/public-yum-ol6.repo” to download the public-yum-ol6.repo file. Next, type “yum update” to patch the host.

The next example shows how to download the public-yum-ol6.repo file from Oracle and to update an Oracle Linux or Red hat Enterprise Linux host. Type the following commands as root:

# cd /etc/yum.repos.d/
# wget http://public-yum.oracle.com/public-yum-ol6.repo
# yum update

The next example shows the public-yum-ol6.repo file.

Tip: You can enable any of the repositories in the public-yum-ol6.repo file by changing enabled=0 to enabled=1.

# vi /etc/yum.repos.d/public-yum-ol6.repo
[ol6_latest]
name=Oracle Linux $releasever Latest ($basearch)
baseurl=http://public-yum.oracle.com/repo/OracleLinux/OL6/latest/$basearch/
gpgkey=http://public-yum.oracle.com/RPM-GPG-KEY-oracle-ol6
gpgcheck=1
enabled=1
 
[ol6_ga_base]
name=Oracle Linux $releasever GA installation media copy ($basearch)
baseurl=http://public-yum.oracle.com/repo/OracleLinux/OL6/0/base/$basearch/
gpgkey=http://public-yum.oracle.com/RPM-GPG-KEY-oracle-ol6
gpgcheck=1
enabled=0
 
[ol6_u1_base]
name=Oracle Linux $releasever Update 1 installation media copy ($basearch)
baseurl=http://public-yum.oracle.com/repo/OracleLinux/OL6/1/base/$basearch/
gpgkey=http://public-yum.oracle.com/RPM-GPG-KEY-oracle-ol6
gpgcheck=1
enabled=0
 
[ol6_u2_base]
name=Oracle Linux $releasever Update 2 installation media copy ($basearch)
baseurl=http://public-yum.oracle.com/repo/OracleLinux/OL6/2/base/$basearch/
gpgkey=http://public-yum.oracle.com/RPM-GPG-KEY-oracle-ol6
gpgcheck=1
enabled=0
 
[ol6_UEK_latest]
name=Latest Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel for Oracle Linux $releasever ($basearch)
baseurl=http://public-yum.oracle.com/repo/OracleLinux/OL6/UEK/latest/$basearch/
gpgkey=http://public-yum.oracle.com/RPM-GPG-KEY-oracle-ol6
gpgcheck=1
enabled=0
 
[ol6_UEK_base]
name=Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel for Oracle Linux $releasever ($basearch)
baseurl=http://public-yum.oracle.com/repo/OracleLinux/OL6/UEK/base/$basearch/
gpgkey=http://public-yum.oracle.com/RPM-GPG-KEY-oracle-ol6
gpgcheck=1
enabled=0
 
How to Delete a Virtual Machine
You can only delete a VM that is in Stop or Error state. If you're dead set on getting rid of a VM, simple right-click on the VM to remove and select Delete. Choose any Virtual Disks you also wish to delete and click OK. All files and properties associated with this VM should now be deleted.
 
Tip: We have seen it happen that the Virtual Machine is still seen inside the VM Manager GUI after deleting the Virtual Machine using the above process. As a workaround, we were finally able to delete the problem VM by right-clicking on the VM, selecting Edit and then clicking Next, removing all associated Vnic's, Boot Order devices and Virtual Disks manually, then clicking Save. At this point we were able to successfully delete the VM.

Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Server Sizing Advisor

Version 1.0 - Copyright © 2013 Mokum Solutions, Inc. All rights reserved.

The Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Server Sizing Advisor offers Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c server sizing recommendations.

How to use Mokum Solutions, Inc.' Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Server Sizing Advisor.
 

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This is the first page, where you select the Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c deployment size. The last page shows your Oracle Enterprise Manager server sizing results.
 

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Oracle VM Template for Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c

Show a printer friendly version of this chapter of the Oracle Cloud Cookbook

 

Copyright © 2013 Mokum Solutions, Inc. All rights reserved.
Distribution of the Oracle Cloud Cookbook or derivative of the work in any form for commercial purposes is prohibited unless prior permission is obtained from the copyright holder.
 
 
 
Change Log
Revision
Change Description
Updated By
Date
1.0
First Release - Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Release 1
Roddy Rodstein
07/02/12
1.1 Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Release 2 Update Roddy Rodsteion 10/24/12
1.2 Content Refresh Roddy Rodstein 01/19/13
 
Table of Contents | The Oracle VM Template for Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Installation Road Map
Oracle VM Template for Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Introduction
1. Download the Oracle VM Template for Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c to a Linux host
2. Unzip and concatenate the tgz files
3. Create an archive file (.tar or .tgz) from the OVM_EM12 directory. Stage the archive file on a Web server.
4. Login to Oracle VM Manager and import the OVM_EM12 archive file as a template
5. Edit the OVM_EM12 template properties and clone the OVM_EM12 template as a virtual machine
6. Start the OVM_EM12 virtual machine, access its VNC console, enter the runtime variables, and access Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c
7. Oracle Environment Setup
 
Oracle VM Template for Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Introduction
The Oracle VM Template for Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c is a self-contained, preconfigured Oracle Linux 5U7 JeOS x86_64 Enterprise Manager 12c virtual appliance. The Oracle VM Template for Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c can be downloaded from the Oracle Linux and Oracle VM Cloud Portal and rapidly deployed for test and evaluation purposes on Oracle VM for x86. The requirements for the Oracle VM Template for Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c are Internet access, a web server and an Oracle VM for x86 environment with 6Gb of available RAM, 2 CPU cores, and at least 34 GB of available storage.

Download the Oracle VM Template for Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c to a Linux Host
The Oracle VM Template for Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c is available at the Oracle Linux and Oracle VM Cloud Portal. Access to the Oracle Linux and Oracle VM Cloud Portal requires an Oracle.com user account and password to authenticate into the Oracle Linux and Oracle VM Cloud Portal. If you do not already have an Oracle.com user account, visit the Oracle Linux and Oracle VM Cloud Portal, click the Sign In / Register link or button to create an Oracle.com account.

The Oracle VM Template for Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c is downloaded from the Oracle Linux and Oracle VM Cloud Portal as one set of three compressed zip files (10.1 GB total). The next example shows the three zip files.
 
4.3G    V34441-01.zip
4.3G    V34442-01.zip
1.5G   V34443-01.zip

The following steps walk though how to download the Oracle VM Template for Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c.

1. Enter http://edelivery.oracle.com/linux in a Web browser.  
 
Figure 1 shows the Oracle Linux and Oracle VM Cloud Portal.

Oracle Linux and Oracle VM Cloud Portal



Click the Sign In / Register link or button to access the Oracle Linux and Oracle VM Cloud Portal Sign In page.

Figure 2 shows the Oracle Linux and Oracle VM Cloud Portal Sign In page.

Oracle Linux and Oracle VM Cloud Portal Sign In

2. From the Sign In page, enter your Oracle.com user name and password, and then click the Sign In button.
 
Once authenticated, accept the terms and export regulations to access to the Oracle VM and Oracle Linux Media.
 
Figure 3 shows the Terms & Registration form.

Oracle Linux and Oracle VM Cloud Portal Terms & Registration
 
After completing the Terms & Registration form, you are redirected to the Media Pack Search page.

Figure 4 shows the Media Pack Search page.

Oracle Linux and Oracle VM Cloud Portal Media Pack Search

Tip: If you do not see Oracle VM from the Select a Product Pack dropdown menu, you are not in the Oracle Linux and Oracle VM section of the Cloud Portal. Click the Cloud Portal link in the page header, and then click the Oracle Linux/VM drop down menu to be redirected to the Oracle Linux and Oracle VM section of the Cloud Portal.
 
From the Media Pack Search page, select Oracle VM Templates from the Select a Product Pack dropdown menu. Next, select x86 64-bit from the Platform dropdown menu, then click the Go button to be taken to the Oracle VM Templates download page.
 
Figure 5 shows the Media Pack Search page highlighting the Oracle VM Template for Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c template.

Oracle Linux and Oracle VM Cloud Portal Oracle VM Template for Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c template

From the Media Pack Search page click the Oracle VM Template for Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Media Pack for x86 64 (64 bit) link to access the Oracle VM Template for Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Media Pack for x86 64 (64 bit) Media Pack download page.
 
Figure 6 shows the Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Media Pack for x86 64 (64 bit) page.Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Media Pack for x86 64 (64 bit) Page

From the Oracle VM Template for Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Media Pack for x86 64 (64 bit) Media Pack download page click each of the three Download buttons to download part number V34441-01.zip (4.3G), V34442-01.zip (4.3G) and V34443-01.zip (1.5G). The total storage requirements for the zip files are 10.1G.

Unzip and Concatenate the tgz Files
On a Linux host, login as root, change (cd) to the directory with the V34441-01.zip (4.3G), V34442-01.zip (4.3G) and V34443-01.zip (1.5G) files, and unzip the files using the unzip command. The next examples show how to unzip all three files.

# unzip 'V*.zip'
Archive:  V34443-01.zip
  inflating: OVM_EM12R2_3of3.tgz     

Archive:  V34442-01.zip
  inflating: OVM_EM12R2_2of3.tgz     

Archive:  V34441-01.zip
  inflating: OVM_EM12R2_1of3.tgz     

3 archives were successfully processed.

Next, concatenate the three tgz files by typing “cat OVM_EM12*.tgz | tar -xzvf -” as shown in the next example.

# cat OVM_EM12*.tgz | tar -xzvf -

./OVM_EM12R2/
./OVM_EM12R2/em.img
./OVM_EM12R2/vm.cfg
./OVM_EM12R2/System.img

Once the “cat OVM_EM12*.tgz | tar -xzvf -” command completes, a directory named OVM_EM12R2 is created with three files; vm.cfg (4.0K), System.img (6.3G) and em12.img (28G). The vm.cfg file (4.0K) is the configuration file for the Oracle VM Template for Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c virtual machine. The System.img (6.3G) file is a virtual disk that contains the Oracle Linux 5U7 x86_64 operating system for the Oracle VM Template for Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c. The em12.img (28G) file is also a virtual disk that contains the /u01 directory with the Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c installation for the Oracle VM Template for Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c.

Create an Archive File from the OVM_EM12 Directory. Stage the archive file on a Web Server
Next, create an archive file from the OVM_EM12R2 directory and copy the archive file to a Web server.

As root type “tar cvzf OVM_EM12_Template.tgz OVM_EM12” to create an archive file with the contents of the OVM_EM12R2 directory. The next example shows the results of typing “tar cvzf OVM_EM12_Template.tgz OVM_EM12”.  

$ tar cvzf OVM_EM12_Template.tgz OVM_EM12R2
OVM_EM12R2/
OVM_EM12R2/System.img
OVM_EM12R2/vm.cfg
OVM_EM12R2/em12.img

Copy the OVM_EM12_Template.tgz file to a Web server.

Login to Oracle VM Manager and Import the OVM_EM12 Archive File as a Template
From Oracle VM Manager, click the Repositories tab, highlight the VM Templates node, click the Import icon, enter the URL to the OVM_EM12 archive file, and click the OK button to start the Import VM Template and Refresh Repository jobs. Figure 7 shows the steps in Oracle VM Manager to import the OVM_EM12 archive file.

Figure 7

Oracle VM Manager Import the Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Template

Tip: The Import VM Template job can take a while (+-30 minutes) to complete.

The Import VM Template and Refresh Repository jobs can be tracked from the Job Summary pane and from the Jobs page as well as from the Utility Server's ovs-agent.log, i.e. on the Utility Server as root type “tail -f /var/log/ovs-agent.log” to track the Import VM Template and Refresh Repository jobs in real time.

Figure 8 shows the Job Summary pane highlighting the Import VM Template and Refresh Repository jobs and the Jobs tab.

Oracle VM Manager Job Summary

Once the Import VM Template and Refresh Repository jobs complete, the Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c template will be listed in the VM Templates directory. Figure 9 shows the OVM_EM12_Template.tgz template in the VM Template directory.

Figure 9

 Import VM Template and Refresh Repository jobs

Edit the OVM_EM12 Template Properties and Clone the OVM_EM12 Template as a Virtual Machine
Before the OVM_EM12 Template can be cloned, started and configured, its properties should be edited with the desired Oracle VM server pool resources.

From Oracle VM Manager, click the Repositories tab, highlight the VM Templates node, highlight OVM_EM12_Template.tgz template, and then click the edit icon to access the template's properties. From the Configuration tab 1) enter the desired name in the VM Template Name text box, 2) Select “Oracle Linux 5” in the Operating System drop down menu, 3) edit the Description (Optional) and accept the other defaults. Next, click the Networks tab to proceed.

Figure 10 shows the Configuration tab.

 Import VM Template Configuration Tab

From the Networks tab move the desired network from the Available Ethernet Networks to the Selected Ethernet Network. Please note that the Oracle VM Template for Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c uses “one” network. In order to proceed click the Disks tab.

Tip: If the desired network is not listed in the Available Ethernet Networks window, click Cancel and configure the network before editing the templates properties.

Figure 11 shows the Networks tab.

 Import VM Template Networks tab

The Disks tab shows the virtual disk configurations. The System.img (6.3G) virtual disk contains the Oracle Linux 5U7 x86_64 operating system for the Oracle VM Template for Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c. The em12.img (28G) virtual disk contains the /u01 directory with the Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c installation for the Oracle VM Template for Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c. Accept the defaults and click the Boot Order tab to proceed.

Figure 12 shows the Disks tab.

 Import VM Template Disks tab

The Boot Order tab shows the Boot Options and the Boot Order. To allow the virtual machine to boot from disk, move the Disk Boot Option to the Boot Order window. Click OK to save the configurations.

The template is now configured and can be cloned.

Figure 13 shows the Boot Order tab.

 Import VM Boot Order Tab

Next, highlight the template and click the Clone icon to access the Clone or Move window.

Figure 14 shows the Clone icon.
 Import VM Clone

From the Clone or Move window accept the Create a clone of this template (Click 'Next' to continue) default and click Next to proceed.

Figure 15 shows the Clone or Move window.

 Import VM Clone or Move

From the second Clone or Move window, select the Virtual Machine radio button to clone the template as a virtual machine, select 1 as the Clone Count, enter the desired name for the virtual machine that will be listed in Oracle VM Manager, select the desired Target Server Pool and optionally enter a description in the Description text box. Click OK to create the cloned virtual machine.

Figure 16 shows the second Clone or Move window.

 Import VM Clone or Move

Once the Clone job completed the virtual machine will be listed with the target server pool's virtual machines.  

Start the OVM_EM12 Virtual Machine, Access its VNC Console, Enter the Runtime Variables, and Access the Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control
Using Oracle VM Manager, start the virtual machine, access its VNC console and enter the desired IP address, netmask, hostname, gateway, DNS server and the Enterprise Manager OMS, Agent and Repository passwords as well as your email address if you would like to be informed of security issues.

To start the virtual machine 1) click the servers and VMs tab, 2) highlight the target server pool 3) select the virtual machine drop down menu, 4) highlight the virtual machine from the list, 5) start the virtual machine and 6) access the virtual machine's VNC console.

Figure 17 shows the six steps to start the virtual machine and to access its VNC console.

Oracle VM VNC Console

From the virtual machine's VNC console, you will be prompted to enter the following information:
Configure Networking

Tip: There is no need to enter any further details or keyboard input. The configuration can take over 60 minutes to complete.

Set the Root and Oracle User Account Passwords
Once the configuration is complete set the root and oracle passwords. From the VNC console:
Access Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control
Oracle Environment Setup
It is helpful to have the Oracle environment setup properly. Add the following Oracle Settings in the /home/oracle/.bash_profile file as a reference point for your Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Cloud Control virtual machine.
 
Note: The following .bash_profile file can be used “as is” with the Oracle VM Template for Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c. For a fresh all-in-one Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control 12c installation, do “not” set the Oracle environment until “after” the installation.
 
# Oracle Settings
TMP=/tmp; export TMP
TMPDIR=$TMP; export TMPDIR
ORACLE_BASE=/u01/OracleHomes; export ORACLE_BASE
ORACLE_HOME=$ORACLE_BASE/db11g/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1; export ORACLE_HOME
AGENT_HOME=$ORACLE_BASE/Middleware/agent/core/12.1.0.1.0/; export AGENT_HOME
OMS_HOME=$ORACLE_BASE/Middleware/oms; export OMS_HOME
ORACLE_INSTANCE=/u01/OracleHomes/Middleware/gc_inst/WebTierIH1; export ORACLE_INSTANCE
ORACLE_SID=emrepus; export ORACLE_SID
ORACLE_TERM=xterm; export ORACLE_TERM
PATH=/usr/sbin:$PATH; export PATH
PATH=$ORACLE_HOME/bin:$PATH; export PATH
LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$ORACLE_HOME/lib:/lib:/usr/lib; export LD_LIBRARY_PATH
CLASSPATH=$ORACLE_HOME/JRE:$ORACLE_HOME/jlib:$ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/jlib; export CLASSPATH

if [ $USER = "oracle" ]; then
  if [ $SHELL = "/bin/ksh" ]; then
    ulimit -p 16384
    ulimit -n 65536
  else
    ulimit -u 16384 -n 65536
  fi
fi
 

Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Installation

Show a printer friendly version of this chapter of the Oracle Cloud Cookbook

 

Copyright © 2013 Mokum Solutions, Inc. All rights reserved.
Distribution of the Oracle Cloud Cookbook or derivative of the work in any form for commercial purposes is prohibited unless prior permission is obtained from the copyright holder.
 
 
 
Change Log
Revision
Change Description
Updated By
Date
1.0
Beta Release
Roddy Rodstein
12/02/11
1.1 First Release Roddy Rodstein 12/11/11
1.2 Content Refresh Roddy Rodstein 07/16/12
1.3 Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Release 1 Updates Roddy Rodstein 09/27/12
1.4 Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Release 2 Updates Roddy Rodstein 05/06/13
This document applies to Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Release 2 installed on Oracle Linux 5 or 6.
 
Table of Contents
Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Installation Introduction
Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Inter Component Communication and Data Exchange
Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c System Design Considerations
Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Server Sizing
Oracle Linux Operating System Prerequisites
...oracle-validated RPM - Oracle Linux 5
...oracle-rdbms-server-11gR2-preinstall - Oracle Linux 6
...iptables
...SELinux
.../etc/hosts
...Adjust the Shared Memory File System for the Database Host
...Create the Required Directories using the Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) Standard
...SSH and X11 Forwarding
...ulimit /etc/security/limits.conf Values
Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition R2 (11.2.0.3.0) Installation
Automating Database Startup and Shutdown
Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Installation
.bash_profile
 

Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Installation Introduction

Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c is a systems management framework consisting of an Oracle database, Oracle WebLogic, a J2EE application, an application development frame work 11g (ADF) administrative Web GUI, server and client side plug-ins, and a client side agent. In the context of Oracle Enterprise Manager, the Oracle database repository is named the “Oracle Management Repository” or “OMR”. WebLogic is the J2EE platform called the “Oracle Management Service” or “OMS”, that runs the Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c J2EE application. The administrative Web GUI is named Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control. The client side agents are named the “Oracle Management Agents” or “OMA”. The server and client side plug-ins share a unique name for the managed product or technology. Monitored hosts are referred to as targets. All of the Oracle Enterprise Manager components are commonly referred to as Oracle Enterprise Manager (OEM) or Enterprise Manager (EM).
 
The Oracle Management Repository, the Oracle Management Service along with the Oracle Management Agent can be installed on a single x86-64 Linux host in an all-in-one configuration for evaluations or in an n-tier configuration for production. Traditionally, production Oracle Enterprise Manager environments are not be placed on a single server, nor should the Oracle Management Repository be shared with production or test databases on the same server. For production, the Oracle Management Repository as well as WebLogic should be on dedicated virtual or physical servers. If your Oracle Enterprise Manager environment starts out small, make sure to have a plan to scale out your Oracle Enterprise Manager infrastructure.
 
As of this writing, Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Release 1 (12.1.0.1) and Release 2 (12.1.0.2) are supported on the following Linux x86-64 operating systems:
This chapter uses Oracle Linux 5.9 for the Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c installation.
 
Tip: The Enterprise Manager installer was developed using Oracle Linux 5.x. There are several annoying installlation bugs with the Enterprise Manager installer with Oracle Linux 6.x.. I recomend using Oracle Linux 5 for the installaion. 
 
As of this writing, the Oracle Management Repository is certified with the following database releases:
Figure 1 shows a traditional multiple node Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c installation with the Oracle Management Repository hosted on a two-node RAC cluster, the Oracle Management Service hosted on a two-node WebLogic cluster with three monitored Oracle Linux hosts with the Oracle Management Agent.
 
Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Architecture Design
 
Each of the Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c components can be installed using the Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) GUI, or using silent installation scripts, or with the software only, configure later installation mode. The software only installation mode allows you to install only the Oracle Enterprise Manager software binaries without any configurations. The software only installation mode is ideal if you want to install the software at one point and configure the software later.
 
Note: This chapter reviews the Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) installation mode.
 

Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Inter Component Communication and Data Exchange

Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Could Control, the Oracle Management Repository, the Oracle Management Service and the Oracle Management Agents and Plug-ins can be on different hosts throughout your enterprise. Understanding Oracle Enterprise Manager's intra component communication and data exchange will help you configure your firewalls in order to allow Oracle Enterprise Manager to operate in your enterprise. During the Oracle Enterprise Manager installation, the default communication ports for each component will be selected and assigned. If the default ports are modified be sure to use the new port assignments when you configure your firewalls.
 
Table 1 shows the default ports used by Oracle Enterprise Manager.
Service
Default Port
Enterprise Manager Upload HTTP Port
4889 - 4898
Enterprise Manager Upload HTTPS (SSL) Port
1159, 4899 - 4908
Management Agent Port
3872
Management Repository Database Port
1521
Cloud Control Console HTTP Port
7788 - 7798
Cloud Control Console HTTPS (SSL) Port
7799 -7809
EM Domain WebLogic Admin Server HTTP Port
7001
EM Domain WebLogic Admin Server HTTPS (SSL) Port
7101 - 7200
Cloud Control Managed Server HTTP Port
7201 - 7300
Cloud Control Managed Server HTTPS (SSL) Port
7301 - 7400
WebLogic Node Manager HTTPS (SSL) Port
7401 - 7500
JVM Diagnostics Managed Server
3800
JVM Diagnostics Managed Server (SSL)
3801
Application Dependency and Performance RMI Registry Port
51099
Application Dependency and Performance Java Provider Port
5503
Application Dependency and Performance Remote Service Controller Port
55000

Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c System Design Considerations

The Oracle Management Repository, the Oracle Management Service along with the Oracle Management Agent can be installed on a single host in an all-in-one configuration for evaluations or in an n-tier configuration for production. Traditionally, production Oracle Enterprise Manager environments are not be placed on a single server, nor should the Oracle Management Repository be shared with production or test databases on the same server. For production, the Oracle Management Repository as well as WebLogic should be on dedicated virtual or physical servers. If your Oracle Enterprise Manager environment starts out small, make sure to have a plan to scale out your Oracle Enterprise Manager infrastructure.
 
For the Oracle Management Repository, scaling out means moving to RAC for the Oracle Management Repository database. An important consideration when scaling out an Oracle Enterprise Manager environment, is to determine if the underlying hardware where the Oracle Management Repository database runs is capable to transition to RAC? If the hardware is not capable to transition to RAC, it is possible to move and/or export the Oracle Management Repository database to a different system with more resources. If the Oracle Management Repository is hosted on an Oracle VM virtual machine, transitioning to RAC is a trivial operation.
 
Scaling out the WebLogic and Oracle Management Service tier entails adding a load balancing (SLB) solution to front end multiple WebLogic servers hosting the Oracle Management Service. Adding a load balancer with additional WebLogic servers introduces a virtual host name for the WebLogic cluster. Introducing a virtual host name into an existing Oracle Enterprise Manager environment will require a reconfiguration of all of your Oracle Management Agents to resolve to the new virtual host name. Reconfiguring a couple Oracle Management Agents is no trouble, although reconfiguring a lot of Oracle Management Agents would demand a long service window. When you deploy Oracle Enterprise Manager, consider using a virtual host name for the web tier.
 
An additional consideration when scaling out the WebLogic and Oracle Management Service tier is to provision shared storage to hosts the XML files and the software library.
 

Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Server Sizing

Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c server sizing is calculated by a) total number of managed agents and targets, b) the future growth of your Oracle Enterprise Manager environment and c) your organization's high availability requirements. For example, if you know the total number of managed agents and targets, sizing WebLogic and the Oracle database is as simple as following Table 2, Table 3 and Table 4. As you add more agents and targets, it is important to consider the future growth of your Oracle Enterprise Manager environment as well as the ability to scale up or to scale out with additional CPU, RAM and storage.
 
Table 1 shows the minimum physical memory and storage requirements for the WebLogic server hosting the Oracle Management Service and the Oracle Management Agent.
 
Installation Type
Physical Memory (RAM)
Storage
Oracle Management Service
*6 GB
10 GB
Oracle Management Agent
* To use BI Publisher add 1.5 GB of RAM.
 
Table 2 shows the recommended Oracle Management Service minimum RAM and CPU cores requirements for WebLogic along with the recommended number of WebLogic hosts for a small, medium and large number of agents and targets.
Deployment Size
RAM
Intel or AMD
CPU Cores
Hosts
Small < 100 agents < 1000 targets
*6 GB
2
1
Medium < 1000 agents < 10,000 targets
*6 GB
4
1
Large > 1000 agents > 10,000 targets
*6 GB
4
2

* To use BI Publisher add 1.5 GB of RAM.

Table 3 shows the minimum RAM, CPU cores, storage and the number of hosts for the database server hosting the Oracle Management Repository..

Deployment Size
RAM
Intel or AMD CPU Cores
Storage
Hosts
Small < 100 agents  < 1000 targets
2 GB
2
62 GB
1
Medium < 1000 agents < 10,000 targets
4 GB
4
225 GB
1
Large > 1000 agents > 10,000 targets
6 GB
4
345 GB
2

Table 4 shows the minimum storage requirements for a standalone Oracle Management Agent installation.

Platform
Storage
TMP Directory
Linux 32 bit
1.2 GB
400 MB
Linux x86_64
1.2 GB
400 MB

Oracle Linux Operating System Prerequisites

Oracle recommends installing Oracle Linux and Red Hat Enterprise using the default software package selection without any customization. Using the default software packages without customizations includes most of the prerequisite packages for Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c  and helps limit the number of manual prerequisite checks. After an Oracle Linux and/or Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation, Oracle recommends to register your server with the Unbreakable Linux Network (ULN) and to install the Legacy Software Development packages by typing “up2date -i @ Legacy Software Development“ or if you have a local yum repository type “yum groupinstall "Legacy Software Development"” to install most of the remaining Oracle technology product prerequisite packages. Once the Legacy Software Development packages are installed,  install the oracle-validated RPM to meet all of the remaining Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c prerequisite packages.
 
oracle-validated RPM - Oracle Linux 5
The oracle-validated RPM simplifies meeting the software and system configuration prerequisites for installing Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c. Installing the oracle-validated RPM automatically installs all of the software RPM prerequisites for the Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c and the Oracle Database as well as meeting the system configuration prerequisites, such as creating an oracle user and the oinstall and dba groups, configuring the sysctl.conf settings, system startup parameters, user limits, and driver parameters.
 
The oracle-validated RPM is available at the Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network, on the Oracle Linux media, and from the Oracle public yum repository. The oracle-validated RPM can be installed from the Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network by typing "up2date --install oracle-validated", ULN registration and a valid Linux CSI is required.  If you do not have access to Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network, the oracle-validated RPM can be installed from a local DVD repository as well as from Oracle' public yum repository. 
 
Oracle Linux maintains yum repositories in the /etc/yum.repos.d/ directory. For example, to setup a DVD repository, mount the Oracle Linux 5.x DVD, and create a file in the /etc/yum.repos.d/<MY FILE>.repo directory that instructs the yum client to use the DVD repository. The next examples shows the syntax of a .repo file pointing to a mounted Oracle Linux DVD in the /mnt/dvd/ directory.  

# cat /etc/yum.repos.d/ol-5U7-dvd.repo
[ol5_u7_dvd]
name=Oracle Linux $releasever - $basearch
baseurl=file:///mnt/dvd/Server/
enabled=1
gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-oracle

Before installing the oracle-validated RPM, clean the yum cache by typing “yum clean all” to re-read the repodata and caches. Once the DVD is mounted and the <MY FILE>.repo file is created, type “yum install oracle-validated” to install the oracle-validated RPM.

To install the oracle-validated RPM from the Oracle public yum repository, as root, change to the /etc/yum.repos.d/ directory and type “wget http://public-yum.oracle.com/public-yum-el5.repo” to download the public-yum-el5.repo file. Next, edit the public-yum-el5.repo file and enable the base repository for your Oracle Linux version by changing enabled=0 to enabled=1.

The next examples shows the public-yum-el5.repo file.

# vi  /etc/yum.repos.d/public-yum-el5.repo
[el5_ga_base]
name=Enterprise Linux $releasever GA - $basearch - base
baseurl=http://public-yum.oracle.com/repo/EnterpriseLinux/EL5/0/base/$basearch/
gpgkey=http://public-yum.oracle.com/RPM-GPG-KEY-oracle-el5
gpgcheck=1
enabled=0
 
[el5_u1_base]
name=Enterprise Linux $releasever U1 - $basearch - base
baseurl=http://public-yum.oracle.com/repo/EnterpriseLinux/EL5/1/base/$basearch/
gpgkey=http://public-yum.oracle.com/RPM-GPG-KEY-oracle-el5
gpgcheck=1
enabled=0
 
[el5_u2_base]
name=Enterprise Linux $releasever U2 - $basearch - base
baseurl=http://public-yum.oracle.com/repo/EnterpriseLinux/EL5/2/base/$basearch/
gpgkey=http://public-yum.oracle.com/RPM-GPG-KEY-oracle-el5
gpgcheck=1
enabled=0
 
[el5_u3_base]
name=Enterprise Linux $releasever U3 - $basearch - base
baseurl=http://public-yum.oracle.com/repo/EnterpriseLinux/EL5/3/base/$basearch/
gpgkey=http://public-yum.oracle.com/RPM-GPG-KEY-oracle-el5
gpgcheck=1
enabled=0
 
[el5_u4_base]
name=Enterprise Linux $releasever U4 - $basearch - base
baseurl=http://public-yum.oracle.com/repo/EnterpriseLinux/EL5/4/base/$basearch/
gpgkey=http://public-yum.oracle.com/RPM-GPG-KEY-oracle-el5
gpgcheck=1
enabled=0
 
[el5_u5_base]
name=Enterprise Linux $releasever U5 - $basearch - base
baseurl=http://public-yum.oracle.com/repo/EnterpriseLinux/EL5/5/base/$basearch/
gpgkey=http://public-yum.oracle.com/RPM-GPG-KEY-oracle-el5
gpgcheck=1
enabled=0
 
[ol5_u5_base]
name=Oracle Linux $releasever - U5 - x86_64 - base
baseurl=http://public-yum.oracle.com/repo/OracleLinux/OL5/5/base/x86_64/
gpgkey=http://public-yum.oracle.com/RPM-GPG-KEY-oracle-el5
gpgcheck=1
enabled=0
 
[ol5_u6_base]
name=Oracle Linux $releasever - U6 - $basearch - base
baseurl=http://public-yum.oracle.com/repo/OracleLinux/OL5/6/base/$basearch/
gpgkey=http://public-yum.oracle.com/RPM-GPG-KEY-oracle-el5
gpgcheck=1
enabled=0
 
[ol5_u7_base]
name=Oracle Linux $releasever - U7 - $basearch - base
baseurl=http://public-yum.oracle.com/repo/OracleLinux/OL5/7/base/$basearch/
gpgkey=http://public-yum.oracle.com/RPM-GPG-KEY-oracle-el5
gpgcheck=1
enabled=0
 
[el5_addons]
name=Enterprise Linux $releasever - $basearch - addons
baseurl=http://public-yum.oracle.com/repo/EnterpriseLinux/EL5/addons/$basearch/
gpgkey=http://public-yum.oracle.com/RPM-GPG-KEY-oracle-el5
gpgcheck=1
enabled=0
 
[el5_oracle_addons]
name=Enterprise Linux $releasever - $basearch - oracle_addons
baseurl=http://public-yum.oracle.com/repo/EnterpriseLinux/EL5/oracle_addons/$basearch/
gpgkey=http://public-yum.oracle.com/RPM-GPG-KEY-oracle-el5
gpgcheck=1
enabled=0

Tip: Enable a repository by changing enabled=0 to enabled=1. Enable the base repository for the Oracle Linux version being used. The next examples shows how to enable the Oracle Linux 5U7 base repository.
 
[ol5_u7_base]
name=Oracle Linux $releasever - U7 - $basearch - base
baseurl=http://public-yum.oracle.com/repo/OracleLinux/OL5/7/base/$basearch/
gpgkey=http://public-yum.oracle.com/RPM-GPG-KEY-oracle-el5
gpgcheck=1
enabled=1
 
The next examples shows how to enable the Oracle Linux 5U6 base repository.
 
[ol5_u6_base]
name=Oracle Linux $releasever - U6 - $basearch - base
baseurl=http://public-yum.oracle.com/repo/OracleLinux/OL5/6/base/$basearch/
gpgkey=http://public-yum.oracle.com/RPM-GPG-KEY-oracle-el5
gpgcheck=1
enabled=1

Once you have enabled the desired base repository by changing enabled=0 to enabled=1, clean the yum cache by typing “yum clean all” to re-read the repodata and caches. Next, type “yum install oracle-validated” to install the oracle-validated RPM.
 
oracle-rdbms-server-11gR2-preinstall- Oracle Linux 6
The oracle-rdbms-server-11gR2-preinstall RPM, formally know as oracle-validated, simplifies meeting the software and system configuration prerequisites for installing Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c on Oracle Linux 6. Installing the oracle-rdbms-server-11gR2-preinstall RPM automatically installs all of the software RPM prerequisites for Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c as well as meeting the system configuration prerequisites, such as creating an oracle user and the oinstall and dba groups, configuring the sysctl.conf settings, system startup parameters, user limits, and driver parameters.

The oracle-rdbms-server-11gR2-preinstall RPM is available at the Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network, on the Oracle Linux media, and from the Oracle public yum repository.

To install the oracle-rdbms-server-11gR2-preinstall RPM from the Oracle public yum repository, as root type the following commands:

# cd /etc/yum.repos.d/
# wget http://public-yum.oracle.com/public-yum-ol6.repo
# yum install oracle-rdbms-server-11gR2-preinstall
 
iptables
iptables is a userspace firewall application used to configure the Linux IPv4 and IPv6 packet filtering rulesets. iptables is installed and enabled by default on Oracle Linux with a default policy and ruleset in /etc/sysconfig/iptables. iptables rules can be configured at the command line as well as with the system setup utility, i.e. "/usr/bin/setup".
 
Host firewalls, for example iptables, are a fundamental part of an information security program. If your information security program requires host firewalls, a best practice is to configure host firewalls during the last phase of the Enterprise Manager deployment.
 
iptables can be disabled by typing the following command as root.
# service iptables stop && service ip6tables stop && chkconfig iptables off && chkconfig ip6tables off
 
iptables can be re-inabled by typing the following command as root.
# service iptables start && service ip6tables start && chkconfig iptables on && chkconfig ip6tables on
 
SELinux
Security Enhanced Linux (SELinux) is a default Linux feature that offers mandatory access controls, using Linux kernel security modules (LSM) along with user-space tools. Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2), Security Enhanced Linux is supported for Oracle Linux 4, Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4, Oracle Linux 5, and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5. Security Enhanced Linux is not supported for the Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Oracle Management Service.
 
Mandatory access controls, for example Security Enhanced Linux, may be a part of your organizations information security program. If your information security program requires mandatory access controls for the 12c Oracle Management Repository, a best practice is to configure Security Enhanced Linux during the last phase of the Enterprise Manager deployment.
 
To confirm the status of SELinux, as root type sestatus as shown in the next example.
# sestatus
SELinux status:                 disabled
 
The above example shows a host with SELinux disabled.
 
Security Enhanced Linux can be temporarily disabled by typing "echo 0 > /selinux/enforce", as root. Security Enhanced Linux can be re-enabled by typing "echo 1 > /selinux/enforce", as root.
 
Security Enhanced Linux can be permanently disabled by changing the "SELINUX=enforcing" entry to "SELINUX=disabled" in the "/etc/selinux/config" file. Security Enhanced Linux can be re-enabled by changing the "SELINUX=disabled" entry to "SELINUX=enforcing" in the "/etc/selinux/config" file. A re-boot is required after changing the "SELINUX=” value to enable to new settings.
 
/etc/hosts
Oracle technology products, including Oracle Enterprise Manager, rely on a properly formatted /etc/hosts file which allows the host to be pingable, with long and short host names. The host name in the /etc/hosts file must be associated with the server's public IP address.
 
The next example shows the proper syntax from a /etc/hosts file. Note that the localhost entries are one one line, and the IP address with the long and short names are on the next line.
 
127.0.0.1 localhost.localdomain localhost
192.168.4.8 servername.com servername
 
The next example shows an improperly formatted /etc/hosts file. Note that the long and short names are on the same line as the localhost entries.
 
127.0.0.1 servername.com servername localhost.localdomain localhost
192.168.4.8 servername.com servername
 
Tip: The following IPv6 entries in Oracle Linux 5 & 6 /etc/hosts files should be removed to aviod "Bug 13652664 : AGENT DEPLOY FAILS WITH AGENT PORT PASSED BY USER IS BUSY" with Oracle Management Agent installations:
::1         localhost localhost.localdomain localhost6 localhost6.localdomain6
 
The /etc/hosts file can be edited by the root user bu typing “vi /etc/hosts”, as shown in the next example.
 
# vi
127.0.0.1 localhost.localdomain localhost
192.168.4.8 servername.com servername
:wq!
 
Adjust the Shared Memory File System for the Database Host
To meet the Oracle Management Repository configuration requirements, the shared memory file system size should be increased to 4 GB.

Note: The shared memory file system size needs to be increased only on the Database host.

To check the current size of the shared memory file system, type “df -k /dev/shm” as shown in the next example.

# df -k /dev/shm
Filesystem           1K-blocks      Used Available Use% Mounted on
tmpfs                  3056052         0   3056052   0% /dev/shm

The above examples shows a 3 GB shared memory file system.

To set the shared memory file system size to 4 GB, as root, type the following commands.

# umount tmpfs
# mount -t tmpfs shmfs -o size=4g /dev/shm

Next, add the following entry in /etc/fstab to automatically mount the 4 GB shared memory file system.

tmpfs        /dev/shm        tmpfs    size=4g        0 0
 
Create the Required Directories using the Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) Standard
The Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) standard is a set of file naming recommendations for managing Oracle installations. The Optimal Flexible Architecture standard offers mount point, directory, and file-naming conventions that work with the Oracle Universal Installer. The Optimal Flexible Architecture includes where to install each part of each Oracle product including the storage of the applications and the data.
 
To create the directories for Oracle software installation using the Optimal Flexible Architecture standard, as root, type the following commands.
# mkdir -p /u01/app/oracle/product/
# chown -R oracle:oinstall /u01
# chmod -R 775 /u01
 
SSH and X11 Forwarding
Installing the Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c components using the Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) GUI requires local or remote access to the server' console or a remote X Windows (X11) session. Please note that the only software requirements on the Linux Oracle Enterprise Manager host for remote X Windows (X11) sessions is the xauth RPM package. The xauth RPM package handles the X11 forwarding authentication. X-windows and xhost are not required on the Linux Oracle Enterprise Manager host for remote X Windows (X11) sessions. 
 
SSH and X11 forwarding enables the redirection of an X11 session from a remote Oracle Linux machine to a local desktop. For example, from a local desktop, ssh to a remote Oracle Linux server using X11 forwarding and run the Oracle Universal Installer, i.e. by typing “./runInstaller”. The Oracle Universal Installer will be displayed on the local desktop and the Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c components can be installed on the remote Oracle Linux server.  
 
On the Oracle Linux server, enable X11 forwarding in the /etc/ssh/sshd_config by adding "ForwardX11 yes" to the file as shown in the next example.
 
Change
#X11Forwarding no
to
X11Forwarding yes
 
Once the "ForwardX11 yes" entry has been added to the /etc/ssh/sshd_config file, restart ssh by typing "service sshd restart" to enable X11 forwarding. With X11 forwarding enabled, the Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) GUI can be exported from the Oracle Linux server to your local desktop.  
 
Tip: To aviod X11 challanges install the xauth and xorg-x11-apps RPMs on the Linux host. To check for the RPMs, as root type, rpm -qa | grep -i xauth and rpm -qa | grep -i xorg-x11-apps. To install xauth and the xorg-x11-apps RPMs, type yum -y install xorg-x11-apps xauth
 
To enable X11 forwarding from a Linux desktop, use the "-X" switch with ssh. For example, type "ssh -X oracle@<ORACLE LINUX SERVER>" to create a ssh tunnel with X11 forwarding. Do not forget that -X enables X11 forwarding, and -x actually disables X11 forwarding. Also, using the su command within a SSH session with X11 forwarding breaks X11 authentication.
 
To test remote X Windows (X11), open a new ssh session with X11 forwarding enabled (ssh -X user@servername), and type xclock. The xclock application should open on your desktop. xclock is an X window client application that is included in the xorg-x11-apps RPM package. xclock is often used to test remote X Windows (X11) sessions.
 
Tip: To troubleshoot ssh connections, use ssh verbose mode, i.e. ssh -v -v -X user@servername
 
If your using a Windows PC, a PC X Server like XMing is required to run an X Windows session, along with an ssh client like putty that supports X11 forwarding.
 
ulimit  /etc/security/limits.conf Values
One of the Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c  installation prerequisites is to increase the number of file descriptors to at least 4096. As root, edit the /etc/security/limits.conf file and add the following two entries:
<UID> soft nofile 4096
<UID> hard nofile 4096
 
Confirm the new file limits by typing:
$ ulimit -n
and
$ /bin/sh -c "ulimit -n"
 
The value should be greater than 4096.
 
Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition R2 (11.2.0.3.0) Installation
This section walks through the installation of Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.3.0) using the Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) on Oracle Linux 5 or 6.
 
With the software downloaded and staged on the Oracle Linux host, as the oracle user, run the runInstaller script by typing "./runInstaller" as shown in the next example.
 
# ssh -X oracle@<DATABASE HOST>
$ cd /u01/app/stage/database
$ ./runInstaller
Starting Oracle Universal Installer...

Checking Temp space: must be greater than 120 MB.   Actual 3967 MB    Passed
Checking swap space: must be greater than 150 MB.   Actual 6189 MB    Passed
Checking monitor: must be configured to display at least 256 colors.    Actual 16777216    Passed
Preparing to launch Oracle Universal Installer from /tmp/OraInstall2011-11-30_04-53-29PM. Please wait ...
 
On the Configure Security Updates screen, to receive information from Oracle (optional), enter your email address and My Oracle Support password and click the Next button, or uncheck the I wish to receive security updates via My Oracle Support checkbox and click the Next button.
Figure 2
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 Installer - Installing database - Step 1 of 9
 
On the Download Software Updates screen, select one of the following three software update options, then click Next to proceed:
  • Use My Oracle Support credentials for download
  • Use pre-downloaded software updates
  • Skip software updates

As of this writing there are no software updates. For this example we selected the Skip software updates option and then Next to proceed. 

Figure 3
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 Installer - Installing database - Step 2 of 9
 
On the Select Install Option screen, select Create and configure a database. Click the Next button to proceed.
Figure 4
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 Installer - Installing database - Step 3 of 8
 
On the System Class screen, select the Server Class option. Click the Next button to proceed.
Figure 5
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 Installer - Installing database - Step 4 of 10
 
On the Grid Installation Options screen, select the Single instance database installation option. Click the Next button to proceed.
Figure 6
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 Installer - Installing database - Step 5 of 10
 
On the Select Install Type screen, select the Tipical install option. Click the Next button to proceed.
Figure 7
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 Installer - Installing database - Step 6 of 10
 
On the Typical Install Configuration screen, accept the defaults, enter a Administrative password. Click the Next button to proceed.
Figure 8
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 Installer - Installing database - Step 8 of 10
 
On the Create Inventory screen, accept the defaults. Click the Next button to proceed.
Figure 9
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 Installer - Installing database - Step 9 of 10
 
The Perform Prerequisite Checks screen shows if the minimum system requirements to perform the database installation are met.
  • Click Check Again, if you fixed the problems and you would like to verify the system requirements again.
  • Click Fix & Check Again, if you want the installer to try to fix the problems and verify the system requirements again.
  • Click Ignore All to ignore the problems and move forward with the database installation.
Click the Next button to proceed.
Figure 10
Database Configuration Assistant
 
On the Summary screen, click the Install button to start the database installation.
Figure 11
Database Configuration Assistant Details
 
The Database Configuration Assistant screen shows the progress of the database configuration.
Figure 12
Oracle 11g Execute Configuration script
 
The second Database Configuration Assistant screen shows the database configurations. Click the OK button to close the Database Configuration Assistant screen.
Figure 13
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 Installer - Installing database - Step 9 of 10
 
The Execute Configuration script screen appears and shows what scripts needs to be executed as the root user. As the root user, open a terminal and run both of the root.sh scriptsNext, click OK to close the Execute Configuration script screen.
Figure 14
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 Installer - Installing database - Step 10 of 10

The Finish screen shows the Enterprise Manager Database Control URL. Click the Close button to close the installation program

Figure 15
Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control 12c Installation - Step 1 of 8
 

Next, as the oracle user drop Enterprise Manager Database Control by typing the following command. Substitute  <sys pasword> with the sys password and <sysman password> with the sysman password selected during the database installation.

$ $ORACLE_HOME/bin/emca -deconfig dbcontrol db -repos drop -SYS_PWD <sys pasword> -SYSMAN_PWD <sysman password>

STARTED EMCA at Nov 22, 2011 1:44:08 PM
EM Configuration Assistant, Version 11.2.0.0.2 Production
Copyright (c) 2003, 2005, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

Enter the following information:
Database SID: orcl
Listener port number: 1521

Do you wish to continue? [yes(Y)/no(N)]: Y
Nov 22, 2011 1:44:23 PM oracle.sysman.emcp.EMConfig perform
INFO: This operation is being logged at /u01/app/oracle/product/cfgtoollogs/emca/orcl/emca_2011_11_22_13_44_08.log.
Nov 22, 2011 1:44:23 PM oracle.sysman.emcp.util.DBControlUtil stopOMS
INFO: Stopping Database Control (this may take a while) ...
Nov 22, 2011 1:44:45 PM oracle.sysman.emcp.EMReposConfig invoke
INFO: Dropping the EM repository (this may take a while) ...
Nov 22, 2011 1:47:18 PM oracle.sysman.emcp.EMReposConfig invoke
INFO: Repository successfully dropped
Enterprise Manager configuration completed successfully
FINISHED EMCA at Nov 22, 2011 1:47:21 PM

Next, assess the database as sysdba and create a pfile from the spfile. 

$ sqlplus / AS SYSDBA
 
SQL*Plus: Release 11.2.0.3.0 Production on Mon Apr 8 08:53:22 2013
 
Copyright (c) 1982, 2011, Oracle.  All rights reserved.
 
Connected to:
Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.3.0 - 64bit Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options
 
SQL> create pfile from spfile;
 
File created.
 
SQL> quit
 

Next, edit the database init file and change the *.memory_target parameter to 3221225472, i.e. add a new line with "*.memory_target=3221225472" in the init file:
# vi /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1/dbs/initorcl.ora
*.memory_target=3221225472
:wq!

Next, create a directory for the redo log files, as shown in the next example.

# mkdir /u01/app/oracle/product/redo_logs/

Next, access the database as sysdba and make the following initialization parameter changes, then restart the database.

sqlplus / AS SYSDBA
ALTER SYSTEM SET processes=300 SCOPE=SPFILE;
System altered.
ALTER SYSTEM SET session_cached_cursors=200 SCOPE=SPFILE;
System altered.
ALTER SYSTEM SET sga_target=2G SCOPE=SPFILE;
System altered.
ALTER SYSTEM SET shared_pool_size=600M SCOPE=SPFILE;
System altered.
ALTER SYSTEM SET pga_aggregate_target=1G SCOPE=SPFILE;
System altered.
ALTER SYSTEM SET job_queue_processes=20 SCOPE=SPFILE;
System altered.
ALTER DATABASE force logging;
System altered.
ALTER TABLESPACE users FORCE LOGGING;
System altered.
EXEC dbms_auto_task_admin.disable('auto optimizer stats collection',null,null);
PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.
ALTER DATABASE ADD LOGFILE ('/u01/app/oracle/product/redo_logs/log1c.rdo', '/u01/app/oracle/product/redo_logs/log2c.rdo', '/u01/app/oracle/product/redo_logs/log3c.rdo') SIZE 100M;
System altered.

SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE;
SQL> CREATE SPFILE FROM PFILE;
SQL> startup;
ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area 3206836224 bytes
Fixed Size            2217632 bytes
Variable Size         1744832864 bytes
Database Buffers     1442840576 bytes
Redo Buffers           16945152 bytes
Database mounted.
Database opened.

SQL> quit

Automating Database Startup and Shutdown
There are several steps to automate the database startup and shutdown process with Oracle Linux.
 
Once the database has been installed, a file called oratab is created in the /etc directory. The oratab file has a Y/N flag to specify if the database should be re-started when the server boots.
 
As root, edit the /etc/oratab file and change “N” to “Y”, as shown below.
 
The default setting is N, as shown in the next example.
orcl:/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1:N
 
Change the N to Y, as shown in the next example.
orcl:/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1:Y
 
The next example shows an oratab file from the above database installation with the Y flag.
# cat /etc/oratab
#
 
# This file is used by ORACLE utilities. It is created by root.sh
# and updated by the Database Configuration Assistant when creating
# a database.
 
# A colon, ':', is used as the field terminator. A new line terminates
# the entry. Lines beginning with a pound sign, '#', are comments.
#
# Entries are of the form:
# $ORACLE_SID:$ORACLE_HOME:<N|Y>:
#
# The first and second fields are the system identifier and home
# directory of the database respectively. The third filed indicates
# to the dbstart utility that the database should , "Y", or should not,
# "N", be brought up at system boot time.
#
# Multiple entries with the same $ORACLE_SID are not allowed.
#
#
orcl:/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1:Y
 
Next, as root, create a database startup and shutdown script named dbora /etc/init.d. The dboar script calls the dbstart and dbshut routines.
 
The next example show the dbora script.
 
# vi /etc/init.d/dbora
#!/bin/sh
# chkconfig: 345 99 10
# description: Oracle auto start-stop script.
#
# Set ORA_HOME to be equivalent to the $ORACLE_HOME
# from which you wish to execute dbstart and dbshut;
#
# Set ORA_OWNER to the user id of the owner of the
# Oracle database in ORA_HOME.
 
ORA_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1
ORA_OWNER=oracle
 
if [ ! -f $ORA_HOME/bin/dbstart ]
then
echo "Oracle startup: cannot start"
exit
fi
 
case "$1" in
'start')
# Start the Oracle databases:
# The following command assumes that the oracle login
# will not prompt the user for any values
su - $ORA_OWNER -c "$ORA_HOME/bin/dbstart $ORA_HOME"
touch /var/lock/subsys/dbora
;;
'stop')
# Stop the Oracle databases:
# The following command assumes that the oracle login
# will not prompt the user for any values
su - $ORA_OWNER -c "$ORA_HOME/bin/dbshut $ORA_HOME"
rm -f /var/lock/subsys/dbora
;;
esac
:wq!
 
After the script is created, set the privileges for dbora to 750, by typing “chmod 750 /etc/init.d/dbora”. The dbora script can now be configured as a Linux service.
 
Next, set the runlevels for the dbora service to 3, 4 and 5 by typing “chkconfig dbora on”. Typing “chkconfig --list|grep dbora” will validate the dbora script is on at runlevels 3, 4 and 5, as shown in the next example.
# chkconfig --list|grep dbora
dbora 0:off 1:off 2:on 3:on 4:on 5:on 6:off
 
The last step is to created soft links for init.d to automate the database startup and shutdown process with Oracle Linux boot process.  As root, type the following commands to create the init.d soft links.
# ln -s /etc/init.d/dbora /etc/rc.d/rc0.d/K01dbora
# ln -s /etc/init.d/dbora /etc/rc.d/rc3.d/S96dbora
# ln -s /etc/init.d/dbora /etc/rc.d/rc5.d/S96dbora
 

Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Installation

This section walks through an Advanced installation of the Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Release 2 (12.1.0.2) Oracle Management Service and the Oracle Management Agent using the Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) on Oracle Linux 5U9.

Tip: Make sure that the Oracle user environmental variables are not set until after the installation of Oracle Enterprise Manager. For example, do not setup the .bash_profile file until after the installation of all the software. To temporarily unset the Oracle user environmental variables, as the oracle user type "unset ORACLE_BASE ORACLE_HOME EMDROOT AGENT_HOME OMS_HOME ORACLE_INSTANCE ORACLE_SID ORACLE_UNQNAME ORACLE_TERM".

With the software downloaded and staged for the Oracle Linux host, as the oracle user, run the runInstaller script by typing "./runInstaller" as shown in the next example.

# ssh -X oracle@<ORACLE MANAGEMENT SERVICE HOST>
$ cd /u01/app/stage/oem12c
$ ./runInstaller

Starting Oracle Universal Installer...

Checking Temp space: must be greater than 400 MB.   Actual 3965 MB    Passed
Checking swap space: must be greater than 150 MB.   Actual 6160 MB    Passed
Checking monitor: must be configured to display at least 256 colors.    Actual 16777216    Passed
Preparing to launch Oracle Universal Installer from /tmp/OraInstall2011-12-01_11-13-51AM. Please wait ...

On the My Oracle Support Details screen, to receive support information (optional), enter your Email address and My Oracle Support Password and click the Next button, or uncheck the I wish to receive security updates via My Oracle Support checkbox and click the Next button.
Figure 16
Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control 12c Release 2 Installation - Step 1 of 9
 
On the Sofware Updates screen you have the following options:
Note: As of this writing there are several Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c updates available from My Oracle Support.
 
In this example we selected My Oracle Support (Requires Internet Connection), entered our My Oracle Support User Name and Password, then clicked Serach for Updates
 
Figure 17
Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control 12c Release 2 Installation - Step 2 of 9
 
The Sofware Updates screen shows the avilable updates. Click the Next button.
 
Note: Clicking Next generates a Warning message informing you that the installer will be restarted.  
Figure 18
Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control 12c Release 2 Installation - Step 2 of 9
 
Figure 19 shows a Warning message informing you that the installer will be restarted.  
 
Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control 12c Release 2 Installation Warning
 
Once the installer restarts (up to 6 minutes), your presented with the My Oracle Support Details screen. To receive support information (optional), enter your Email address and My Oracle Support Password and click the Next button, or uncheck the I wish to receive security updates via My Oracle Support checkbox and click the Next button.
 
Figure 20
Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control 12c Release 2 Installation - Step 1 of 8
 
On the Prerequisite Checks screen the installer checks the system prerequisites. Failed steps can be fixed and be retested or just ignored. 
 
The Prerequisite Checks screen shows if the minimum system requirements to perform the installation are met.
  • Click Rerun if you fixed the problems and you would like to verify the system requirements again.
  • Click Ignore to ignore the problems and move forward with the database installation.
Click the Next button to proceed.
Figure 21
Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control 12c Release 2 Installation - Step 2 of 8


On the Installation Types screen select Advanced under Create a new Enterprise Manager System. Click the Next button to proceed.
Figure 22
Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control 12c Release 2 Installation - Step 3 of 12
 
From the Installation Details screen enter or Browse to the Middelware Home Location, i.e.  /u01/app/oracle/product/Middleware, and the Agant Base directory, i.e. /u01/app/oracle/product/agent. Unlike previouse releases, the agent base directory can not be in the Middleware home. The Host Name should auto-populate. If the hostname does not auto-populate, enter the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) of the host. Click the Next button to proceed.
Figure 23
Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control 12c Release 2 Installation - Step 4 of 12
 
On the Plug-in Deployment screen select the desired Plug-ins. Accept the defauls and to support subsequent chapters of the Oracle Cloud Cookbook, please select Oracle Chargeback and Capacity PlanningOracle Cloud Application and Oracle Virtualization. Click the Next button to proceed.
Figure 24
Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control 12c Release 2 Installation - Step 5 of 12
 
On the WebLogic Server Configuration Details screen enter the WebLogic User Name and Password for the GCDomain and the Node Manager PasswordThe OMS Instance Base Location should auto-populate. Click the Next button to proceed.
 
Tip: The WebLogic and Node Manager passwords can not start with a number. 
 
Figure 25
Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control 12c Release 2 Installation - Step 6 of 12
 
On the Database Connection Details screen enter the Database Host Name, the Database Port number, the Database Service ID, the Database SYS Password and the Deployment size. Click the Next button to proceed.
 
The OEM Deployment sizes are as follows:
  • Small < 100 agents < 1000 targets
  • Medium < 1000 agents < 10,000 targets
  • Large > 1000 agents > 10,000 targets
Tip: Make sure that no Oracle Database environmental variables are set until after the installation of the Oracle Management Manager. If the Oracle environmental variables are set, i.e. in the ~/.bash_profile file or by hand, the Configuration Details screen will generate errors. To temporarily unset the Oracle user environmental variables, as the oracle user type "unset ORACLE_BASE ORACLE_HOME EMDROOT AGENT_HOME OMS_HOME ORACLE_INSTANCE ORACLE_SID ORACLE_UNQNAME ORACLE_TERM".
 
Figure 26
Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control 12c Release 2 Installation - Step 7 of 12
 
On the Repository Configuration Details screen, enter the SYSMAN Password and the OMA Registration Password. Accept the defaults for the Management TablespaceConfiguration Data Tablespace and the IVM Diagnostics Data Tablespace. Click the Next button to proceed.
Figure 27
Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control 12c Release 2 Installation - Step 8 of 12
 
From the Port Configuration Details screen accept the defaults and click the Next button to proceed.
Figure 28
Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control 12c Release 2 Installation - Step 9 of 12
 
On the Review screen, click the Install button to start the product installation.
Figure 29
Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control 12c Release 2 Installation - Step 10 of 12
 
The Installation Progress Details screen shows the installation progress. The Installation Progress Details screen remains open until the last Finish screen.
Figure 30
Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control 12c Release 2 Installation - Step 11 of 12
 
The Execute Configuration script screen appears and shows what scripts needs to be executed as the root user. Next, as the root user open another terminal window to the host, and run the allroot.sh script.
Figure 31
Execute Configuration scripts
 
After running the allroot.sh script, click OK to close the Execute Configuration script screen.
 
The Finish screen shows the location of the setupinfo.txt file and the URLs for Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control and the WebLogic Admin server. Click the Close button to close the installation program
 
Note: The details from the Finish screen are also available in the file setupinfo.txt file.
 
Figure 32
Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control 12c Release 2 Installation - Step 12 of 12
 
The following examples how the setupinfo.txt file.
# cat /u01/app/oracle/product/Middleware/oms/install/setupinfo.txt

This information is also available at:

    /u01/app/oracle/product/Middleware/oms/install/setupinfo.txt

See below for information pertaining to your Enterprise Manager installation:

Use the following URL to access:

    1. Enterprise Manager Cloud Control URL: https://<HOST NAME>:7799/em
    2. Admin Server URL: https://oem-tuvok.sf.mokum.com:7102/console

The following details need to be provided during the additional OMS install:

    1. Admin Server Hostname: <HOST NAME>
    2. Admin Server Port: 7102

 NOTE:
 An encryption key has been generated to encrypt sensitive data in the Management Repository. If this key is lost, all encrypted data in the Repository becomes unusable. Please run following command to backup the Management Service configuration including the emkey and keep the backup on another system:
 emctl exportconfig oms -dir <backup location>
 
Open a browser and enter the Enterprise Manager Cloud Control URL, i.e. https://<HOST NAME>:7799/em. Enter sysman in the User Name text box and enter the password specified during the installation in the Password text box. Click the Logon button to proceed.
Figure 33
Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control 12c Release 2 Login Page
 
On the Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control 12c License Agreement page click the I Accept button to accept the License Agreement and access Cloud Control 12c.
Figure 34
Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control 12c Release License Agreement
 
Next, you are presented with the Select Enterprise Manager Home page. You can select one of the home pages now or later as your Oracle Enterprise manager home page.
Figure 35
Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control 12c Release Select Home Page
 

.bash_profile

Add the following Oracle Settings in the /home/oracle/.bash_profile file as a reference point for your 12c environment.
 
Note: The following .bash_profile file can be used “as is” with an all-in-one Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Installation. For a fresh all-in-one Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control 12c installation, do “not” set the Oracle environment until “after” the installation.
 

# Oracle Settings
TMP=/tmp; export TMP
TMPDIR=$TMP; export TMPDIR
ORACLE_BASE=/u01/app/oracle/product; export ORACLE_BASE
ORACLE_HOME=$ORACLE_BASE/11.2.0/dbhome_1; export ORACLE_HOME
EMDROOT=$ORACLE_BASE/11.2.0/dbhome_1; export EMDROOT
AGENT_HOME=$ORACLE_BASE/agent/agent_inst; export AGENT_HOME
OMS_HOME=$ORACLE_BASE/Middleware/oms; export OMS_HOME
ORACLE_INSTANCE=/u01/app/oracle/product/Middleware/gc_inst/WebTierIH1; export ORACLE_INSTANCE
ORACLE_SID=orcl; export ORACLE_SID
ORACLE_UNQNAME=orcl; export ORACLE_UNQNAME
ORACLE_TERM=xterm; export ORACLE_TERM
PATH=/usr/sbin:$PATH; export PATH
PATH=$ORACLE_HOME/bin:$PATH; export PATH
LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$ORACLE_HOME/lib:/lib:/usr/lib; export LD_LIBRARY_PATH
CLASSPATH=$ORACLE_HOME/JRE:$ORACLE_HOME/jlib:$ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/jlib; export CLASSPATH

if [ $USER = "oracle" ]; then
    if [ $SHELL = "/bin/ksh" ]; then
        ulimit -p 16384
        ulimit -n 65536
    else
        ulimit -u 16384 -n 65536
    fi
fi

Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Upgrade

Show a printer friendly version of this chapter of the Oracle Cloud Cookbook

 

Copyright © 2013 Mokum Solutions, Inc. All rights reserved.
Distribution of the Oracle Cloud Cookbook or derivative of the work in any form for commercial purposes is prohibited unless prior permission is obtained from the copyright holder.
 
 
Change Log
Revision
Change Description
Updated By
Date
1.0
Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Upgrade
Roddy Rodstein
10/29/11
1.1
12c .bash_profile
Roddy Rodstein
11/11/11
 
Table of Contents
Change Log
Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Upgrade Intro and Overview
Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Upgrade Console Installation
Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c 1-System Upgrade
 

Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Upgrade Intro and Overview

There are a number of factors to consider if your organization wants to upgrade to the latest version of Oracle Enterprise Manager, now re-branded, in full, as Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control 12c. In general, you have three upgrade paths to choose from: 1-System, 2-System and 1-System on a different host. As the name implies, 1-System will upgrade Grid Control to Cloud Control on the same host. While Oracle's documentation does make mention of the baggage and overhead associated with upgrading Grid control to Cloud control, it is somewhat buried in the voluminous documentation.
 
Firstly, your storage requirements will be increased because the 12c Agents are not really upgraded so much as installed fresh into a new 12c Agent home directory, effectively doubling your agent space. The same is also true for Oracle Management Service (OMS) as it is also installed into a fresh 12c OMS home directory. Also consider that you will also carry forward all the code baggage from the earlier version of Grid Control, whether its 10g or 11g. For these and other preupgrade details please refer to the Oracle Documentation.
 
The 2-System upgrade path is probably the most versatile upgrade solution and offers almost zero downtime for Oracle Enterprise Manager from start to finish. It is also the most complicated upgrade path with a number of manual steps in between. On the other hand, if you want to upgrade hardware from old x86 to modern x64 architecture then the 2-System upgrade path offers you that opportunity. Somewhere in the middle between the 1-System and 2-System upgrade is the 1-System on a different host. 
 
This is probably the cleanest upgrade path in that, because you will upgrade to a new host, the code baggage from the previous EM installation is eliminated. While this option does require additional hardware, you take the opportunity to make the switch from an x86 to x64 architecture, or vice-versa, as the case may be. But there is downtime associated with this upgrade path while the database and repository are copied to the new host, as well as the actual upgrade itself.
 
Now that you know some of the conditions and hurdles surrounding the Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control 12c upgrade, you make be asking whether or not its all worth it. Some schools of thought say that its better to discard all the baggage from the older release and start fresh – new hardware (virtual or physical) , new database, new Oracle software. Others may not be able to live without the years of collected target's data. Ultimately this is the decision you will have to make.
 
Before taking the plunge, it is advised to setup a test environment and play around with the various options to gauge the difficulty of each upgrade path and see what's right for your organization. You could also take a look at Oracle's all-in-one Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control 11g Oracle VM template and give that a spin to explore the “1-System” upgrade approach and to quickly see Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control 12c in action. But if you do want to try an upgrade, the first step is to install the Preupgrade console.
 

Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Upgrade Console Installation

Throughout this section it would be helpful to have our environment setup properly. Use the following two /home/oracle/.bash_profile examples as a reference point for your 11g and 12c environment.
 
Note: The following .bash_profile file can be used “as is” with Oracle's all-in-one Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control 11g Oracle VM template. For a fresh all-in-one Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control 12c installation, do “not” set the Oracle environment until “after” the installation.
 
# 11g User specific environment and startup programs 
 
# Oracle Settings 
TMP=/tmp; export TMP 
TMPDIR=$TMP; export TMPDIR 
ORACLE_BASE=/u01/OracleHomes; export ORACLE_BASE 
#ORACLE_HOME=$ORACLE_BASE/db11g; export ORACLE_HOME 
ORACLE_HOME=$ORACLE_BASE/Middleware/oms11g; export ORACLE_HOME 
AGENT_HOME=$ORACLE_BASE/Middleware/agent11g; export AGENT_HOME 
OMS_HOME=$ORACLE_BASE/Middleware/oms11g; export OMS_HOME 
ORACLE_INSTANCE=/u01/OracleHomes/gc_inst/WebTierIH1; export ORACLE_INSTANCE 
ORACLE_SID=emrep; export ORACLE_SID 
ORACLE_TERM=xterm; export ORACLE_TERM 
PATH=/usr/sbin:$PATH:$HOME/bin:/u01/OracleHomes/Middleware/oms11g/OPatch:$ORACLE_HOME/bin; export PATH 
LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$ORACLE_HOME/lib:/lib:/usr/lib; export LD_LIBRARY_PATH 
CLASSPATH=$ORACLE_HOME/JRE:$ORACLE_HOME/jlib:$ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/jlib; export CLASSPATH 
 
if [ $USER = "oracle" ]; then 
  if [ $SHELL = "/bin/ksh" ]; then 
    ulimit -p 16384 
    ulimit -n 65536 
  else 
    ulimit -u 16384 -n 65536 
  fi 
fi
 
# Post upgrade 12c User specific environment and startup programs
 
# Oracle Settings
TMP=/tmp; export TMP
TMPDIR=$TMP; export TMPDIR
ORACLE_BASE=/u01/OracleHomes; export ORACLE_BASE
ORACLE_HOME=$ORACLE_BASE/db11g; export ORACLE_HOME
AGENT_HOME=$ORACLE_BASE/Middleware/agent12g/core/12.1.0.1.0/; export AGENT_HOME
OMS_HOME=$ORACLE_BASE/Middleware12c/oms; export OMS_HOME
ORACLE_INSTANCE=/u01/OracleHomes/Middleware12c/gc_inst/WebTierIH1; export ORACLE_INSTANCE
ORACLE_SID=emrep; export ORACLE_SID
ORACLE_TERM=xterm; export ORACLE_TERM
PATH=/usr/sbin:$PATH; export PATH
PATH=$ORACLE_HOME/bin:$PATH; export PATH
LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$ORACLE_HOME/lib:/lib:/usr/lib; export LD_LIBRARY_PATH
CLASSPATH=$ORACLE_HOME/JRE:$ORACLE_HOME/jlib:$ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/jlib; export CLASSPATH

if [ $USER = "oracle" ]; then
  if [ $SHELL = "/bin/ksh" ]; then
    ulimit -p 16384
    ulimit -n 65536
  else
    ulimit -u 16384 -n 65536
  fi
fi
 
The first thing to do is to gather all the resources we will need to perform the upgrade. This includes the Agent Core files and Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c installer, both x86 and x64 versions as needed, and the prerequisite patches. For the sake of this walkthrough, we assume that you are upgrading Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control 11g and that your staging directory is writable by user oracle.
 
The Agent Core and Enterprise Manager 12c files can be  downloaded from  http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/oem/grid-control/downloads/index.html. The Agent Core files can be downloaded by following the Oracle Enterprise Manager Agent Downloads link and scrolling to the bottom of the page to the Oracle Enterprise Manager Agent 12.1 files for Self Update Feature section. Here you will find both x86 and x64 versions of the Agent upgrade.
 
First, download these files and then unzip them to your staging directory. It is recommended to find the AgentCore zips and put them together in the same directory. Later, when you have successfully installed the preupgrade console and want to manage/validate your software, the console will be looking for two files: 12.1.0.1.0_AgentCore_226.zip for the x64 agent upgrade or 12.1.0.1.0_AgentCore_46.zip for the x86 upgrade agent.
 
At the top of the grid-control downloads site is a section entitled Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control 12c. Here you will find links to both the x86 and x64 versions of the Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Installer. The installer is divided into two disks. The first disk is the Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control 12c upgrader. The second disk contains the plugins for the Agent upgrade, so in fact disk 2 goes hand in hand with the AgentCore zips. Download disk 1 as appropriate for your environment.
 
For our example, Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control 11g is running on x86 in an all-in-one configuration, so we need disks 1 and 2 from the Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c x86 upgrader. We have Agent running on a x64 target so we need to download only disk 2 of the Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c x64 upgrader. Further more, we have combined disks 1 and 2 into one directory called em12_linux_x86. From disk 2 we grabbed only the files located in the plugins directory and placed them in another directory called em12_linux64.
 
The next example shows the stage directory with the files from above.
 
$ cd /u01/stage
$ ls -lh
total 468M 
drwxrwxr-x  4 oracle oinstall 4.0K Oct 14 09:11 10044087 
drwxr-xr-x  5 oracle oinstall 4.0K Oct 13 15:55 10065631 
-rw-r--r--  1 oracle oinstall 221M Sep 23 02:53 12.1.0.1.0_AgentCore_226.zip 
-rw-r--r--  1 oracle oinstall 214M Oct 13 13:41 12.1.0.1.0_AgentCore_46.zip 
drwxr-xr-x  3 oracle oinstall 4.0K Oct 14 15:22 em12_linux64 
drwxr-xr-x 10 oracle oinstall 4.0K Oct 13 15:06 em12_linux_x86 
-rw-r--r--  1 oracle oinstall 3.6M Oct 13 14:49 p10044087_111010_Generic.zip 
-rw-r--r--  1 oracle oinstall 598K Oct 13 14:49 p10065631_111010_Generic.zip 
-rw-r--r--  1 oracle oinstall  29M Oct 13 14:51 p6880880_111000_LINUX.zip 
$ ls -lh em12_linux_x86 
total 1.6G 
drwxr-xr-x 7 oracle oinstall 4.0K Oct 13 14:34 install 
drwxr-xr-x 4 oracle oinstall 4.0K Oct 13 14:34 jdk 
drwxr-xr-x 4 oracle oinstall 4.0K Oct 13 14:40 oms 
drwxr-xr-x 3 oracle oinstall 4.0K Oct 14 09:36 plugins 
drwxr-xr-x 2 oracle oinstall 4.0K Oct 13 14:40 Preupgrade_Console_Patch 
-rw-r--r-- 1 oracle oinstall  99K Oct 10 17:50 Release_Notes.pdf 
drwxr-xr-x 2 oracle oinstall 4.0K Oct 13 14:40 response 
-rwxr-xr-x 1 oracle oinstall 5.9K Oct 10 17:50 runInstaller 
drwxr-xr-x 9 oracle oinstall 4.0K Oct 13 14:41 stage 
drwxr-xr-x 2 oracle oinstall 4.0K Oct 13 14:44 wls 
-rw-r--r-- 1 oracle oinstall 1.6G Oct 10 18:01 WT.zip 
$ ls -lh em12_linux64 
total 1.2G 
-rw-r--r--  1 oracle oinstall 567K Sep 23 04:26 12.1.0.1.0_oracle.em.sidb_2000_0.opar 
-rw-r--r--  1 oracle oinstall 3.8M Sep 23 04:26 12.1.0.1.0_oracle.em.soee_2000_0.opar 
-rw-r--r--  1 oracle oinstall 594K Sep 23 04:26 12.1.0.1.0_oracle.em.ssad_2000_0.opar 
-rw-r--r--  1 oracle oinstall 102M Sep 23 04:25 12.1.0.1.0_oracle.sysman.beacon_2000_0.opar 
-rw-r--r--  1 oracle oinstall 489K Sep 23 04:25 12.1.0.1.0_oracle.sysman.csa_2000_0.opar 
-rw-r--r--  1 oracle oinstall 593M Sep 23 04:25 12.1.0.1.0_oracle.sysman.db_2000_0.opar 
-rw-r--r--  1 oracle oinstall 420M Sep 23 04:25 12.1.0.1.0_oracle.sysman.emas_2000_0.opar 
-rw-r--r--  1 oracle oinstall 2.7M Sep 23 04:26 12.1.0.1.0_oracle.sysman.emct_2000_0.opar 
-rw-r--r--  1 oracle oinstall  27M Sep 23 04:26 12.1.0.1.0_oracle.sysman.emfa_2000_0.opar 
-rw-r--r--  1 oracle oinstall 6.3M Sep 23 04:26 12.1.0.1.0_oracle.sysman.empa_2000_0.opar 
-rw-r--r--  1 oracle oinstall 291K Sep 23 04:25 12.1.0.1.0_oracle.sysman.emrep_2000_0.opar 
-rw-r--r--  1 oracle oinstall 8.6M Sep 23 04:26 12.1.0.1.0_oracle.sysman.mos_2000_0.opar 
-rw-r--r--  1 oracle oinstall 484K Sep 23 04:25 12.1.0.1.0_oracle.sysman.oh_2000_0.opar 
-rw-r--r--  1 oracle oinstall 2.2M Sep 23 04:26 12.1.0.1.0_oracle.sysman.ssa_2000_0.opar 
-rw-r--r--  1 oracle oinstall 8.4M Sep 23 04:26 12.1.0.1.0_oracle.sysman.vt_2000_0.opar 
-rw-r--r--  1 oracle oinstall 3.4M Sep 23 04:26 12.1.0.1.0_oracle.sysman.xa_2000_0.opar
 
Next, we need to take care of some prerequisites before we can continue on with the installation of the Preupgrade Console.  First take care that you are running the latest version of opatch. Login to http://support.oracle.com/ and go to patches and downloads. There search for 6880880. Download the patch associated with your level of Oracle Enterprise Manager and unzip that patch to /u01/OracleHomes/Middleware/oms11g to overwrite the older opatch.
 
Note: Ensure that you use the correct path to your opatch directory.
 
We will then download two patches. Search for and download 10044087 and 10065631. Unzip these patches into our stage directory. Now we are ready to do the final steps for installing the Preupgrade Console.
 
$ cd /u01/stage
$ opatch lsinventory 
$ opatch prereq CheckConflictAgainstOHWithDetail -phBaseDir ./10065631 
$ emctl stop oms 
$ cd 10065631/ 
$ opatch apply 
$ cd ../10044087 
$ opatch apply 
 
After this we need to run rcuJDBCEngine which should be in your PATH. Make substitutions for <PASSWORD> and <IP ADDRESS> as needed. In this example, sysman is the OEM administrative user. <IP ADDRESS> will be OEM's IP address. 1521 is the port on which the database listens and emrep is the SID.
 
rcuJDBCEngine sysman/<PASSWORD>@<IP ADDRESS>:1521:emrep JDBC_SCRIPT $ORACLE_HOME/sysman/preupgc/puc_dblink_pkgdef.sql
 
rcuJDBCEngine sysman/<PASSWORD>@<IP ADDRESS>:1521:emrep JDBC_SCRIPT $ORACLE_HOME/sysman/preupgc/puc_dblink_pkgbody.sql
 
rcuJDBCEngine sysman/<PASSWORD>@<IP ADDRESS>:1521:emrep JDBC_SCRIPT $ORACLE_HOME/sysman/preupgc/pre_upg_console.sql
If you are able to run rcuJDBCEngine successfully all three times then you can now restart OMS.
 
$ emctl start oms
 
You can now log into Oracle Enterprise Manager 11g, click on the Deployments tab and look for Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Upgrade Console under the Upgrade section. 
 
Figure 1
Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Upgrade Console
 

Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c 1-System Upgrade

Looking at the Upgrade Console, you will see that it has been divided into sections starting at the top with the Agent Upgrade Status and Other Links. As the name implies, this section gives a high level view of where we are in the Agent upgrade process. The Preupgrade console has been designed to allow the systems administrator to perform the upgrade in a flow, starting at the top and working their way down, step by step, but if any problems crop up you can always refer to this top section to track things down or just get a quick status report of your progress.
 
Figure 2
Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Preupgrade Console
 
Choose 1-System under the Select Upgrade Type as we will be performing a simple same system upgrade of Grid Control, which Oracle now calls Cloud Control. 
 
Figure 3
Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c 1-System Upgrade
 
It is advised that you click on the Overview link in the Preupgrade Steps section to better understand the general steps we will be following while doing this 1-System upgrade. Afterwards, click on the Manage Software link.
 
Figure 4
Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Preupgrade Steps
 
What we want to do now is start adding and then validating the PATH to our previously staged AgentCore zips, 12c Installer and Agent plugins directories. Oracle's documentation says that you should stage all the files together in the same directory but you can just add and validate files and directories successively.
 
Figure 5
Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Provide Software Location
 
Figure 6
Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Agent Upgradeability
 
Figure 7
Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Agent Upgradeability
 
Once we have validated all of our software, we are ready to proceed to the next section. Click on the  Deploy and Configure Agents tab in the Upgrade Agents Steps section.
 
Figure 8
Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Agent Upgrade Steps
 
Here, its just a matter of filling the blanks and adding a  few details so that we can begin the Agent deployment and configuration. Starting at the top, you can leave the Operational Name with the default setting. If you run the deploy and config multiple times it will update the Operational Name to something unique. Note: if you have successive failures during this phase of the operation, keep in mind that this can fill up your /tmp directory. If you see that you are starting to run out of space after running this operation too many times, simply go into your /tmp directory and clear out some space.
 
In the Select Operation Type section we want to leave the defaults, ie both Deploy and Configure should be selected. In the next section, Search Agents, simply click Search and all your available agents should show up.
 
Figure 9
Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Deploy and Configure Agents
 
In the Agent Credentials section it should be OK to leave it with the default Use Oracle Home Preferred Credentials because a good systems administrator has taken the time to set up their environment properly, but if you're in a hurry and just want to do this down and dirty then you can click on the Override Oracle Home Preferred Credentials tab and the fill in the username and password applicable to your environment.
 
Figure 10
Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Agent Credentials
 
Click Next to go to the next page. Here you should fill in the blanks as appropriate. You will need to enter your root user details in order to run the root.sh script, which runs during the deploy and config phase.
 
Figure 11
Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Root Credentials
 
At this point you will see a Confirmation at the top of the page and a Job #. Simply click on the job link and hit <F5> on your keyboard occasionally to refresh the browser so you can follow the progress of the Agent Deployment and Configuration.
 
Figure 12
Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Job Submitted

 

Register Oracle VM Manager in Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c

Show a printer friendly version of this chapter of the Oracle Cloud Cookbook

 

Copyright © 2013 Mokum Solutions, Inc. All rights reserved.
Distribution of the Oracle Cloud Cookbook or derivative of the work in any form for commercial purposes is prohibited unless prior permission is obtained from the copyright holder.
 
 
 
Change Log
Revision
Change Description
Updated By
Date
1.0
First Release
Roddy Rodstein
09/20/11
1.2 Oracle VM 3.1.1 Updates Roddy Rodstein 05/23/12
1.3 Enterprise Manager Cloud Control 12c Release 2 (12.1.0.2)  Updates Roddy Rodstein 10/06/12
 
Table of Contents

Oracle VM and Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Introduction
Oracle VM Manager Registration Prerequisites
How to enable TCPS on Oracle VM Manager 3.1 and Above
...Export the Oracle VM Manager keystore
...Import the Oracle VM Manager keystore into the Oracle Management Agent keystore
...List the Oracle VM Manager keystore
...List the Oracle Management Agent keystore
...Delete an Entry in the Oracle Management Agent keystore
How to Register Oracle VM Manager in Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Cloud Control
How to Deregister Oracle VM Manager in Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Cloud Control

 

Oracle VM and Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Introduction

The Oracle VM product family; Oracle VM Server, Oracle VM Manager, Oracle VM Templates and Assemblies can be managed with Oracle VM Manager and Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Cloud Control. Unlike Oracle VM 2.x, which could only be managed by Oracle VM Manager or Oracle Enterprise Manager, not both, Oracle VM 3 and above can be managed simultaneously by Oracle VM Manager along with Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Cloud Control.
 
Oracle VM is a default Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c feature that provides Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), Database as a Service (DaaS), and Platform as a Service (PaaS) provisioning with a self-service portal. Oracle VM can be enabled in Cloud Control by installing an Oracle Management Agent with the Virtualization plug-in on a managed Linux target with Oracle VM Manager. Once Oracle VM is enabled, Oracle VM Servers, virtual machines, Oracle VM Templates and Assemblies can be managed, monitored and provisioned with Cloud Control.
 
Tip: Oracle VM Servers, pools, storage, networks, virtual machines, templates, assemblies, etc, can be setup using Oracle VM Manager and/or Cloud Control.
 
Figure 1 shows the Infrastructure Cloud home page. The Infrastructure Cloud home page is Oracle Enterprise Manager's Oracle VM Manager equivalent. 
Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Infrastructure Cloud
 
The Oracle Virtualization plug-in must be enabled on the Oracle Management Service host(s) as well as be deployed to the Oracle VM Manager host. The Oracle Virtualization plug-in along with the Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c agent can be managed and deployed using Cloud Control. A plug-in is an Enterprise Manager module that extends the managing and monitoring capabilities of the Oracle Management Service (OMS). Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c plug-ins have a server (OMS) and an agent (Oracle Management Agent (OMA) component. The Oracle Management Service collects plug-in data in XML format. The plug-in data is stored in the Oracle Management Repository (OMR) and is visualized by the Oracle Management Service in Cloud Control.
 
Figure 2 shows each of the Enterprise Manager 12c Cloud Control components.
Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Cloud Control components
 

Oracle VM Manager Registration Prerequisites

The following prerequisites must be meet before Oracle VM Manager can be registered in Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Cloud Control Release 1 (12.1.0.1) and above.
  1.  Oracle Enterprise Manager Release 1 (12.1.0.1) and above.
  2. The Oracle Virtualization plug-in must be install and enabled on the Oracle Management Service.
  3. The Oracle VM Manager host must have the Oracle Management Agent (OMA) and be a monitored target in Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Cloud Control.
  4. The Oracle VM Manager host must have the Oracle Virtualization plug-in.
  5. The preferred credentials for the Oracle VM Manager host must be configured in Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Cloud Control.
  6. The Oracle Management Service and the Oracle VM Manager host must have consistent name resolution using DNS with both forward and reverse lookups.
  7. Oracle VM Manager 3.1 and above require TCPS authentication.
  8. Oracle Enterprise Manager Release 2 (12.1.0.2) and above with Oracle VM Manager 3.1 and above must have the Oracle VM Manager keystore imported into the Oracle VM Manager host's Oracle Management Agent keystore. 

How to enable TCPS on Oracle VM Manager 3.1 and Above

Oracle Enterprise Manager Release 1 (12.1.0.1) introduced a new security model that requires Oracle VM Manager 3.x to use tcps on port 54322 to communicate with Oracle Enterprise Manager Release 1 (12.1.0.1) and above. Oracle Enterprise Manager Release 2 (12.1.0.2) and above with Oracle VM Manager 3.1.x and above requires the Oracle VM Manager keystore to be imported into the Oracle VM Manager host's Oracle Management Agent (OMA) keystore. 
 
Enabling tcps on a fresh Oracle VM Manager installation is a two step process. The first step is to generate the keystore using the secureOvmmTcpGenKeyStore.sh script located in the /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/bin directory. The second step is to enable the tcps service using the secureOvmmTcp.sh script, which is also located in the /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/bin directory. 
 
Enabling tcps on an upgraded Oracle VM Manager system is a three step process. The first step is to download My Oracle Support patch 14067211 and untar the keystore.tar in /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/bin directory. The second step is to generate the keystore as root using the secureOvmmTcpGenKeyStore.sh script located in the /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/bin directory. The third step is to enable the tcps service as root using the secureOvmmTcp.sh script, which is also located in the /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/bin directory.
 
The next example shows how to create the keystore on the Oracle VM Manager host. As root, type the following commands, when prompted enter the keystore password (save this password!), your first and last name, the name of your organizational unit, the name of your organization, the name of your State or Province, your two-letter country code and the keystore password (TIp: use the same password as the initial keystore password):
# cd /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/bin
# ./secureOvmmTcpGenKeyStore.sh

Generate OVMM TCP over SSH key store by following steps:
Enter keystore password: password
Re-enter new password: password
What is your first and last name?
[Unknown]:  name     
What is the name of your organizational unit?
[Unknown]:  unit       
What is the name of your organization?
[Unknown]:  organization
What is the name of your City or Locality?
[Unknown]:  City
What is the name of your State or Province?
[Unknown]:  State
What is the two-letter country code for this unit?
[Unknown]:  country_code
Is CN=name, OU=unit, O=organization, L=City, ST=State, C=country_code correct?
[no]:  yes

Enter key password for <ovmm>
Re-enter new password: password
 
Next, enable the keystore using the secureOvmmTcp.sh script located in the same directory as the secureOvmmTcpGenKeyStore.sh script. As root, type the following command, when prompted enter the OVM manager user name (admin), the OVM manager user password, and the password for TCPS keystore (the keystore password that was entered 2x above):

# ./secureOvmmTcp.sh

Enabling OVMM TCP over SSH service
Please enter the OVM manager user name: username
Please enter the OVM manager user password: password
Please enter the password for TCPS key store : password
The job of enabling OVMM TCPS service is committed, please restart OVMM to take effect.
 
After successfully running the secureOvmmTcpGenKeyStore.sh and secureOvmmTcp.sh scripts, the Oracle VM Manager keystore file named ovmmCoreTcps.ks is created in the <OVM_MANAGER_HOME> directory, i.e. /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/ovmmCoreTcps.ks.
 
Tip: Before restarting Oracle VM Manager and enableding the TCP over SSH service, the Core API will be listening on 127.0.0.1/localhost tcp 54321. After restarting Oracle VM Manager, the Core API will be listening on tcps 54322 using the FQDN. To verify the listening port, as root, type "netstat -a | grep  54321" for tpc localhost, and "netstat -a | grep  54322" for tcps with FQDN.
 
Next, restart Oracle VM Manager. As root, type:

# /sbin/service ovmm stop
# /sbin/service ovmm start
 
To verify the TCP over SSH service is running, as root type:
netstat -a | grep  54322
tcp        0      0 *:54322                     *:*                         LISTEN
 
The above example shows that the TCP over SSH service is indeed running and listening on port 54233.
 
Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Cloud Control Release 2 (12.1.0.2) and above with Oracle VM Manager 3.1.x and above requires the Oracle VM Manager keystore to be imported into the Oracle VM Manager host's Oracle Management Agent (OMA) keystore.
 

1. Export the Oracle VM Manager keystore:

As root, change to the <OVM_MANAGER_HOME> directory and type:
#<JAVA_HOME>/bin/keytool -keystore <OVM_MANAGER_HOME>/ovmmCoreTcps.ks -exportcert -alias ovmm -file <file_loc_for_certificate>

For example, as root, change to the "/u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3" directory, i.e. "cd /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3". Next, create a keystore directory, i.e. "mkdir keystore", then change the ownership of the keystore directory to the group with the Oracle Management Agent user account, i.e. "chown :dba ./keystore". Next, type the following command and when prompted for a password, enter the Oracle VM Manager keypass password you entered in the previous examples:
 
Note: Substitute the $JAVA_HOME path and the <OVM_MANAGER_HOME> path with your paths.

# /u01/app/oracle/java/bin/keytool -keystore /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/ovmmCoreTcps.ks -exportcert -alias ovmm -file ./keystore/export.jks
Enter keystore password:
Certificate stored in file <./keystore/export.jks>
#
 
The above example exports the Oracle VM Manager keystore to a file named export.jks in the /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/keystore directory.
 
Tip: Backup the keystore directory along with the ovmmCoreTcps.ks file. If Oracle VM manager is rebuilt using the backup files will save lots of time. 
 

2. Import the Oracle VM Manager keystore into the Oracle Management Agent keystore:

As the Oracle Management Agent user (the user the owns the $AGENT_HOME), import the Oracle VM Manager keystore into the Oracle Management Agent keystore. Use the default keystore password "welcome", not the Oracle VM Manager keystore password:
 
$ cd  /u01/app/oracle/ovm-manager-3/
$ <AGENT_INSTANCE_HOME>/bin/emctl secure add_trust_cert_to_jks -trust_certs_loc ./keystore/export.jks -alias ovmm

Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control 12c Release 2
Copyright (c) 1996, 2012 Oracle Corporation.  All rights reserved.
Password:

Message   :   Certificate was added to keystore
ExitStatus: SUCCESS